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Full text of "The Wesleyan Methodist Association Magazine for 1844.Volume the Seventh"

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7 



THE 



WESLEYAN METHODIST ASSOCIATION 



MAGAZINE, 



18 44. 



The right of private judgment in the reading of the Sacred Volume, 



VOLUME THE SEVENTH. 



LONDON : 

£. PEARSON, AT THE ASSOCIATION BOOK ROOM, 

6, HORSE SHOE COURT, LUDGATE HILL. 

MDCCCXLir. 



LONDON: — T. C. JOHNS, PRINTER, 

RED LION COURT, FLEET STREET. 




CONTENTS. 



PAOK 

Ability to Believe the Gospel 338 

Advice to Class Leaders 387 

Atonement by Christ 135 

Autumnal Thoughts 401 

Caie for the Poor 442 

Carrickfergrus, Chapel for 405 

Christian Liberality 275 

Christian Union 25, 342 

Communications for Magazines 35 

Congregational Singing 235 

Conversion of the Young 322 

EDUCATION. 

Ability of the Association to extend 

Education 69 

British and Foreign School Society 

164, 206, 324, 482 

Day Schools' l64, 324 

Educational Efforts 205 

Extension of Education .'31, 69 

Resolutions of Connexional Commit- 
tee on Sabbath and Day Schools 114, 364 

Sabbath Schools and the Church 278 

Sabbath School Teachers Improve- 
ment 73 

Sabbath School Intelligence 39» 73 

Suggestions on Sabbath School Tuition 473 

Effbrts to do Good 391 

Effbrts to Save Souls 440 

Encouragement to Come to Christ .... 236 
Extending the Circulation of the Maga- 
zines 481 

Faith, Living by 325 

Feudal Subjection 444 

Geology of the Bible . . 112, 157, 194, 237, 270, 

307, 436 

Geological Difficulty 405 

God, The Temple of , 300 

Grace Darling, and Loss of Pegasus. ... 117 
Heaven, its Sociality, Knowledge, and 

Happiness 333 

Home Missionary Exertions 369 

Unman Life, its Future Progress 10 

Itinerant Ministry, Respect Due to the 

Office of 23 

Juvenile Missionary Association 202 

Lait>', Claims of 357 

Marrying Unbelievers, On 203 

MEMOIRS. (See also Obituaries,) 

Arminius, D. D. James 41 

Dearden, Mr. Henry 329 

Feamsides,"Mr8. Betty 3 

Fergie, Mr. Thomas 209 

Gallop, Miss 81 

Griffith, Mrs 251 

Heap, Mr. J 449 

Jeffrey, Mrs. Thomason 369 

Joliffe, Mr. John 132 

Place, Miss Margaret 175 

Price, Mr. Samuel 84 

Randle, Mr. John 249 

Rodgers, Mrs. Elizabeth 129 

Rutherford, Mrs. Jane l 

Sigston, Mrs 169 

Sutton, Mr. John 409 

Watts, Dr. Isaac 394 

Williams, Mrs. Sarah 289 



PAOK 

Ministry, The Work of the 319 

Missions, How to Help 400 

Missionary Collecting Cards 44S 

Missionary Christmas Cards 485 ' 

Nativity of Christ 472 

Neglect of Lord's Table 74 

OBITUARIES. {See also Memoirs.) 

Bennet, Mr. William S47 

Blake, Mr. John 208 

Chippindale, Mr. Edmund 408 

Comer, Mr. John 368 

Cuthbertson, Mrs. Mary 368 

Houlds worth. Miss Martha 168 

Jenkyns, John 484 

Jones, Mr. William 327 

Mallinson, Mrs. Anne 483 

Maude, Miss Ann 368 

Porter, Mrs. Elizabeth 208 

Ridgman, Mrs. Jane 328 

Seaman, Mrs. Hannah 79 

Tarrant, Rev. Henry 448 

Thomber, Miss Susannah 120 

WiUiams, Mr. William 326 



Our Magazines. . 
Peace of Mind . , 



POETRY. 



Autumn , 

Brevity of life. The 

Day of Wonders, The , 

Evening Thought, An 

Frailty of Youth, The 

Home, Sweet Home , 

Joys of the Wicked and Righteous , 

Negro's Petition 

Sabbath Evening 

Source of Happiness 

Star of Bethlehem 

The Thunder Storm , 

The Time is Short 

True Religion 



478 
417 



484 

40 

208 



168 
408 
248 
484 



Popery, Superstition and Folly of 311 

Popery and Tradition 316 

Prayer, Efficacy of a Mother's 272 

Preacher's Beneficent Fund 206 

Preaching, Drawling in 356 

Preaching, Out of Doors 284 

Public Worship 20, 65, 107, 160, 197 

Religion, Excellency of I16 

Religion, How to Obtain a Revival of . . 382 

Resurrection of Christ 144 

Restitution, On 399 

REVIEWS AND LITERARY NOTICES. 

An Affectionate Appeal to our Young 

Men 394 

Angels, The Ministry of, and Nature 

of Invisible influence 234 

Anti-Monopolist, The 269 

Anti. State Church Conference, The 

Proceedings of . . ; 302 

Baptism of Scripture Unfolded, The.. 19 

Books Received 107, 154, 436 

Celestial Railroad, The 234 

Christian Consolation 68 

Christian Mother's Magazine, The .. 106 



IV 



CONTENTS. 



[pa OB 

Chrlfltian World, The 352 

Church Advancing:, The 307 

Clerical Cowardice 471 

Derry 153 

I)r. Doddridge's Devotional Lettert . . 284 
Educational Conference, Proceedings 

of 269 

Expulsion of Nine Students 305 

Fox*s Book of Martyrs SO, 65, 198 

Herald of Peace, The 105, 108, 307 

Impetus, An Address to the W. sleyan 

Methodist Association 103 

Independent and Young Christians' 

Magazine .'. . 394 

Intellect. The Cultivation of the 106 

Ireland, The Scenery and Antiquities 

of. Illustrated : 19 

Israel, The Salvation of . • 352 

Jerusalem, llie Anglican Cathedral 

Church of 347 

Jerusalem, Walks about the City and 

Environs of 228 

Jews, A Flea for the 352 

Late Hours of Business, Prize Essay 

on the Evils Produced by the 19 

Laodicca; at. Religious Declension., 4G9 

Lays of the Heart 471 

{ London Missionary Society, History 

, of 393, 4U5 

London Missionary Society, Fathers 

and Pounders of 432 

'* M'Cheyne, Rev. R. Murray, Memoirs 

and Remains of 186 

Moments of Thought lOl 

Missionary Ship, "John Williams," 

f The 307 

Missionary Ship " Jubilee," The 436 

Morning of Life, The 104 

Mothers of England, The Q[t 

Musical Notation, The Sequential 

System of 65 

Nasmith, David, Memoirs of 8()0 

National Temperance Advocate, The 269 

Palestine, Lowtbian's 348 

People's Family Bible, The 307 

People's Gallery of Engraving:*, Tho 306 
Practical English Grammar, A . . . . 394, 435 
Protestant Reformation in all Coun- 
tries, The ' 13 

Pulpit Cyclopaedia, The 148, 234 

Sacramental Meditations 231 

Sacred Biography 153 

School , Hints on Ahe Establishment of 1 94 
Scripture Lessons for Lower Classes 

ahd Monitors' Questions 353 

Scripture Illustrations 435 

The Glory of the Redeemer 473 

The Hebrew Martyrs 471 

The Missionary's Reward 46l 

Trumpet Blown in Zion, The 193 

Truth and Duty 234 

Two Sermons on Death 435 

Universal Atonement, Harmony of 394, 434 

Toung Composer, The 153 

BILIGIOUS AND MISSIONARY INTEL- 
LIGENCE. 

Annual Assembly, Proceedings of . . . . 36 1 

An^i.Stare Church Conference 166, 213 

Appleby and Warcup 119 

Baiitist Missionary Society 245 

British and Foreign Bible Society. . . . 2(2 

British and Foreign School Society . . 243 

Bacap 376 



PAOB 

Camelford ■. 283 

Carlisle .175 

Chelsea 367 

Carrickfergus. . . . 123, 250, 372, 444, 483, 486 

Cefn.Mawr 492 

Cheltenham 492 

Christian Union Committee, and Wes- 
ley an Methodist Association 25 

Church Missionary Society 242 

Colne 491 

Darliuifton 167, 489 

Edinburgh 245 

Glossop 447 

Gosport 166 

Hamburgh 122, 249, 371, 486 

Hawkc's Green 407 

Hull 119 

Ipswich 79, 286, 375 

Leeds 407 

Liverpool 366, 4 15 

London Missionary Society 244 

Louth 127, 2.')6 

Lynn 126, 488 

Macclesfield 7^,^7(i 

Manchester 206, 284 

Nantwlch 77. 287 

New Mills; 286, 407 

Northampton 4*7 

Overton 373 

Peace Society, Prcceediogs of 165, 207. 244 

Penzance 246, 447 

Redditch 1 67, 376 

Rochdale 167. 407 

Scarborough 77 

Sheffield 285 

Society for the Conversion of the Jews 24. "i 

Stockport 247. 253, 490 

Stockton 246 

Sunday School Union 244 

Sunderland 375 

Tavistock 126 

Weclcy 407 

Welsh Mission 373 

Winchester 253 

Worcester 128, 245, 287, 374, 491 

Worle 288, 483 

York 75 

Royal Minister and liberality 154 



SERMONS AND ADDRESSES. 

Christian Economy 422, 460 

Christian Ministry, by T. Townend . . 49, 87 

Diligence in Business 431 

Duties of Wives 291 

Education of Children, by E. Bowen 219 
Existence of God, and Worship Due 

to Him, by Dr. A. Clarke 373, 418 

Love of Husbands 234 

Ministerial Conduct, by J. Peters .... 412 
War and its Evils, by Dr. P. Smith . . 36 



Sabbath School Recitations 

Sanctification, On Entire 

Savings by Fasting 

Soul, Immortality of 

Spirit. Work of tne Holy 

Sunday School Harmony 

Suspension of a Clergyman 

Things to be Lamfntcd 

Time, On Kcdecming the 

WcHli'van Methodist Association, and 

Mctliodist New Connexion / . 

Yearly Collection 



403 
17H 
404 
IWi 
1H2 
4H3 

3.-;) 

333 



239 
1:^1 



THE 

WESLEYAN METHODIST ASSOCIATION 



MAGAZINE. , 



JANUARY, 1844. 



MEMOIR OF THE LATE MRS. JANE RUTHERFORD. 

OF BURT. 

By Mr. Robert Rutherford, 

Zils-r^ the beloved wife of the Rev. D. Rutherford, was bom of respect- 
able parents, at Edinburgh, in November, 1812, and was the only 
child of her parents. From her earliest days she was favoured with 
rehgious instruction, which was enforced by the exemplary Christian 
conduct, and fervent, ceaseless prayers of her truly affectionate and 
deeply pious father ; who was one of the excellent of the earth. This 
course of early training produced in her the most salutary effect, — it 
restrained her from indulging in the numerous follies and vices of 
youth, and gave to her mind a high tone of moral feeling, and a 
scrupulous desire to regulate her conduct according to the strictest 
moral principles. Being from her childhood regularl^fc led to the 
sanctuary, her admiration of, and attachment to, the tabernacle of God 
grew with her growth, and strengthened with her strength; and 
although for some years she only possessed the restraining grace of 
God, by which she was kept from indulging in sinful practices, yet 
such was her love for the sanctuary that she would frequently 
exclaim— 

** How pleasant, how divinely fair, 
O Lord of hosts, thy dwellings are.'* 

Under the faithful prodamations of the Divine will by the Wesleyan 
ministry, ker heart at length, like the heart of Lydia, was gently 
opened, and her mind gradually enlightened, to discern the true nature 
of the Christian religion in its experimental and practical power. 
Regarding it as her duty to unite herself more closely with the people 
of God, and conscious that it was a most inestimable privilege to share 



2 Memoir of the late Mrs. Jane Rutherford. 

in the communion of saints, she, in the year 1830, joined the 
Wesleyan Methodist Society ; and continued to be a consistent member 
of that church, until, from principle, she felt compelled to unite herself 
with the Wesleyan Methodist Association, of which she remained a 
steady and consistent member, until raised from the toils and suf- 
ferings of the church militant, to the joys and glories of the church 
triumphant. 

Although she was the subject of an evident change of heart, and 
had received the pardoning grace of God, yet she could not refer with 
accuracy to the time when, and the place where, she received the pardon 
of sins and the Spirit of adoption. However, the reality of the divine 
change wrought in her was most strikingly displayed in her steadfast 
and scrupulous adherence to Christian principles, her ardent love to, 
and pleasure in, the means of grace, which became a source not only of 
admiration, but real spiritual profit, her love to all the saints, and 
utter detestation of all dissimulation. 

Naturally possessing a melancholy and desponding disposition, her 
joy partook not of an extatic character. Her mental constitution 
frequently exerted a lessening influence on her spiritual enjoyments, 
and excited in her such an amount of anxiety, lest she should be found 
deceiving herself, that the time of her sojourning was passed, most 
emphatically, in fear. Her rejoicing was mingled with trembling to 
an extent, as was uncomfortable to herself, and to some persons, pos- 
sessing a less tender conscience, highly unaccountable. 

For some weeks prior to her death, she entertained a strong pre- 
sentiment of her approaching dissolution, under the influence of which 
impression, her deep humility, her exemplary deadness to the world, 
her anxiety to be fully prepared for her Master's coming, became 
daily and increasingly evident. She dreaded not the consequences of 
death, knowing, that when absent from the body, she should be 
present with the Lord, which she regarded as bliss to be infinitely 
desired. She was assured of obtaining a victory over death and the 
grave ; yet she feared the pains of dissolution, the conflict with her 
final foe. 

On Tuesday, October 16th, 1843, she complained a little of illness, 
but strove to bear up under it. On the following day she was confined 
to her bed. Medical advice being obtained, she was pronounced to be 
sufiering under a severe attack of typhus fever. The fever continued 
to prey upon her system with alarming rapidity and force. The third 
night prior to her dissolution, she was asked, ' Can you now confide 
in God ? ' To which she replied, * yes, all I want is every moment 
a sense of his pardoning love.* Shortly afterwards she became insen- 
sible; in which state she remained until her death. Her strength 
gradually declined, and the symptoms of her disease became increasingly 
alarming ; until the 27th of October, when, without a lingering groan, 
her spirit forsook its prison of clay, and was gently wnufted home to 
God. Her mortal remains were committed to the dust in the Cemetry 
adjoining the Wesleyan Methodist Association Chapel in Bury. The 
Rev. J. Molineux, of Manchester, and the Rev. J. W. Gilchrist, of 
Hull, conducted the funeral service in a most solemn and impressive 
manner. 



Memoir of the late Airs. Betty Feamsidet. 3 

By her death the Church has lost a steady and coDsistent memher, — 
the Missionary cause, in which she felt a deep interest, an indefatigable 
collector — her husband, a most devoted wife — and her children, a truly 
affectionate and attentive mother. But their loss, is her infinite gain. 
Therefore, we sorrow not, as others who have no hope, but say, in the 
language of holy submission, '* The Lord gave, and the Lord taketh 
away, and blessed be the name of the Lord.' 



MEMOIR OF THE LATE MRS. BETTY FEARNSIDES, 

OF KEIGHLEY. 

By Mr, W, Robertshaw, 

The subject of this brief record, was the wife of Abraham Feamside?, 
of Keighley, and was born June 29th, 1785, and died December 23rd, 
1842. 

She was the daughter of Joseph and Sarah Grundel. Her parents 
were not members of any Christian church, but they were industrious, 
and their general deportment was strictly moral. Her mother was 
convinced of sin, and savingly converted to God, when upwards of 
eighty years of age. 

Mrs. Feamsides appears to have been under Divine impressions 
from a very early age. The restraining grace of God was so mani- 
fested in her conduct, previous to her conversion to God, that the 
change consequent on her obtaining the sense of adoption into the 
family of God was not so observable as in many other persons. 

Very soon after she was married, her husband was brought to a 
knowledge of the truth ; and so great was the change in him, that 
under God, his conversion led to the conversion of his wife. She was 
convinced that she was a sinner, and under conviction she did not 
struggle long. Conscious of her own helplessness, and her need of 
pardon of sins, through the blood of Christ, she went direct to the 
throne of grace, acknowledged her sin, and implored forgiveness, and 
believed in Christ to the saving of her soul. Thus she received an 
assurance of the Divine favour ; in the enjoyment of which salvation 
she lived and died. 

From the time of her conversion, to her departure, she brought no 
disgrace on religion. By well-doing she tried to " put to silence the 
ignorance of foolish men.*' Her life was not marked by extraordinary 
events ; but was one even and regular course. She regularly attended 
all the means of grace, whenever health permitted ; and delighted 
especially in class meetings. The value of Christian communion she 
felt was too great to be slighted. She also mourned if others absented 
themselves, and would express her desire that they should be visited. 

In the year 1S29, she left the Wesleyanbody and joined the Protes- 
tant Methodists, with whom she remained until they became united with 



4 Memoir of the late Mrs, Betty Feamsides, 

the Association. This step she never regretted. On all occasions 
she would say, * I feel myself at home ; the Lord is with us ; bless his 
holy name/ Her kindness to the poor was not small, so far as her 
means enabled her to assist them. Her sympathies they shared, her 
charity they received. 

In March, 1839, she had a severe attack of Erysipelas. Her friends 
did not then expect that she woald recover. God, however, in answer 
to prayer, and by the use of other means, brought her out of this 
affliction. This restoration she looked upon as a very favourable 
interposition of the mercy of God. Brother Sayer, who was in the 
circuit at that time, in one of his visits, feeling unusual liberty in prayer, 
pleaded for her recovery with importunity ; and such was the con- 
fidence she then felt, that she ever after expected to recover. She did 
recover, but never was so healthy as before. 

My personal acquaintance with her was only of short continuance, 
but I soon found that she was truly devoted to God. No one listened 
to the word of God more attentively : to her it was good news. When 
in the house of the Lord, she was evidently " satisfied with the fatness 
of his house." A short time before she was afflicted, she seemed to 
have some presentiment of what was approaching. 

Her last illness continued nearly six weeks, during which time her 
mind was kept in peace ; her evidence was clear ; she knew in whom 
she had believed, but panted for a still greater manifestation of the 
love of God. This He in mercy granted. About a fortnight before 
she died, when raising her hand in prayer, she was visited with such 
an outpouring of the Spirit as she never had before experienced. The 
room was filled with the glory of God. She forgot her weak state 
of body while thus surrounded with the presence of the Saviour. She 
spoke with the energy of one who was in the enjoyment of health ; and 
all who visited her at this time, felt that the power and influence of 
the Spirit was present. When her sister came into the room, she 
said to her, with very considerable emphasis, and with a smile resting 
on her countenance, * Oh, Alice, the victory is won ; the victory is 
won. Live near to God ; religion is no cunningly devised fable. O 
praise the Lord for ever.' She regarded her departure as the return 
of her soul to its home> and very frequently spoke of it in this manner. 
To a fnend who had not seen her for some time, she said, ' Oh Betty, 
I am going, I am going, I am going,' Her friend asked, ' Going 
where ? ' She replied, * Going home, to heaven. Oh praise the 
Lord.' In this happy state of mind she continued until the moment 
she left this world. When her happy spirit was taking its flight, she 
was heard to say, 'for ever, for ever.' Her words probably were 
•' Praise the Lord for ever." In her life and death the power of 
religion was fully manifested. " Let me die the death of the right- 
eous." " Blessed are the dead which die in the Lord." By her 
death we have lost a pious member; but our loss is her infinite gain. 



ON REDEEMING THE TIME; 

In almost every page of our Bible, we meet with something to 
remind us that " the wisdom 6f this world is foolishness with God," 
and that, therefore, if any man will be wise, he must become a 
fool that he may be wise. The rules which God gives his people for 
the direction of their conduct, are directly opposed to the luaxims 
and practices of worldly men. In their estimation, time is one of 
the most worthless commodities of which they have to dispose. 
Instead of being prized as a blessing, or improved as a treasure, 
they very frequently regard it as an incumbrance; hence they not 
unfrequently talk of beguiling, of driving away, nay, even of killing 
time ; and, by thousands of our infatuated race, he is accounted the 
wisest man who is most successful in devising means for this un- 
hallowed purpose. But, in the Word of God, time is ever repre- 
sented as unspeakably valuable, as a treasure, every particle of which 
should be carefully improved ; in relation to which even parsimony 
is a virtue. 

Instead of being burdened by the present time ; instead of devising 
arts to kill, or to drive it away, those who are properly influenced 
by the representations of the Bible, would, were it in their power, 
recal the hours which are past. Something like this seems to be 
recommended in the important exhortation which is more than once 
given by the sacred writers — «< Walk in wisdom ; redeeming the 
time." In their estimation, the great difference between a wise 
man and a fool is, the latter is prodlgat^ the former \s frugal of time ; 
the one thoughtlessly squanders away what he now has, the other 
anxiously endeavours to redeem what he has lost. The phrase 
•• redeeming the time," literally signifies " buying back, or buying out 
the time." Much of our time has been lost. Worldly objects make 
large demands on that which remains; they lead us as it were, to 
pledge it to them. If we are wise, we shall endeavour to derive some 
benefit from the time which is past, and to redeem as much as 
possible of the present and future, which we have pledged to the 
world, that we may devote it to spiritual improvement, to preparation 
for eternity. The phrase, then, of "redeeming the time," may 
be considered as applicable both to the past and the present. On 
this subject it may be necessary to consider— by what means time 
may be redeemed — and why we should be solicitous to redeem 
time. 

Godly sorrow for past negligence is one way of redeeming time. 
One of the most solemn considerations which can be presented to 
our minds is, that when time is once passed, it can never be recalled 
— it is gone for ever. Every year, every day, every moment as it 
leaves us, bids us an eternal farewell : with all its peculiar capabilities, 
and privileges, and mercies, and trials, it departs, never, never to 
return ; only the recollection, the consequences, the responsibi- 
lity, the account connected with it, remain, and will meet us 
another day. No wishes, however earnest : no repentance, how- 



6 On Redeeming Oie Time, 

ever deep, no prayers, however fervent; ne tears, however co- 
pious; no efforts, however vigorous and persevering, can recal the 
hours that are^ past— can undo what has once been done, can anni- 
hilate what has once received existence, or remove, taking into 
account the whole of our existence, the stain that has been once 
infixed on our characters. With infinitely greater propriety than 
Pilate could, may time, as it finishes each roll of its memorials, and 
delivers it to the custody of an inexorable immutable duration, say 
— *• What I have written, I have written** How important then is 
it to improve the present moment. In a twofold sense we act for 
eternity. But it is some consolation, that though past time can never 
be recalled, it may be laid under contribution for the purposes of moral 
and religious improvement. It may be caused to pass under review 
before the eye of the mind, and thus may be rendered the means 
of producing humility, of exciting genuine penitence, of stimulating 
to diligence in the performance of duty. Now every thing which lays 
us in the dust before God, which produces that humility in which 
he delights, that repentance with which he has connected the pardon 
of sin and eternal life, every thing that contributes to interest us 
in the invaluable promise — *< blessed are they who mourn, for they 
shall be comforted," is beneficial ; some solid good is thus derived 
from it. A return to rectitude of conduct must always commence 
in a conviction that we have been wrong. The man who is not 
deeply humbled for his folly and guilt in mispending past time, will 
never improve that which remains. If then we would redeem the 
time, let us review the years we have already spent in the world, let us 
endeavour to ascertain, as far as possible, the manner in which every 
day has been spent ; (this will not appear too much, if we remember 
that every day will at last be reviewed by God, and that, for every 
day, we must render an account ;) and compare this with the 
requirements of the divine law, that we may discover how much time 
we have sufi'ered to pass unimproved, and be made sensible bow great 
is the loss which we have sustained, that we may see what has robbed 
us of our time, and for the future, be on our guard against its 
iiifiuence. It requires no deep insight into human nature to be 
able to afiirm, that those who shrink from this review, those who 
think it irksome or unnecessary, will never, while such are their views 
and dispositions, comply with the exhortation of the apostle, by 
redeeming the time. 

Watchfulness, activity, energy, and diligence, enabling us to turn 
every hour to the best account, and to perform every duty in its 
proper season, are amongst the principal means of redeeming time. 
When the labourer has lost any time, one way by which he endea- 
vours to redeem it, is extraordinary exertion. It is not enough 
for the man who would redeem time to be in motion, he must run 
the race that is before him. It is not sufiicient that he is doing 
something, he must exert himself to the utmost ; he must not only 
workt but laOour, all bis energies may be put in requisition, all his 
powers excited. If simply to improve time requires activity, what 
is necessary to redeem it ? In any important worldly affair — when 
an enemy is to be repulsed — when a kingdom is to be defended, or 



On Redeeming the Time. 7 

won, when an extensive mercantile concern ia to be managed, men 
are no strangers to this activity and energy. The man who, in 
those circumstances, should appear destitute, or incapable of them, 
would be despised and condemned. Why should they then bn 
thought unnecessary in religion ? or why should it be thought harsh 
to say, that the man who, when his immortal interests are at stake, 
appears slothful and negligent is both criminal and contemptible? 
If God has made our worldly property to depend, in a great degree^ 
on our own exertions, why should it be thought strange, if he has 
connected our spiritual prosperity with them ? If he who lavishes 
away his money comes to poverty, can we expect that he who 
squanders away his time will abound in heavenly riches ? If drow- 
siness clothes the body with rags, it will never adorn the soul with 
the beauties of holiness. How numerous are the warnings against 
sloth, the exhortations to activity, that are given us in the Word 
of God. Even the Redeemer himself, — who came to obey the law, 
and to bring in a complete, an everlasting righteounness, by dying on the 
cross for our sins, — calls and urges them to watchfulness and activity, 
— " Let your loins be girded about and your lights burning; and ye 
yourselves like unto men who wait for their Lord." — *' What I say 
unto one, I say unto all, watch." — " Work out your own salvation 
with fear and trembling." — " Be steadfast, immoveable, always 
abaunding in the work of the Lord.*' 

If we wish either to redeem or to improve time, it is of the utmost 
importance that every duty be performed precisely in its proper 
season ; that the work of the day be done in its day, of the huur 
in its hour. If every duty is not properly discharged whenever it 
demands our attention, one of two things must be the consequence : 
either it will be entirely omitted, or it will encroach on the time 
that should have been allotted to something else ; and if <* sufficient 
to the day is the evil thereof," sufficient also to the day is the duty 
thereof. Our work is proportional to our time. In many cases, the 
duty that has once been neglected, will be entirely omitted. In not 
a few, it can never be performed. For how often does opportunity 
to improve it, wait as it were only a few minutes for our decision, and 
then vanish for ever. There are duties which can be performed, 
perhaps, but on one occasion in our lives ; they are omitted, and 
the good which might have been done, the improvement which 
might have been realised, the reward which might have been secured, 
are irrecoverably, and eternally lost. 

A judicious division and distribution of our time will greatly assist 
us to improve and redeem it. No extensive and complicated 
concern can be properly managed without a wise appropriation of 
time, and a punctual regard to order. To live according to rule, 
to be attentive to order, is. indeed, deemed, by the vain, the gay, 
the man of pleasure, as a fit subject for their jest and ridicule. 
They regard it as an ignoble restraint, as an evidence of dullness, 
as the effect of want of spirit. So awfully are their views and 
feelings perverted, that what David counted liberty, they deem an 
intolerable restraint. " I will walk at liberty, because I keep thy 
statutes," was the language of the inspired psalmist. 'Grievous, 



8 . On Redeeming the Time, 

indeed, are the restraints under which we are laid, our liberty is 
completely at an end, if we must observe these statutes/ is the 
language of their hearts. But satisfied as these persons are with 
themselves, high as is the opinion which they have of their own 
wisdom, no opinion is more contemptible in the estimation of all 
that are truly wise, thau theirs. Many of the greatest and best 
men that the world has ever produced, have been remarkable for 
their strict attention to order and rule, and for the regular division 
of their time. Who has not heard of the immortal Alfred ? While 
the epithet great has, in many instances, been prostituted by its 
application to those who would have been justly designated by the 
tide of fools, by him it was justly merited. Far as he has receded 
from us in the lapse of ages, great as is the distance at which his 
orbit is placed in the hemisphere of history, he yet shines with a 
lustre which overpowers almost all the nionarchs that have ever filled 
the British throne, while he causes the vices of many to appear in 
all Uteir blackness and deformity. This truly great prince, we are 
informed, divided his time into three equal portions ; allotting eight 
hours to sleep, recreation, and meals ; eight to public business ; and 
eight to study and devotion. In consequence of this wise economy, 
and regular distribution of his time, joined with great energy and 
extensive capacity of mind, how much work did he perform, how 
much good did he effect. He subdued the deadly enemies of his 
country, raised his kingdom from the lowest depth of distress to a 
lofty eminence of prosperity and glory; rendered order and justice 
triumphant, where a short time before confusion and wickedness 
stalked in their most hideous forms, and trampled all that was sacred 
beneath their feet. He new-modelled the form of government, laid 
the foundation of the much admired British constitution, and, like 
a second Solomon, he not only governed, but taught his people : 
** He sought out and set in order many proverbs." The late Dr. 
Doddridge may with propriety be mentioned here. He adopted 
nearly Alfred^s division of time, and in consequence abundantly 
served his generation. Owing principally to the neglect of order 
and method, the greatest abilities have been comparatively useless, 
the most vigorous efforts have been fruitless. Where time is rightly 
divided, and order and method are carefully resolutely observed, 
distraction of mind is prevented ; no time is lost in determining what 
is next to be done ; the whole space around a man is, as it were, 
kept clear ; his way is always plain ; *< his eyes look right on, and 
all his goings are established/' Many persons, it is true, have not 
their time' at their own disposal. It is almost all engrossed by 
attention to their ordinary calling. But the less they can call their 
own, the more necessary it is that it should be carefully improved, 
and, therefore, that it should be judiciously divided and appropriated. 
And, besides, what we are now recommending would greatly assist 
them in their worldly business. He, then, that would redeem his 
time, should be careful to ascertain how much of it should be devoted 
to business how much to recreation, how much to religious duties, 
how much to sleep ; and having determined this, before the tribunal 
of conscience, and as iu the presence of God, he should resolutely 



On Redeeming the Time. 9 

adhere to the rules which be adopts for the regulation of bis conduct. 
He should be certain that every infraction of them which may at 
any time be made is fully justified by the demands of necessary 
business, and that breaches of them do not occur so frequently as 
to induce irregular habits. And he should always remember, that in 
a world like this, where so much irregularity and confusion exist, 
and where so many unexpected events perpetually take place, 
vigilance and resolution are absolutely necessary to enable him to 
follow any regular plan, with regard to the division and appropri- 
ation of time. Besides the advantages, as it regards the despatch of 
business, and the performance of duty that will be secured by the 
plan here recommended, there is something in the regularity and 
order which it includes, gratifying and pleasing to the mind. It 
admits of all the variety that is subservient to real enjoyment. It 
is one of the paths of wisdom, and ** her ways are ways of pleasant* 
ness, and all her paths are peace." 

The subject is so copious, that it is impossible to do justice to it 
in the compass of an essay. If we would redeem the time, we must 
make ourselves accurately acquainted with all that God requires of 
us; we must regularly and seriously attend the means of grace; 
we must zealously perform the duties we may have omitted ; we must 
be on our guard against the temptations to which we are exposed, 
especially against those by which we have formerly been robbed of 
our time ; we must wisely consider our circumstances, and endeavour 
to gain an accurate acquaintance with them, as well as with our 
own tempers, habits, propensities, capacities. We should analyse, 
as it were, our frame and characters, and scrupulously examine the 
quality of every ingredient, whether original or adventitious, of which 
they are composed. Let us not take it for granted that any of our 
habits or actions are good ; let us bring them all singly to the test, 
iix the eye of suspicion and scrutiny on every one of them, and, 
in every inquiry and decision, be on our guard against the influence 
of sloth, of self-love, of corrupt propensities. Without this exami- 
nation, and the knowledge of which it is the source, we may be 
asleep on the couch of sloth, and dreaming very pleasantly of activity 
and its rewards. We may be under the influence of habits which 
are constantly robbing us of much of our time, which will effectually 
prevent us from ever redeeming any. We should be careful to form 
habits of industry and activity. Without the aid of these, even the 
best principles will not produce their full effect; whereas, to a certain 
extent, habit, without principle, will do much ; nay, bow often does 
it entirely counteract principle. 

Finally, If we would redeem time, we must carefully attend to 
that which may be considered the great business of life. And it is 
our happiness, that, by doing this, all the time which we may have 
lost, however near we may be to the brink of eternity, and however 
lavishly we may have squandered away our precious hours, may, in 
a very important sense, be completely redeemed. Tne grand business 
of life, the great work which God has given us to do, is to prepare 
for eternity. Now, whenever we truly repent of sin, believe in the 
Lord Jesus Christ, and are sanctified by the communications of his 



10 On the Future Progress of Human Life, 

grace, we are prepared for eternity, we are entitled to the happiness 
of heaven, and in some degree fit for its employments and joys. 
The great business of life then is performed, and so far all our time 
is redeemed. God, by the prophet Ezekiel, assures us, that when 
a wicked man repents, all his wickedness shall not be remembered ; 
he shall live. 

The reasons why we should improve time are numerous and urgent. 
One of the most weighty is, the value of time. Our lives here 
below are a seed-time ; and as we sow, we shall reap for ever in 
another world. They are a period of probation, and the only one 
that we are warranted to expect during the whole of our existence. 
They are a warfare, and we are to fight for our lives, for our souls, 
for our eternal happiness. If we arrive at heaven, it must be through 
hosts of opposing foes, that are determined to hurl us, if possible, 
down to the pit of darkness. If we would estimate the value of 
time, let us remember its nature, the purposes to which it may be 
applied, the improvement of which it is capable, and its connexion 
with eternity. Let us take into the account the extent of our 
capacities, the command of God, the glories of heaven, and the 
miseries of hell ; for it is evident, that in proportion to the extent 
of our capacities, to the solemnity of eternity, to the weight of the 
Divine authority, to the glories of heaven, and to the misery of the 
lost; is the value of time. 

Let us consider how much of our time has been mispent. There 
is enough in this to rouse all the energies of our souls. How short, 
how uncertain is all that remains I How much is at stake I How 
great is our gain, if time is rightly improved I How dreadful our 
loss, if it is squandered away I Let us fix our eye on the example 
of the Saviour. How carefully did he improve his time ; how often 
was he early in the temple teaching ; how frequently did he spend 
all the night in prayer. Let us remember how much has been 
effected, in some instances, by men of like passions with ourselves. 
Never let us forget the command, the promise of our great Master, 
that " so shall we be steadfast, immoveable, always abounding in the 
work of the Lord, knowing that our labour shall not be in vain in 
the Lord." 

Extract. 



ON THE FUTURE PROGRESS OF HUMAN LIFE. 

At this season of the year, we are, perhaps, more than at any 
other period, inclined to reflect upon the past and anticipate the 
future. There is, in the circumstance that we have just witnessed 
the close of one year and the commencement of another, sufficient 
to lead us to recall from the stores of meimory, some, at least, of the 
scenes and transactions with which we have had to do during the 
year that is gone ; and it is, perhaps, not altogether unnatural for us, 
after having gazed and pondered on that which is past, to endeavour 
to cast our thoughts before us, and try to anticipate what will be the 



On the Future Progress of Human Life, 11 

future progress of our being. It is impossible, however, for us to 
meditate at all on this subject, without becoming convinced that the 
most striking and important attribute of the future, is, its great uncer- 
tainty. 

We are borne along on the current of life, and as we float forward, 
revolving in our minds the various difficulties and changes through 
which we have already passed, we eagerly cast our eyes onward, and 
wonder, through what unknown windings and disa.sters, what un- 
thought of pleasures or pains, we shall be conducted, ere we be 
hurried away into the ocean of eternity. But, notwithstanding the 
anxiety so often felt, and the frequent attempts to draw aside the 
veil which hangs before us, we remain most profoundly ignorant of 
the events of our future history. Our past experience, it is true, 
unites with the observations we have made on the lot of others, to 
teach us that the present life is a fitful, changing scene, 

" A peevish April day, 
A little sun, a little rain. 
And then night sweeps along the plain. 
And all things die awaj.*' 

But whether, during the remainder of our day, the dark and 
threatening clouds, or the bright and cheerful sunshine, will be most 
frequently conspicuous, can be known only to Him who, with a single 
glance, beholds all things, past, present, and to come. 

Nor ought we to complain of this arrangement of Divine Provi- 
dence, for, notwithstanding it may thwart our wishes, it is doubtless 
intended, and is eminently calculated, to promote our highest 
interests. Let us consider what would be the almost certain effect 
of a premature disclosure of the future events of our life. On the 
suppo>ition that the prospect were one of great prosperit}', and of 
almost uninterrupted enjoyment, would it not be exceedingly likely 
that we would be led thereby to seek our portion here, to the neglect 
of that better and enduring substance which God has prepared fur his 
people ; whilst, on the other hand, there can be little doubt, that 
the exact knowledge, by anticipation, of the unnumbered difficulties 
with which, in after life, we shall have to grapple, and the various 
sorrows and afflictions, personal and domestic, which will fall to our 
lot, would so far depress our spirits, and unnerve our resolution, 
as to unfit us for the proper discharge of the duties of life. The 
state of uncertainty as to the future, in which we are placed, is 
wisely adapted to assist, not only in weaning our affections from this 
present evil world, but also, to lead us co exercise confidence in 
the Divine care, and resignation to the Divine will. 

The great uncertainty which attaches to the future period of 
human life, not only as it regards the events which may be expected 
to transpire, but also as to the final results of such as may actually 
occur, should instruct us not to be unduly cast down and discouraged 
by the prospect of approaching evil. The disasters which we 
apprehend may never take place ; or, if even they should be per- 
mitted to overtake us, they may, for aught we know, be amongst 



12 On the Future Progress of Human Life. 

the special means ordained by a kind Providence to promote our 
welfare — 

** God moves in a mysterious way, 
His wonders to perform ; 
He plants his footsteps in the sea, 
And rides upon the storm/' 

When the sons of Jacob reported to their father the treatment 
they had received in Egypt, whither they had been to buy corn, the 
good old Patriarch was overwhelmed with grief. There was before 
him the prospect of a speedy famine; his son Simeon had been 
detained a prisoner ; and, in addition to the loss of Joseph, it was 
proposed that his favourite son, Benjamin, should be taken away from 
him ; therefore, with bitter anguish, he exclaimed, " Me have ye 
bereaved of my children, Joseph is not, and Simeon is not, and ye 
will take Benjamin away; all these things are against me." But 
Jacob was mistaken. He saw, clearly enough, the clouds which 
hung around him, darkening the sky, and portending such fearful 
disasters; but he did not see, he could not then see, the glorious 
light which was shortly to shine forth from behind these very clouds, 
and which was destined to shed an abundance of joy and gladness 
on all around. His heart, naturally enough, bled at the loss of his 
children, whilst he was unable to see the Divine hand regulating and 
directing the delicate and complicated machinery which was designed 
to prepare for him the means of deliverance from approaching 
calamity, and the future safiety and happiness of himself and his 
family. Yet, notwithstanding Jacob's forebodings, it was not long 
'ere the scene presented an entirely different aspect. Joseph was 
alive, and in honour. No harm had befallen either Simeon or Ben- 
jamin. The fearful prospect of famine had passed away. And, to 
crown the whole, *' Joseph placed his father and his brethren, and 
gave them a possession in the land of Egppt, in the best of the land, 
in the land of Rameses, as Pharoah had commanded." We ought, 
under all circumstances, to rely on the mercy and care of our 
heavenly Father. What we know not now we shall know hereafter. 
And in regard to each of the dispensations of Divine Providence, 
we shall, doubtless, in due time, have abundant reason to acknow- 
ledge, with devout gratitude, that <' He hath done all things well." 

The uncertainty of the future should also moderate our desires 
for earthly good, and prevent us from indulging those eager longings 
after temporal blessings which would sometimes spring up in our 
hearts. We cannot so look forward as to discover the exact effect 
which their possession would produce upon us in a(\er life. Instead 
of promoting our happiness, as we fondly hope, they may, perhaps, 
conceal a deadly sting, which would afterwards pierce us through 
with many sorrows. Rachel said, ** Give me children, or else I die." 
Rachel's wish was granted. Children were given to her ; but, she 
gave birth to Benjamin at the cost of her own life. He was a son 
of sorrow, and had to be reared by other hands than those of her who 
bare him, and who had looked forward to his birth with such intense 
feelings of desire. God is, at all times the best judge of what will 



Reviews and Literary Notices, 13 

most conduce to our real interests ; and we ought, tbcrefore, to 
leave our cause in Lis hands with a full conviction that it is much 
safer there than it could possibly be elsewhere. Above all, should 
the great uncertainty of the future lead us to look up with earnest 
desire to God, and, adopting the language of Moses, to say, " If Thy 
presence go not with me, carry us not up hence." There is enough 
of darkness, and of probable difficulties and danger before us, to 
induce us to shrink from the conflict, unless we are favoured with 
the presence, and guidance, and protection of our heavenly Father. 
But, if God be our friend, all will be well. ** And the Lord, he it 
is that doth go before thee ; he will be with thee, he will not fail thee, 
neither forsake thee; fear not, neither be dismayed." 

Eldad. 



REVIEWS AND LITERARY NOTICES. 

THE PROTESTANT REFORMATION IN ALL COUN- 
TRIES; including Sketches of the State and Prospects of the Re- 
formed Churches, A Book for Critical Times, By The Rev, 
John Morrison, D. D. Octavo, 527 pp. Fisher, Son, and Co. 

Christianity, as taught by its founder and his apostles, is a 
system of Divine truth, admirably adapted to the social condition, 
and moral and spiritual nature of mankind. Wherever it is allowed 
duly to exert its influence, it not only leads men to honour their 
Creator, and Redeemer, it also causes them to endeavour as far as 
their influence can extend, ^to promote the welfare and happiness of 
those by whom they are surrounded. When, therefore, the angels 
announced the advent of the world's Redeemer, they justly pro- 
claimed, " Glory to God in the highest, and on earth, peace, good- 
will toward men." 

It is however, a most lamentable fact, that, what is called, the 
history of the Christian church presents a most horrible detail of 
atrocities, committed by many of those who have professed them- 
selves to be the teachers, and protectors of the church. Christianity 
has been awfully corrupted and most grossly perverted by many of 
its Judas like friends, who have been its betrayers and most deadly 
foes. In its name they have propagated dogmas producing the 
grossest delusions, and have practised the most abomimable atrocities 
of robbery, oppression, and blood-thirsty cruelty. 

Strange as it may appear to some, it is nevertheless an established 
fact, that the means taken by misjudging friends, to obtain for the 
church the support and patronage of the state, have been the most 
prolific source of its evils. While the church was without the patron- 
age of the Roman emperors, and notwithstanding their hatred, oppo- 
sition, and persecution, it retained a large measure of apostolic 
purity, zeal, and success^; but from that fatal hour when Constantine 
became, in his office of emperor, the patron of the church. It rapidly 



14 Reviewi and Literary Notices, 

degenerated : and that which was designed, by its all gracious Author, 
to be the means of imparting all the blessings which humanity is 
fitted to enjoy, was so corrupted, by the united efforts of kingcraft 
and priestcraft, as to be made the means of producing the most 
degrading superstitions, and inflicting the most tyrannical oppressions, 
and atrocious cruelties, which the pages of history record. 

It is matter of great surprise that notvathstanding all the ad- 
monitory and important lessons, taught by history, of the evils 
resulting from state patronage bestowed upon the church, that so 
few, even of the reformers, appear to have bad. a clear perception of 
the evil consequences of the alliance of church and state. Many 
of them even encouraged the fearful delusion that it was the duty 
of the state to become the patrons of the church. It is, however, 
a cause of greater astonishment and regret, that, even at the present 
time there are many persons, holding all the essential doctrines of 
Christianity, who advocate the doctrine, that it is the duty of the 
state to provide for the support of the church. How astonishing that 
this dogma which in practice has been productive of such fearful 
consequences should continue to be professedly maintained by the 
Methodist Conference, and by the "Free Church of Scotland." 
This opinion was held by that intrepid Scottish reformer Knox ; but 
liow was its fallacy exposed in the conversation he had with Mary 
queen of Scotland. The reformer having urged upon her majesty, 
that it was the duty of princes to support the church ; she readily 
admitted the obligation, but replied, that — she did not regard those 
with whom Knox was united as the church, and could not give his 
church her support. She afterwards added " I will defend the 
church of Rome, which is I think, the true church." Who does not 
see that, according to her religious profession, she made a proper 
application of the doctrine which the reformer had declared to her. 
If princes in their official capacities, are required to support the 
church, on them it must also devolve to determine which is the 
church. To admit that it is the duty of princes to support the 
church by the aid of imposts laid upon their subjects, is to admit a 
principle which has no authority from holy Scripture, and which has 
been, and ever will, so long as it is allowed to operate, be produc* 
tive of incalcuable evils to the interests of society both civil and 
religious. 

Popery, that monster evil, which, for so many ages, has oppressed 
mankind, and blighted the fairest prospects that have dawned upon 
the human family, has ever derived its most terrific potency for evil 
from the influence of the dogma, that " it is the duty of the state to 
support the church." Awful, indeed, was the condition to which, by 
the practical working of this delusion, all the countries of Europe 
were reduced, before the breaking forth of the Reformation in the 
sixteenth century. Political and ecclesiastical despots then held the 
nations in a state of most galling and oppressive subjection. Happily, 
however. Divine Providence then raised up men who were eminently 
fitted for the work of exposing and reforming the dreadful errors 
which were propagated by a corrupt priesthood, supported by the 
kings of the earth. It is a remarkable fact; indicative of a special 



JUviews and Literary NMeu, 15 

iDterposition of Divine Providence, that, at about the same time, men, 
eminently fitted for carrying on the work of the Reformation, were 
raised up in different countries in Europe; and many other circum- 
stances connected with the political condition of the nations were 
made to conduce to the success of the reformers. 

We are obliged, however, to admit, that, notwithstanding the im- 
provements effected by the Reformation, the work of purifying the 
church from human corruptions was by no means completed. The 
reformed churches themselves have ever stood in need of another 
reformation. This especially is the case with those churches which 
enjoy the support of civil government. At the present time there 
are many professed members and ministers of reformed churches 
who, instead of endeavouring to perfect the work of reformation, are 
striving to bring back the gross errors and superstitions which the 
reformers exposed, condemned, and rejected. It is now, therefore, 
imperatively the duty of all to examine and understand the principles 
which the reformers maintained, and to render them such support as 
their importance entitles them to receive : and also to adopt measures 
for completing that work of purification which the reformers so happily 
and heroically began. 

Holding these sentiments, we welcome the appearance of the 
volume entitled "The Protestant Reformation;" we have read its 
pages with much interest and pleasure. It is a work admirably 
adapted to the exigencies of the present << critical times ; " and will 
render important service to the cause of truth, and uphold and 
advance the principles of Protestantism. The object of the author 
has been to collect and condense the main facts connected with the 
triumph of Scriptural principles over the imposing novelties of 
Romanism ; and so to abridge the materials of an extended history, 
contained in many volumes, as to present its general outline and 
features in one octavo volume. To prepare this work has, therefore, 
required extensive reading, and the exercise of sound judgment in 
the selection and use of the materials of which it is composed. The 
plan and the execution are such as command our decided appro- 
oation. 

The work describes "The state of Europe at the time of the 
Reformation." This leads to noticing the rise and progress of 
Romanism. The labours and sufferings of, its opposers, the Vaudois, 
Wickliffe, Huss, and Jerome, are brought under notice. The awful 
conduct of the Roman pontiffs — the rapid spread of monkery — and 
the consequent corruptions of Christian faith and practice — "The 
lights which shone amidst the long night of Papal darkness " — The 
Albigensian witnesses, their origin and union with the Vaudois — The 
testimony of Alcuin — Paulinus — P&ul — Claude of Turin — Agobard — 
Synod of Rheims in 992— Peter Waldo— Walter Lollard— Wickliffe, 
and others. We have then a sketch of the state of Rome at the time 
of the birth of Luther ; an account of his parentage, education, his 
character, and wonderful history as a Reformer. This brings under 
notice the progress of the Reformation in Germany, with the proceed- 
ing of, the Popes, Leo the X — Adrian the VI — Clement the VII— Paul 
the III, and the Emperor Charles the V, and others, to impede the 



16 RevietM and Literary Notices. 

progress of the Reformation. Besides which, we have an account 
of the protection afforded, to Luther and the cause of the Reformation, 
by the Elector of Saxony, and the other confederated princes, who 
signed the memorable protest against Romanism, from which they 
received the designation of Protestants. 

From Germany we are conducted into Switzerland, where another 
reformer was raised up in the person of Uiric Zuingle ; who, like 
Luther, had his indignation against the corruptions of popery 
aroused, by the mendacious conduct of one of the papal impostors 
employed to sell indulgences to the deluded believers in their efficacy. 
We have a very instructive account of the progress of the Refor- 
mation among the Swiss Cantons, and of the struggles and conflicts 
in which the reformers had to engage. The Catholics here, as in 
Germany, attempted to put down the Reformation by the power of 
the sword, and Zuingle fell in the field of conflict, defending himself 
against the attack of his foes, and dying, exclaimed, *< They can kill 
the body, but they cannot kill the soul." 

Dr. Morrison next notices the rise and progress of the Reformation 
in Geneva, under the ministry of Farel, Viret, Calvin, Beza, and 
others. The conduct of Calvin, in reference to the jSart he took in 
bringing Servetus, Castalio, Bolzec, and others, to trial, on charges 
of heresy, that they might be punished with death or banishment, is 
brought under notice; and the remarks made thereon are such as 
every true Protestant must approve. 

We are then led from Switzerland to France, and next to Sweden 
and Denmark — Italy — Spain — the Netherlands — Hungary and Tran- 
sylvania—Poland—England — Scotland and Ireland: and the most 
important and interesting facts connected with the history of the 
Reformation in these countries are lucidly presented to view. 

" The results of the Reformation, Religious, Political, and Intel- 
lectual," are then considered ; and the concluding chapter is on <' The 
State and Prospects of the Reformed Churches." Upon those topics 
we have some admirable remarks, which well deserve attention. We 
shall now quote two or three passages, which will gratify our readers, 
and enable them to judge of the quality of the volume. 

'^ It was the glory of the Reformation, that it made a bold stand for ancient 
apostolic truth, in opposition to the corrupt novelties of eleven hundred years 
of steady and resolute departure from the faith of Christ. Protestantism 
was not itself a novelty ; but the exposure of a novelty. It came not to 
proclaim anew doctrine ; but to ** contend earnestly for the faith once delivered 
to the saints." Which of all its positions was new ? Was it the denouncement 
of indulgences ? — which had never been heard of till the eleventh century. 
Was it the interdict which it pronounced upon the Pope*s supremacy ? — who 
dared not himself to claim this distinction, till full six hundred years after 
the days of the apostles. Was it the assertion of the people's right and duty 
to search the Scriptures for themselves ? — when for three centuries every 
father of the church, to say nothing of Christ and his aposdes, urged the 
same doctrine. Was it the rejection, of tradition, as a co-ordinate rule of 
faith ? — when no such sentiment was broached during the only period when 
apostolical tradition could have been satisfactorily identified. Was it the 
exposure of the monstrous pretension of Rome's infallibility ? — which had 
never obtained currency until the Roman pontiff proclaimed himself 



Reviews and Literary Notices. 17 

unWeraal head of the church, in the seveath century. Was it the contempt 
which Protestantism poured upon the celibacy of the clergy ? — when the 
professed head of the Romish episcopate was married ; when Paul expressly 
declares, that ** marriaf^e is honourable in all ;'* when one of the signs of 
apostate Rome is, that she *' forbids to marry ;*' and when for three centuries 
the impure dogma was unknown to the Christian church. Was it the denial 
of purgatorial fire ? — when no traces of such a doctrine can be fairly disco- 
vered in the Word of God, or in the teaching of the fathers, for more 
than six hundred years. Was it the unsparing condemnation of the Mass, 
and the adoration of the host ? which had their distinct origin in the 
Florentine council, early in the thirteenth century. Was it the stern 
denouncement of image- worship, of the invocation of departed saints, of 
prayers to the Virgin, of supplications for the dead ? — none of which 
corruptions were known till the fourth century, and some of them were the 
offspring of the thirteenth. Was it the bold and determined stand made 
by the Reformers against priestly absolution and auricular confession, with the 
several abominations to which they led ? — when these novelties were of no 
earlier date than the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. Was it the plea urged 
by them for public liturgies and officies of devotion in the vulgar tongue ?— 
when the Latin ritual was never introduced till the seventh century. Was it 
the loud voice of remonstrance which sounded in Rome's ears, for robbing 
the laity of the cup in the Eucharist ? — when the impious proposal was never 
heard of till the eleventh century. Was it the caveat urged against the 
aildition of ^ve sacraments to those instituted by Christ and his apostles ?^- 
when that addition was made by fallible mortals in the twelfth century. Was 
it the removal of the apocryphal books from the canon of Holy Scripture ? — 
when ' they never found a place in it until the council of Trent, in the 
sixteenth century, did this mighty dbhonour to the living oracles of revealed 
truth." * * ♦ 

" Popery has heen, with scarcely any exception the enemy to all free and 
enlightened government. It has been the ever-faithful ally of political 
tyrants, as in the case of Napoleon, when they sought to check its ambition, 
and to deprive it of its power to rule over the bodies, souls, and estates of 
mankind. We are not to judge of the political character of popery by its 
present aspects, when Protestant light and Protestant institutions have infused 
themselves, like a leaven, into the whole texture of European Society. If 
we would judge aright on the subject, we must look back to the palmy days 
of Rome, when she was mistress of the civilized world, when the whole 
circle of European nations were Romanists, and when the proudest monarchs 
sat cowering at the feet of the pontiff. Then how abject was society, 
politically considered ; how perfect and unmitigated was the reign of absolute 
power I liberty was then but a name ; and the tyranny of the church was 
but the fit emblem of that intolerable political despotism which spread its 
dark shadow over all the kingdoms of Christendom. 

But the Reformation taught men to think on the subject of their just 
rights, so long and so eruelly usurped ; and by revealing one kind of ancient 
tyranny enabled them to detect and expose many others. Wherever it 
planted its foot in the kingdoms of Europe, it gradually introduced those 
meliorations into the science of human government, which, in connection with 
other favourable influences, have led to that happy combination of civil and 
religious liberty which now distinguishes a large portion of the old world ; 
and which only fails to be perfected, by the influence which the spirit of 

S>pery still exerts in Spain, Italy, Austria, and some other parts of the 
uropean continent. 

If in this struggle with the antagonistic principles of well-ascertained 
freedom, Rome herself has undergone some modifications for the better, it 
is no just matter of surprise. Mere policy and the constraint of circumstances 
must have wrought some change in the aspect of her political conduct ; 

c 



18 Reviews and Literary Notices, 

though it must be confessed that where Romanism most prevails, civil free- 
dom has but a precarious existence. 

A system which forged the fetters^ and erected the dungeons of the 
Inquisition, and which teaches its votaries to look on all as on the road to 
perdition, who do not rank within its ecclesiastical pale, however devout in 
feeling or benevolent in conduct, can scarcely be the parent of freedom in 
any well-ascertained sense of that precious, but much abused term. It is a 
fact which should never be lost sight of, that the great assertors of freedom 
of conscience have been, at the same time, the deliverers of their country 
from political thraldom. Take the Reformers of Germany, Holland, Geneva, 
England, and Scotland, as so many witnesses to the truth of this statement. 

It is true, indeed, that the Reformers themselves onlv partially understood 
that liberty of conscience for which they contended, and therefore it was that 
their work was imperfectly accomplished ; but others followed in their train, 
who better understood the genuine principles of liberty, and to whom our 
own and other countries were indebted for the benefits of the political freedom 
they now enjoy." ♦ ♦ » 

But let Protestants who are such on principle, who regard popery as 
the grand antagonist of the doctrine of Christ, be on their guard against 
those new modes of defending Romanism to which its advocates have resorted 
in our day ; the distinct object of which is to conceal whatever is gross, and 
to explain whatever may be offensive or revolting to the advancing Protes- 
tantism of the age. Let the thin veil which the philosophy of such a writer 
as Dr. Wiseman has spread over the popery of the middle ages, be torn 
asunder, and beneath it will be still found lurking all the abominations of 
Antichrist. What matters it to the enlightened Protestant however much a 
dexterous casuistry may hide from the vulgar eye the real features of popery, 
if, after all, not one deadly error is extracted from the system. In its best 
forms, Romanism is the express enemy of God's method of salvation. It 
rejects the Scripture doctrine of iustification by faith, without the works of 
the law ; and constructs a method of acceptance with God, consisting partly 
of vague reference to the substitutional work of the Redeemer, and partly of 
a graduated and well-d^ned scale of human merit. It is in all its essential 
features, a mere human device, which pacifies men's consciences, without 
purifying them; and which combines in subtle and pernicious form all 
the various phenomena of error, which have found their prototype in the 
deep-seated corruptions of the human heart. What are all its symbols of 
spiritual and invisible realities, but a palpable exhibition of that idolatry to 
which fallen humanity has ever been tending; and against which heaven 
has ever uttered its warning voice ? What is its burdensome ceremonial, but 
a systematic exhibition of the self-righteous propensity of human nature, 
ever anxious to stand before God in a righteousness of its own ? What are all 
its priestly assumptions, from the high functions of the pontiff himself, down 
to the ministrations of the humblest monk, but a melancholy device to put a 
fallible mortal in the place of Christ, and to teach men to rely on the offices of 
the church instead of the merits of the great High Priest of the Christian 
profession ? What are masses, prayers for the dead, invocations of saints, and 
appeals to the Virgin Mary, but so n»any flagrant attempts to set aside the one 
offering of Christ, and to substitute for its immediate and divine effi/^usy a 
scheme of mediation which would divide the merit of saving the world 
between the priest who ministers on earth, and saints who reign in heaven. 

Let Protestants labour, then, for the subversion of popery, not merely 
because it contains much error, but because it vitiates the Christian scheme, 
and is incompatible with the salvation of the world. Popery, as such, can 
save no man. Some who profess it are doubtless better than their creed ; 
but, as a system, it stands between the sinner and Christ, and teaches him to 
rely on other merits beside those of the 9)n-atoning Lamb.'' 



JReviews and Literary N^itea. 19 

In closing our notice of this volume, we would offer our thanks 
to its esteemed author, for a work so admirably adapted to direct 
public attention to the important history of the Reformation. It is 
equally suited for those who have not yet obtained an acquaintance 
with the history of the Reformation, and for those who need to have 
their recollection of its history revived. They will here find an 
interesting and well arranged compendious statement of the most 
important facts connected with the rise and progress of the Reform 
mation in the sixteenth century ; the value of the work is greatly 
enhanced by the author's judicious, scriptural, and anti-sectarian, 
observations on the persons^ events, and incidents, brought under 
review. 



THE BAPTISMS OP SCRIPTURE UNFOLDED. In Two Parts. By 
Sarah Bull. 12mo. 65 pp. W. Aylott. 

Wk took up this volume expecting, from its title, that we should derive instruc- 
tion from its perusal ; but we had not proceeded far, before we found that we 
were not likely to obtain much profit therefrom. The author states that there 
are four baptisms spoken of in the New Testament. ** The Baptism of Repent- 
ance, preached by the forerunner of our Lord, and the Baptism of the Holy Ghost, 
inculcated by our Lord himself: these are designated " Fundamental Baptisms.'* 
The other two are — ** the Baptism of a peoi^le unto Moses, and our Lord's Bap- 
tism of sufferings:'' these are termed "Circumstantial Baptisms." As these 
are all the baptisms which our author recognises as found in the New Testament, 
it follows, that she must either hold, that water baptism is not found in the New 
Testament, or she must recognise it as identical with the baptism of the Holy 
Ghost. She, however^ states, that '' we are baptized with water for the Holy 
Ghost." '' 'The Baptism of the Holy Ghost, for which the baptism of water 
prepares us, is the same as regeneration." It would answer no valuable purpose 
to 'enter into a further examination of this work ; we need only add, that we 
regret, we cannot recommend it to the attention of our readers. 

PRIZE ESSAY ON THE EVILS PRODUCED BY LATE HOURS 
OP BUSINESS, and on the Benefits which would attend their Abridgement, By 
Thomas Da vies. WUh a Preface by the Hon, and Rev. Baptist W. Noel, 
M. A. Svo. 39 pp. Nis^T and Co. 

We most heartily wish success to the efforts of the Metropolitan Drapers.* 
Association, under whose auspices this work is published. In a great number of 
businesses the hours of labour are unmercifully protracted ; it is, therefore, a 
disderatum to abridge them. The excellent publication before us is well calcu- 
lated to aid in accomplishing this object. We most earnestly recommend it to 
the attention of our readers, and would urge upon them the duty of lessening the 
amount of the evil, against which it is directed, by making it their invariable 
practice to make their purchases before a late hour in the day. 

THE SCENERY and ANTIQUITIES op IRELAND ILLUSTRATED. 
jFVom Drawings made expressly firr this Work, by W. H. Bartlett ; Ike Literary 
Department by N. P. Willis, and J. S. Coyne, Esqrs. Quarto. Parts XXIX 
and XXX, G. Virtue. 

These Numbers brine this interesting Work to a completion. It will forn^ 
two elegant volumes, well adapted for either the drawing room, or library. Ireland 
is a country rich with scenenr and antiquities, peculiarly attractive to those who feel 
interested in the beauties of creation, or in the history of remote times. It is 
impossible, for such persons, to look upon the exquisite engravings contained in 
this Work, without feeling a lively interest in the countir and history which they 
10 admirably illustrate. Considering the great outlay, which the production of s* 



20 On Public Warship. 

beautiful a work of art must have occasioned, it is published at a very moderate 
price. Without a very extended circulation, the enterprising proprietor cannot be 
repaid. 

FOX'S BOOK OF MARTYRS. Edited by the Bev, John Gumming, M. A. 
Super Koyal 8vo. Parts XXVIII and XXIX. G, Vibtub. 

One of these Parts contains an engraving, representing the leading of the con- 
demned Covenanters at Edinburgh to execution : the other exhibits the Roman 
Emperor, Commodus, standing in the CoUosseum, casting a dart at a wild beast. 
Besides these, there are sevenU well executed wood engravings, illustrative of the 
•ufferings endured by the martyrs. 



ON PUBLIC WORSHIP. 
Dbak Sib, — 

If you can spare a comer in your excellent Miscellany, I shall be glad 
of an opportunity to send two or three short articles on some of the different 
parts of public worship; and will commence in the present communication 
with a few remarks on 

SINGING. 

From the earliest period of Methodism, the Wesleyans have, generally, 
been distinguished for their love and practice of singing in public worship; 
probably above all other sections of the visible Church of Christ in this 
country. The venerable founder of the societies, somewhere in his Journal, 
remarks upon this distinguishing trait, and compares the mode of singing 
in the Established Church at that day — its slow and lifeless drawl at the 
best, and in many instances its almost entire neglect— with the cheerful and 
lively manner, and almost universal practice of singing by the congrega- 
tions in his meeting houses; and states that 'the Methodists sing lustily, 
and with a good courage.' How far this description is characteristic of 
Methodist singing at the present day, is more than l will undertake to say ; 
at the same time I am nappy to be able to bear testimony, from my own 
personal knowledge, that in many Methodists chapels, something approaching 
to the primitive spirit of singing is still to be found, and that the high praises 
of Grod are united in with an approach to courage ! 

Since the early times, to which I have just referred, a great change for 
the better has taken place, in regard to singing, in the Established Church. 
In popular districts more particularly, a considerable improvement may be 
observed; congregations appear to have become ashamed of the lethargy 
and indolence of their forefathers, and in numberless instances, — led on 
by tolerably well conducted choirs, and materially assisted by Sabbath and 
day scholar8,^oin heartily in singing the Divine praises. 

Great changes have also occurred, in this department, in Methodist chapels, 
since the time when singing was carried on < lustily ;* but not generally, it 
is to be feared, of a beneficial and progressive character, so far as the right 
performance of that duty is concerned. It may be true, and I think is 
Tery likely to be so, that a greater number of the auditory have more or 
less knowledge of musical science now, than was the case a century ago ; 
bat it is doubtful if the heart and voice are found to be so much engaged 
at the present time as then. Many persons in our congregations appear 
lo be afraid lest those sitting near them in the house of God, should hear 



Oil Public Worship. 21 

-the sound of their voices in this delightful exercise, as though it were an 
act of which they had reason to be ashamed. When, however, the heart 
is right in the sight of God, and the soul fully alive to him, it will matter 
but little who may happen to be in our immediate vicinity ; the voice will 
harmonise with the inward feeling of holy joy, and grateful remembrance 
of God*s gracious dealings with us ; and there will be pleasure and delight 
in singing his praises. O ! it is an elevating exercise, to be employed as we 
have reason to believe angels and glorified spirits are employed, in pouring 
forth from the fulness of a heart sanctified to God, the nigh praises of 
heaven ; and I know of no service in which the Christian can unite, which 
brings him nearer to that holy company, and to those heavenly enjoyments 
with which he hopes to be associated for ever ! 

In every section of Methodism public singing still constitutes an important 
adjunct of Divine worship ; and whatever tends to mar its utility and 
profitableness, should be avoided. It has been to me a source of pain to 
witness the hurried, 1 had almost said indecent manner, in which Divine 
worship is sometimes gone through at the conclusion of the general service. 
Perhaps the entire time allotted to the service has been taken up by a pro- 
tracted sermon, when a single verse of a hymn is hurriedly given out by 
the preacher; or perhaps singing altogether omitted, ana a few short 
sentences of prayer rapidly uttered, with an evident consciousness of having 
improperly detained the congregation, concludes the whole. Now this I 
respectfully submit is not the most excellent way. It ought not to be for- 
gotten by us, that preaching is strictly speaking no part of the worship of 
God. It is an invaluable mode of teaching the great truths of the Gospel ; 
of warning sinners, and building up the church of Christ ; but in reality is 
not Divine worship; and therefore ought not to be so conducted as to 
interfere with the right performances of the duty of prayer and praise, 
which is paramount to all others. Those preachers who may unhappily 
have adopted the practice by which they are driven to the curtailment, or 
neglect of true worship, would do well to consider the efiect which such 
a course of proceeding is likely to have upon a congregation. It is very 
possible that an auditory so circumstanced may become enlightened, and 
well instructed in the theory of Divine truth ; but will there be no danger 
of the heart remaining unaffected and unchanged, from the neglect of those 
holy exercises which bring man nearest to God, and fill him with heavenly 
Influences ? 

I do not think it improper to say that, perhaps to a greater extent than 
is generally imagined, the true devotional spirit of singing is promoted or 
hindered, by the mode of giving out the hymn. It ought to be the wish 
and aim of a person reading a psalm or hymn to a congregation, in order 
to their singing it, to seize the spirit and feeling of the author of the 
words, in order that the congregation may also realise them. But how, 
I would ask, can this be done when the mere reading of the words is all 
that is aimed at ; and when the reader seems to possess whilst so engaged, 
little of either soul or sensibility ? I have known instances where an 
egregriously erroneous pronunciation, or some emphasis glaringly improper, 
has had injurious effect upon the spirit of devotion ; but, of all the modes 
of extinguishing an elevated and holy feeling where it exists, or of prevent- 
ing its existence in connection wiUi singing God*s praises— that listless, 
inert, and indifferent mode of reading the hymn to the audience which some 
men have adopted, is beyond all controversy the most effectual. I had the 
misfortune some time ago to be present at public worship when such a 
practice of mere reading, as I have now attempted to describe, was followed 
Dy the minister ; — and from what I afterwards learnt, I fear it has become 
with him a habit— and I can truly say that the effect upon my own mind 
was most withering. The impression made at the time was, that th« 



22 On Public Worship. 

preacher did not believe the solemn truths which he read to the congrega- 
tion ; or, that believing them, he was an improper person to attempt to 
communicate them to others. A more dull, sleepy, and ineffective moae, of 
giving out a hymn, I have seldom witnessed in a Methodist Chapel. 

In offering remarks upon ' singing,' it mav perhaps not be out of place 
just to observe, that as standing is the mode adopted by us, and by most 
Christians, as being more proper than any other for the public performance 
of this service, it is very desirable that all the congregation should follow 
this practice. It is not in accordance with proper decorum for persons to 
sit idly, and' carelessly, during singinff, whilst all others are on their feet 
praising God. Nothing but positive physical inability will, in my opinion, 
justify a departure from the ordinary rule. Nor is it desirable to follow 
the custom which is, in some places, I fear, on the increase, of resuming the 
seat during the singing of the last verse, or of the last two lines ; or it may 
be whilst the usual repetition of the concluding lines is proceeding. It is 
well to be uniform, and consistent throughout ; and we should no more think 
of sittinff down during the singing of any part of the last verse, nor until 
the whole is finished, than we should of keeping our seats whilst the first 
verse was being sung. 

There are probably few congregations which do not find it expedient to 
have some one appointed to conduct public singing ; and with such a person 
others of both sexes are generally associated to assist. It is well when 
individuals can be found for this work who are possessed of sterling piety, 
and who are fully devoted to God ; for when this is not the case the peace 
of a church is very much in danger of being disturbed. If the grace of God 
does not rule the heart and influence the mind, official singers in places 
of worship, are very apt to form the most erroneous and absurd notions 
ci the value and importance of their services. I have known instances 
in which the choir evidently considered themselves by far the most important 
personages in the house of God ; and whose wishes and expectations were 
in perfect accordance with their views. It is very well when members of 
the Society, who are living under the influence of true religion, and whose 
chief object is to promote the glory of God, can unite together to assist 
in leading the congregation in singing ; because when that is the case they 
may really render some service. But after all, I am decidedly of opinion, 
that the less the congregation is dependent on others, the better, on every 
account. Let all persons strive to sing with the heart, and with the under- 
standing also, and to sing for themselves ; and whilst they will feel thankful 
for any assistance which others may render, they will l>e at no great loss, 
if from any cause that help should be withheld. And besides, whilst it 
is one of the most pitiable and humiliating sights under heaven, to see a 
congregation assembled professedly to worship their Maker by singing his 
praises, and to witness that worship confined almost entirely to a few 
professional, and it may be salaried, singers, whilst. the people are only 
listening to them ;— so on the other hand, I know of no sight more 
exhilirating, or better calculated to lift the soul from earth to heaven, and 
to remind Christians of ''the general assembly and church of the first- bom *' 
which he is basoning to join, than that of an entire congregation joining 
heart and voice, in singing the Divine praises. 

Such a view the immortal Watts appears to have realised in the following 
lines :-*- 

'< Lord, how deUffhtful 'tis to see, 
A whole assembly worship thee : 
At once they sing, at once they pray, 
They hear of heaven, and learn the way.'' 



23 



ON THE RESPECT DUE TO THE OFFICE OF AN 
ITINERANT MINISTER, 

Ma. Editor— Dbab Sib, 

Thebb are probably few sobjects on wbich greater errors bave been com- 
mitted tban in reference to the position which ministers, wholly dcYoted to 
the work of their office, ought to sustain in the church, and abo in reference 
to the estimation in wbich they ought to be held by the members of those 
communities to which they belong. 

In the Romish church, for example, the priest is not merely supreme in 
office and authority, governing exclusively, without limitation or control, his 
entire flock ; but such are the views entertained by the masses of the sanctity 
of his person^ as well as office, that in popish countries the people in their 
ignorance willingly submit to every indignity degrading to human nature — 
even to being whipped by the priest, should he think proper to inflict such 
punishment — without resentment or complaint. And any act of collision with 
such a functionary, if it were merely in self-defence, against personal agres- 
sion, would be classed among the deadliest of sins. Such are the errors 
and superstitions which ignorance fosters and introduces into the church of 
Christ : such the presunaptions, which an order of men dares to be guilty of, 
over the flock purchased by the blood of the Savionr ; and so deeply debased 
does poor human nature become ! 

But it will be evident, to the least reflecting, that so lamentable a state of 
things, so opposed to the Word of God, could not have arisen in the church 
at once, but most have been the progressive work of ages, and proceeded 
probably from very small beginnings. The foundation of this evil, I appre- 
hend, is to be found in the claims which certain ministers of the Gospel have 
set up — and alas ! they are not now confined to the Romish heirarchy — to 
the possession of a Divine right exclusively to govern the Christian church ; 
for if this claim is admitted, and established in men*s minds, scarcely any 
limit can be fixed to the progress and extent of error and corruption in the 
church. 

I am one of those who would sincerely regret if our Magazine should ever 
become a medium for angry discussions upon topics affecting the government 
and discipline of other religious bodies ; and not less so, in particular, in 
reference to that community which many of us have reason, on some grounds, 
at least, to esteem ; but from which we have been compelled conscientiously 
to dissent ; believing its polity to be founded on the erroneous principles which 
distinguish the Romish church, and in direct opposition to the Divine will. 
Entertaining these views, yet I am decidedly of opinion that temperate and dis- 
creet statements, on the subject of church discipline, and on the proper respect 
which is due to the office of an itinerant minister, are calculated to subserve 
the cause of truth, and disseminate sound views on the very important subject 
of the government of the Christian church. 

It is no disparagement to other churches to assert, that probably no other 
Christian community commenced its career with a clearer perception of the 
evils which have been glanced at ; a deeper impression of the importance f^ 
guarding against them ; or that has succeeded more efiectually, on New Tes- 
tament principles, in erecting a barrier, in its discipline and government, 
against their existence, than the Wesleyan Methodist Association. 

The error, as it appears to me, into which some religious bodies, in the 
formation of their church government, bave fallen, is, that no room is left 
for the exercise of a generous confidence on the part of the people towards 
their ministers fully devoted to the work ; but that, from the very nature of 



24 Respect Due to the Office of an Itinerant Minister. 

their polity, a necessity always exists, if they would preserve entire their 
Christian liberties, to watch with jealous eye the conduct and proceedings of 
their ministers : and the main cause of this is, that there are no means exist- 
ing, in their system of government, short of what would amount to a disrup- 
tion, an entire revolution in their confederation, by which to check the 
progress of priestly domination whenever it arises, or to save their churches 
from spiritual despotism. 

But what a contrast do the principles and plan of our church arrangements 
exhibit to such a state of things as this I How perfectly secure are bur 
people in the exercise of their just rights, against an undue and anti-scrip- 
tural assumption of priestly power ! And how simple and efficient are tlie 
means, should ever such power be assumed among us, to protect the interests 
of all, without endangering the peace, or disturbing the harmony of any ! 
I venture to assert, without the fear of successful contradiction, there is no 
section of the Christian world that, relying on the natural operation of its 
own laws, may repose in their ministers a greater amount of confidence, with- 
out the shadow of danger to any thing that an enlightened Christian values, 
than may be exercised by our societies. So perfect, indeed, is the protection 
afforded to our churches against ministerial misrule, that unless greater kind- 
ness and respect be shown by us to the office of an itinerant minister in our 
Connexion, than ought to be claimed by those who are identified with systems 
in which that security does not exist, we fail, in my opinion, to manifest that 
tense of gratitude and obligation for our advantages, which we really owe. 

As it is my wish to render these brief remarks as easily understood, and 
as practical as possible, allow me to say, that whilst our system of church 
government recognizes itinerant or local ministers as of one order, yet we, 
with all other well regulated churches, as distinctly admit a possible difference 
in office among those ministers ; and that the church possesses a clear and 
undoubted right to make such selections from among, its members to par- 
ticular offices, as may best promote the general welfare. As then, for instance, 
it has been the immemorial practice to give the chief oversight of the affairs 
of the church to those who are fully devoted to the work of the ministry there 
appears to be no sufficient reason — for any circuit in our Connexion, haviiig 
an itinerant minister able to perform those duties, departing from this 
practice which experience has long proved to be the best calculated, on 
various grounds, which I need not stop to enumerate, to subserve the interests 
of the church. 

I think then that no circuit in our Connexion would do well to pass by an 
itinerant minister, competent to the undertaking, when the appomtment of 
circuit chairman takes place. To my mind, I must confess, such an act 
would appear exceedingly ungracious, and be legitimately calculated to excite 
painful feelings. As contrasted with the position of ministers entirely set 
apart to the service of the church in all other religious communities of settled 
and respectable character, such a circumstance would appear like an act of 
degradation ; and in many instances could scarcely fall to create an impres- 
sion that such was intended. Besides, as I have already intimated, if an 
itinerant preacher, stationed in a circuit, is equal to the duties of chairman, 
and superintendant of the circuit, no necessity can possibly exist among us 
to pass him by on the ground of obtaining protection from ministerial misrule. 
Take a case. Our travelling preachers have no authority to limit the topics 
which may be brought under consideration, at our official meetings ; or to 
refuse to put to the vote a motion when regularlv moved and seconded ; or 
at his mere will and caprice, to dissolve a regularly constituted assemblv ; or, 
as elsewhere, although every officer in tbe meeting should be opposed to it^ 
expel from church membership ! No : such priestly assumptions would find 
no congenial atmosphere among us. Ours is a meridian which I hope and 
trust will be found alike unsuited to the development of ministerial domi- 



.Christian Union Committee. 25 

nation, and the tyranny of the multitude. Mutual rights and priTileges, such 
as in the New Testament are found to be &e birthright of all in Christ's 
church, clearly defined, and well understood, are the surest guarantees of 
peace and concord in any religious community ; and especially so, when all 
concerned combine to make a religious use of them, and seek only the glory 
of God in the prosperity of his church. 

Whilst then it is clearly our right and duty, as members of the church, to 
adopt all proper means to protect ourselyes from oppression, we may at the 
same time rely upon it, that even if we would preserve our own privileges, 
the fair and reasonable claims of our itinerant ministers, as an important class 
of officers in Christ's church, must be equally regarded by us. For, where 
a spirit of suspicion or selfishness is permitted to usurp the place of kindly 
consideration towards ministers entirely given up to the work, nothing that 
is good or valuable is likely long to exist, either in reference to ministers 
or members. 

In conclusion, I feel that I am only advocating the interests of our entire 
Connexion, and doing some little to promote its stability and permanence, as 
well as its true respectability, in giving publicity to sentiments which obser- 
vation and experience have led me to adopt ; and in urging upon my bre- 
thren at large, the duty of cordially uniting to give to our itinerant preachers 
that place in our respective societies, which their office and duties seem most 
clearly to indicate — and in perfect accordance with our Rules — as their proper 
position among us. And it is no ordinary satisfaction to me to know, that 
the views now put forth are generally entertained in the Association. The 
practice which I now venture to recommend to all our circuits has, I am 
fully aware, long been followed, by most; and at the present time perhaps 
by every large circuit in the Connexion. If in any instance, without 
necessity, a contrary mode prevails, I am quite confident a little calm reflec- 
tion is all that is required to the adoption of '* a more excellent way." 

A Local Preacher of Twenty-seven Years' Standing, 
Leeds, November 4th, 1843. 



THE CHRISTIAN UNION COMMITTEE AND WESLEYAN 
METHODIST ASSOCIATION. 

From the communication, with which we were favoured, in 
November last, by the Rev. J. Sherman, and which appeared in our 
December Magazine, our readers will now expect to receive further 
information on the matter to which that communication refers. We 
• cannot convey this in any way more satisfactorily, than by laying 
before them a copy of a letter which we sent to the Patriot News- 
paper, and which was kindly and promptly inserted, on the 21st of 
December. As that valuable paper has a large circulation among 
evangelical Protestant dissenters, the facts contained in our letter, 
will thereby become extensively known : and we are of opinion that 
it will promote the interests of our connexion to give those facts the 
most extensive circulation. Our readers will be gratified in learning, 
that notwithstanding the hostility manifested, by the Rev. W. M. 
Bunting, towards the Association, the jqst claim, of the ministers and 
members of the Association, to be recognized, equally with those other 



26 Christian Union Commiiie&, 

ministers and members belonging to those sections of the church of 
Christ, to which the members of the Christian Union Committee 
belong, is now fully admitted, and their co-operation << gladly 
accepted " by the Committee. We shall not now make any further 
observations— but at once lay before our- readers our letter, to the 
Editor of the Patriot, containing the recent correspondence which 
we have had with the Committee. 

Sir, — Five months since, vou were kind enough to insert, in your valuable 
paper, a communication which I sent to you, containing some correspondence 
of mine with the Kev. J. Sherman, the Secretarv of the Christian Union 
Committee. Many of your readers have long been looking for further 
information on the topics referred to in that correspondence. That informa- 
tion, however, could not be given earlier than the present time, as will 
appear from the documents which I shall now lay before you. 

In the month of August last, the Annual Assembly of the Wesleyan 
Methodist Association held its sittings, when the proceedings of the Chris- 
tian Union Committee were noticed, and the following resolutions adopted, 
printed in its '* Minutes,'' and advertised in vour paper :— 

** Resolved, I. That this Annual Assembly, re^rdioff it as the duty of 
all Christians to manifest and cultivate towards each other fraternal regard 
and affection, unrestrained by sectarianism, it rejoices in the measures 
recently taken in London for promoting Christian Union ; and hereby 
expresses its earnest desire, that all our ministers and members avail them- 
adivet of everv opportunity of manifesting, and cultivating, affection towards, 
and union with, all who love our Lord Jesus Christ in sincerity. 

" Resolved, 2. That our entire connexion has been placed under great 
obligadon to our highly-esteemed brother, Mr. Robert Eckett, by the well- 
timed, Christain, and irresistible claim made by him on behalf of our 
section of the Christian church, to take its part, with the other sections of 
the church, in the manifestation of Christian Union ; and Mr. Eckett is 
respectfully requested to represent the views of this Annual Assembly to 
the London Christian Union Committee." 

In September last, I forwarded to Mr. Sherman a printed copy of the 
** Minutes of the Assembly," with a note, requesting that the above resolu- 
tions might be laid before the committee at its next meeting. 

On the 20th of November, my letter, of the J 5th of July, was laid before 
the committee, and I was favoured with the following note from Mr. 
Sherman :— 

*' Surrey Parsonage, Nov. 20, 1843. 

** My dear Sir,— I write this from my bed, to which I am confined. The 
committee met to-day, and your letter was laid before them, but from the 
minutes sent to me, I see they have summoned a special meeting for 
December 11th, to toke it into consideration. I exceedingly regret this 
delay, but I doubt not everything will result sadsfactorily to yourseU'. I am, 
my dear Sir, yours ever, ** Jambs Shebmam. 

" To the Rev. Robert Eckett." 

On the 13th of this month I received the following communicadons :— 

*' Rose-cottage, Hyde- vale, Blackheath, 
Dec. 12, 1843. 

"My dear Sir,— I beg leave to hand to you the following resolution, 
passed at a meeting of the committee held yesterday. It affords me also 
great pleasure to add that it passed nem con. 

** I am, my dear Sir, faithfully yours, 

•* Rev. It. Eckett. James Subbman, Secretary." 



CkrUiian Union ComnUtlee. 27 

''<Ghbi8tian Union. 

<* 'Copy from the Minutes, Dec. 11, 1843. 

*' * Mr. Eekett's letter haTing been read, the secretary was requested to 
inform Mr. £ckett~ 

'* * That as a Christian and not an ecclesiastical union, the committee do 
not find themselves called uj[K>n to authenticate any particular community 
as a regular church of Christ, but they gladly accept the co-operation of 
ail disciples of our common Lord, in carrying out their object, and are 
happy to find that that object meets Mr. Eekett's approval. 

" * To the Rev. R. Eckett. F. A. Cox, Chairman.' " 

Upon reading this resolution of the committee, I did not feel satisfied. I 
thought that it bore evidence of having been carefully worded, so as to avoid 
offending Uie sectarian prejudices of Mr. Wm. M. Bunting, and probably 
of some odier persons belonging to the Conference Connexion, and that 
it did not express such an acceptance of the proffered co-operation of the 
ministers and members of the Association as was justly due. I therefore 
wrote the following letter to Mr. Sherman, the secretary, and sent a copy to 
Dr. Cox, the chairman of the committee : — 

"6, Argyle-square, Dee. 13, 1843. 

<<My dear Sir, — I have to acknowledge the receipt of your favour, of 
yesterday's date, containing an extract from the Minutes of the Christian 
Union Committee. 

*' The statement preceding the resolution which you have forwarded to 
me is as follows : — ' Mr. £ckett*s letter having been read, the secretary was 
instmeted to inform Mr. Eckett.* 

'* From this I am led to suppose that only one of my letters was read to 
the committee — I presume the one which I sent to you in July last. There 
is, however, another letter, which I sent to you, with a printed copy of the 
* Minutes of the Annual Assembly, of the Wesleyan Methodist Association,* 
and in which I requested, that the resolutions of the said Assembly on 
Christian Union might be laid before the committee. You will oblige by 
informing me, whether those resolutions were read to the committee. 

'* In the resolution of the Christian Union Committee, passed after the 
reading myletter, and forwarded by you to me, there is the following state- 
ment : — * The committee do not find themselves called upon to authenticate 
any particular community as a regular church of Christ.* I beg here to 
remark, that 1 had no desire, nor have I now any desire, that the committee 
should * authenticate ' or acknowledge the Wesleyan Methodist Association, 
except by inviting its co-operation. This sort of authentication or acknow- 
ledgment has been afforded to those other bodies of Christians to which 
the members of the committee severally belong. 

" I did complain that Mr. W. M. Bunting, one of the members of the 
committee, hact, in the meetings of the committee, manifested unjustifiable 
hostility to the body of Christians with which I am connected, and had 
unwarrantably imneached its Christian character, and my character in- 
dividuaUy ; and tnat the committee had allowed his unfounded statements 
to influence its proceedings, to the prejudice of that section of the church 
of Christ. 

" The questions you put to me, concerning myself and the ministry of the 
Association, when I, at your request, waited upon you, were sufficiently 
confirmatory of the complaint, as stated in my first letter, which appeared 
in the Patriot, and to which you then referred. 

** Without intending the least disrespect to the committee, I feel myself called 
upon to say^ that, after what has occurred, and satisfied as, 1 am persuaded. 



28 Christian Union Committee. 

the committee now is, that Mr. W. M. Banting's hostility to the Association 
is unwarranted, and results only from sectarian prejudice and narrow- 
mindedness, it would not be improper for the committee to express, its 
acceptance of the proffered co-operation of the Wesleyan Methodist 
Association, in promoting Christian union. 

'* The resolution of the committee, however, states that ' they gladly accept 
the co-operation of all the disciples of our common Lord in carrying out their 
object.' From the resolution, it does not appear, whether the committee mean 
to, * gladly accept the co«operation of all* who call themselves * disciples of 
our common Lord,' or whether the committee exercises any power of discri- 
minating, so as to determine who are to be, recognized as * disciples of our 
common Lord,' and, as such, allowed 'and accepted' to co-operate with the 
committee in carrying out the principles of Christian union. If the co- 
operation of all, who call themselves disciples of our common Lord, 
is * gladly accepted,' then those who deny the Divinity and Atonement 
of Christ, and those who render allegiance to the Pope of Rome, are 
welcomed as co-operators. But, if this be not intended, and I cannot suppose 
that such extended co-operation would be gladly accepted, then it must be 
needful for the committee to consider, which of the communities, calling 
themselves Christians, it can justly recognize, as ' disciples of our common 
Ijord,' and acknowledge as entitled to unite in measures for manifesting 
Christian union. 

'*lf the Committee ' gladly accept the co-operation of all ' who call them- 
selves ' disciples of our common Lord,' then, of course, the acceptance of the 
co-operation of the Wesleyan Methodist Association is included. But, as I 
cannot conceive that such is the meaning of the committee, the acceptance of 
co-operation must be restricted to those whom the committee recognises as 
* disciples of our common Lord.' I beg, therefore, respectfully to submit, 
^hat it would be only justly explicit and satisfactory for the committee, in 
answer to my letter and the resolutions which I have forwarded through you, 
to declare — that regarding the members of the Wesleyan Methodist Association 
as 'disciples of our common Lord,' the committee gladly accepts of their 
co-operation. I presume this is what was intended by the resolution^ 
although it is not clearly expressed. 

" Without further trespassing on your valuable time, I now solicit from you 
nn answer to the following inquiry : — Was it the expressed intention of the 
committee, in agreeing to the resolution which you have forwarded to me, to 
to declare, its acceptance of the co-operation of the ministers and members of 
the Wesleyan Methodist Association, in the same way as it accepts of the 
co-operation of the other ministers and * disciples of our common Lord,' who 
are connected with those different sections of the Church of Christ to which 
the members of the committee severally belong ? I make this inquiry, because 
it will be requisite for me to give publicity to the resolution of the committee; 
and I am of opinion that, without an explanation, it will not be thought 
sufficiently explicit to give general satisfaction^ 

" In conclusion, I beg to tender my thanks to the committee for having 
expressed itself as deriving pleasure from my approval of their object ; and 
also to yourself, for the courtesy which I have received from you, 

*' As Dr. Cox was chairman of the committee at which the resolution was 
passed, I shall also send him a copy of this letter, and request him also to 
answer the inquiry which I have proposed. 

**I am, dear Sir, yours respectfully, 
** Rev. J. Sherman. Robert Eckbtt." 

The following is Dr. Cox's answer to my letter : — 

" Hackney, Dec. 15, 1843. 
** My dear Sir, — In reply to your question respecting the intention of the 



Christian Union Committee, 29 

resolution passed at the late committre meeting of the Christian Union, I 
have to observe, that I understand that resolution to imply,— That no body 
or association of Christians, as such, is recognised as forming the groundwork 
of our Union ; that we agree to unite with all Christians who hold the Head, 
willing to unite with us according to the published basis of our Union: 
conseqoently that you are, or any minister of the Wesleyan Methodist 
Association is, eligible to election on the committee. 

** I am yours very truly, 

" To the Rev. R. Eckett. " F. A. Cox," 

Dr. Cox*s letter did not afford me any more satisfaction than the resolution 
of the Committee. I was perfectly assured that Dr. Cox was willing to give, 
to the Wesleyan Methodist Association, the most cordial- welcome as co- 
operators in the work of manifesting and promoting Christian Union ; yet he 
had not explicitly answered my question ; I supposed, therefore, that he felt 
himself unable to give an explicit answer in the affirmative, My conviction 
was, that with nothing less than an explicit answer ought the Association to 
be satisfied. I therefore wrote the following letter to Dr. Cox : — 

** Argyle-square, Dec. 15, 1843. 

" My dear Sir, — I am much obliged by your prompt reply to my note, and 
for the measure of explanation which it affords. Permit me, however, to say, 
that it does not contain a full answer to my inquiry. Upon referring to my 
letter, yon will perceive that my inquiry does not relate to the eligibility of a 
minister of the Wesleyan Methodist Association to be elected on the Union 
Committee — for on this point I never felt any doubt ; but, my inquiry is 
simply as follows : — * Was it the expressed intention of the committee, in 
agreeing to the resolution, to which your signature as chairman is affixed, and 
which die secretary forwarded to me, to declare its acceptance of the co- 
operation of the ministers and members of the Wesleyan Methodist Associa- 
tion, in the same way as it accepts of the co-operation of those other 
ministers and ' disciples of our common Lord,' who are connected with thos« 
different sections of the Church of Christ, to which the members of the 
committee severally belong?' 

''I, on the part of the Wesleyan Methodist Association, do not, in this 
matter, solicit any favour from the committee ; but claim that, according to 
the * published basis of the Union,* they are entitled to equal acceptance, 
of their proffered co-operation, with the ministers and members of any other 
section of the Church ; and after what has passed, I cannot be satisfied 
without being explicitly informed that such claim is acknowledged, and the 
offer of co-operation accepted, by the committee. 

** An answer to my inquiry will help to determine the question, whether 
the published basis of the Union is to be, faithfully adhered to, or, stultified 
by sectarian prejudice. 

" I am Dear Sir, yours truly, 

" To the Rev. Dr. Cox. Robert Eckett." 

After I had posted the last letter to Dr. Cox, I received the following very 
satisfactory letter from Mr. Sherman :-— 

" Rose Cottage, Hyde Vale, Blackheath, 
Dec. 15, 1843. 

<* My dear Sir, — I still remain a great iqvalid, not having left my bed or 
sofa since I attended the Christian Union Coihmittee, on Monday last. You 
will therefore excuse a brief reply to your letter. 

'* I remember you having sent me the Minutes of yo\)r Annual Assembly, 
but I do not recollect your wish, that they should be submitted to the 



30 Christian Union Committee, 

committee. Indeed, when I had the pleasure of seeing you in the vestry, I 
requested a statement of your views and feelings to lay before the committee, 
and naturally supposed your letter included every thing you desired me to 
present to them. However, the resolutions were so grateful to myself, that 
nad I remembered your desire, it would have added to my pleasure to present 
them ; which, if you still wish, I will do at the next meeting I am able to 
attend. 

" You ask, * Was it the expressed intention of the committee,' &c. * I beg 
unhesitatingly to assure you, that the committee intended, by that resolution 
to accept the co-operation of the ministers and Members of the Wesleyan ' 
Methodist Association precisely in the same manner as it accepts the co- 
operation of the ministers and disciples of our common Lord, who are 
connected with those different sections of the Church of Christ to which the 
members of the committee severally belong. 

'' It must ever be borne in mind, that the members of the committee do 
not meet as representatives of the different bodies with which they are united, 
and that the several bodies to which they belong are not bound by their 
individual or deliberative acts. 

" With much respect and Christian affection, 

** I am, my dear Sir, yours to serve, 
<< Rev. R. EckeU. ** Jambs Sherman.** 

My reply to Mr. Sherman was as follows :— 

<*6, Argyle-square, Dec. 16th, 1843. 

*' My dear Sir, — Allow me to tender my best thanks for your prompt and 
explicit reply to my letter of the 14th inst., and also to express my regret 
at your continued indisposition. 

** The letter which I sent you in July last did not contain the resolutions 
of the Annual Assembly of the Wesleyan Methodist Association on Chris- 
tian Union, to which my letter of the 1 4th instant referred ; for the Assembly 
by which those resolutions were passed had not then held its sittings ; I 
therefore, in the month of September last, sent a copy of the ' Minutes of 
the Assembly,' with a note, requesting that the resolutions might be read 
to the committee. 

"However, I am perfectly satisfied with your explanation; and shall 
be obliged by your laymg the resolutions before the committee at its next 
meeting. 

"My earnest desire is, that your health may be speedily restored, and 
your valuable life long preserved for the benefit of the church and the 
world. 

" I am, with much esteem, yours respectfully, 

"ROBEBT ECKETT. 

" To the Rev. J. Sherman, 
Secretary of the Christian Union Committee." 

Dr. Cox has obliged me by sending the following answer to my letter of 
the 15th instant. — 

"Hackney, Dec. 19, 1843, 

" My dear Sir, — You ask again, ' Was it the expressed intention of the 
committee, in agreeing to the resolution to which your signature, as chair- 
man, is affixed, and which the secretary forwarded to me, to declare its 
acceptance of the co-operation of the ministers and members of the Wes- 
leyan Methodist Association; in the same way as it accepts of the co- 
operation of those other ministers and disciples of our common Lord, who 
are connected with those different sections of the Church of Christ, 
to which the members of the committee severally belong?' 



The Extension of Education* 31 

'* My former answer was meant, as nearly as possible, to convey to yon 
the precise ideas we have all entertained of the nature of the Union, and 
to impress on you the fact, that we do not meet as representatives of different 
bodies, but as individuals belonging to various Christian communities, 
through which connexion we are accredited as Christains. 

'* On this ground I consider it was the intention oi the committee, in the 
resolution in question, to deal with you and the Association as with all other * 
Christian persons or communities. Were this not the case, I must withdraw 
from the Union, as sectarian, and worse than useless. 

** 1 am yours ever faithfully, 

" To the Rev. Robert Eckett. F, A. Cox." 

It may be thought strange, that the Christian Union committee should 
have taken so long to decide upon so plain a question as that brought under 
its notice by my letters; and that it should have required the preceding 
correspondence to obtain an explicit acceptance of the co-operation of the 
ministers and members of the Weskyan Methodist Association. If, how- 
ever, the question had merely been — Are the ministers and members of the 
Association entitled, according to ** the published basis of our Union,'* to 
be recognized and welcomed as co-operators ? it might have been answered 
affirmatively at once. But the difficulty, I presume, has been to avoid 
giving offence to the Conference Methodist ministers. The Rev. W. M. 
Bunting has had ample time, if possible, to prove the Association unworthy 
of recognition as co-operators in manifesting Christian Union ; this, how- 
ever, he has not been able to accomplish ; and I hope that, in future, he 
will be more cautious than to allow himself to be betrayed into the making 
of statements, injurious to the character of communities or individuals, which 
cannot be sustained. 

The resolution of the committee, as now explained by both Dr. Cox and 
Mr. Sherman, goes to prove, that the principles of union, as heretofore 
avowed by the committee, are to be abided by ; and I doubt not, the circum- 
stances hereinbefore referred to, will tend to Uie furtherance of the important 
obiect, of causing the principles of Christian Union to be better understood 
and more generally manifested. My desire is, that all who believe in the 
divinity and atonement of Christ, — who regard the Holy Scriptures as the 
only authoritative rule of faith and practice, — and who love the Lord Jesus 
Christ in sincerity, — may acknowledge each other as members of one family, 
and manifest that they are united together in the bonds of holy brother- 
hood. 

I am, with much respect, yours truly, 

ROBERT ECKETT. 
6, Argyle-square, Dec, 20, 1843. 



THE EXTENSION OF EDUCATION. 

The Conference of the representatives of the Congregational Churches 
commenced on Wednesday, the 13th of December last, and continued during 
that and the following day. C. Hindley, Esq., M.P., presided. The follow- 
ing Resolutions were adopted : — 

*' 1. That it appears to the present meeting, that in addition to those 
unchanging reasons in favour of Education, which prove sound intelligence 
to be essential to man's social, moral, and religious welfare, there are con- 
siderations, special to the present state of this country, demanding immediate 
efforts for the better instruction of the people. 



32 On the Extension of Education. 

** 2. That a Subscription be now opened for this great work ; every donor, 
now or hereafter, as he may deem most advisable, to determine the appro- 
priation of his donation, to the Central Fund, to Local Efforts, to the British 
and Foreign School Society, or to such other institutions for the training of 
Teachers as he may approve. 

<* 3. That the present meeting is fully alive to all the advantages of acting 
'in union with Christians of other communions, for the advancement of great 
objects of religious benevolence, not necessarily involving differences of faith 
and practice ; yet deems Congregational efforts for general education indis- 
pensable in the present state of the country. 

** 4. That this meeting, utterly repudiating, on the strongest grounds of 
Scripture and conscience, the receipt of money, raised by taxation and granted 
by Government, for sustaining the Christian religion, feels bound to apply 
this principle no less to the work of religious education ; and considering that 
the education given by the Congregational churches must be religious educa- 
tion, advises most respectfully, but most earnestly, that no Government aid be 
received by them for Schools established in their own connexion ; and that 
all funds confided to the disposal of the Central Committee, in aid of Schools, 
be granted only to Schools sustained entirely by voluntary contributions. 

**5. That this meeting expresses warm attachment to the British and 
Foreign School Society, and a deep sense of the past services rendered by 
that institution, as well as an expectation of yet greater benefits from its 
future efforts in connection with the extended movements, in the great work 
of general education, now entered upon by the various religious bodies of this 
country; and therefore advises, that the exertions of the Congregational 
churches for general education be conducted, as far as practicable, in connec- 
tion with, and so as to sustain and strengthen that Society. 

*' 6. This meeting, anxious for improved as well as extended education, 
and for the real efficiency of Daily Schools, would set a high value on 
frequent, skilful, and fair inspection of Schools by competent persons, not 
appointed by the managing Committees, though approved bv such Com- 
mittees. And should it comport with the plans of the British and Foreign 
School Society to appoint School inspectors, this meeting recommends that 
the visits of such inspectors be welcomed in all Schools, wholly, or in part, 
sustained by the Congregational churches. 

*' 7. The present meeting is strongly impressed with the important advan- 
tages to this great work to be derived from the fullest attainable knowledge 
of all facts relating to it, and therefore confides to the Central Committee, 
as a principle part of its labour, the duty of obtaining and publishing accurate 
accounts of all that is done, and of all that is wanted, in general education, 
in connection with the Congregational churches. 

** 8. The recommendation of this meeting to the Congregational churches 
is, that wherever there is a Congregational church or mission, there • should 
be a Daily School, sustained entirely, or promoted to the utmost, as the case 
may be, by the resources, Local or Central, or both, of the Independents, 
either of one church separately, or of two or more churches acting unitedly. 

** 9. This meeting approves of denominational efforts for obtaining resources 
for general education ; but would advise the Congregational churches to use 
the resources so obtained to co-operate with Christians of other communions 
for this great object, wherever such co-operation is seen to be necessary, or 
most advantageous for advancing the common cause. 

** 10. The meeting remembers, with the strongest interest and approbation, 
the labours of the Congregational churches, for so many years, in Sunday- 
school instruction, and believes that the results have been of incalculable 
value. The meeting would entirelv deprecate the idea, that increased efforts 
in other departments of education snould diminish exertions in this ; on the 
contrary, it would hope that Sabbath-school instruction will be immensely- 



The Extension of Education. 33 

facilitated, as well as rendered more exclusively religious, by the advantages 
obtained by the Scholars in the Daily and other Schools. And as it is well 
known that hostile parties have endeavoured to withdraw children from our 
Sabbath Schools, by refusing them admission into Daily Schools, it is felt 
that a vigorous system of daily instruction is required for the defence of our 
Sunday Schools, on every account so important and indispensable to the 
churches. This meeting would also desire, that the statistics of our Sunday 
Schools should be obtained and published by the Central Committee in 
connection with those of the other educational departments. 

II. '* That this meeting recommends that the central fund now com- 
menced be payable in five vears from the 1st of January, 1844 ; and that 
it be permanently sustained by simultaneous annual collections in the 
churches and by other contributions." 

There were several other resolutions adopted, but as they relate to matters 
of detail only, we need not insert them. 

The Chairman, on the first day of the meeting, promised the very hand- 
some donation of one thousand pounds in aid of the object. This example 
has been followed by four other individuals who have promised one thousand 
pounds each, and also nine persons have promised five' hundred pounds each, 
m five years: these and the othe^' donations, already promised, amount 
to about £20,000. It is expected that the Congregational Body will in 
five years, by special efibrt, raise £100,000 for the extension of education. 

The Committee of the Baptist Mission have also issued a circular 
addressed to the ministers of their churches, embodying the following 
resolutions : — 

" 1 . That this Committee, while grateful to an overruling Providence for 
ibe frustration of the educational scheme developed in the late Factories* 
Bill, cannot hesitate to express their conviction, that, vast as is the work of 
popular education it may be effectually conducted by popular energies ; and 
that it cannot be interfered with by Government in any manner, without 
both injury and danger. 

** 2. That, appreciating the urgency with which the late crisis and its happy 
issue, enforce voluntarily efforts for the advancement of popular education, 
and earnestly desirous that the resources of the Baptist Churches in the 
United Kingdom should be universally and systematicallv applied to this 
end, this Committee warmly recommend them a cordial and zealous co-oper- 
ation in such efforts as may tend to diffuse education on the principles of 
the British and Foreign School Society, as a course most consistent with 
catholic principles, and most conducive to the public good." 

The committee also recommend the Baptist churches, if schools are 
Heeded in their respective localities, to take immediate measures to obtain the 
co-opetation of other friends of education and establish schools in such 
locafaties, They also recommend that efforts be made to aid the funds of 
the British and Foreign School Society, by individual subscriptions, or by 
congregational collections. 

We rejoice in those efforts for the extension of education, and we confess, 
that we are desirous that something should he done in furtherance of this 

Sect By the ' Association. Our remarks on this subject, last month, have 
[need several persons to favour us with communications. They, with 
one exception, urge, that it is the duty of our own Connection to take 
an active part in the present movement. One correspondent says, that 
nothing of the kind ought to be attempted, until we first establish, schools 
fot the sons of the ministers and other members of the Connexion, and an 
Instittttion for the improvement of young men about to be employed in 
our Itinerancy. We confess, however, that, without now expressing any 
opinion advene to those projects, we see no reason why any claim, which sucn 



34 The Extension of^ Education. 

institutions may have upon our Connexion, should interfere to prevent its 
rendering aid to the most important movements now mailing to advance 
general education. We hope that the subject will ere long be taken into 
consideration by our Connexional Committee ; and that some measures may 
be devised, which will be generally approved, and, by which our Connexion 
may do honour to itself in promoting so important a work. We now insert 
two of the communications which we have received from correspondents on 
this subject. 

Dear Sib, 

In the Magazine for December there is an article on ** The Extension of 
Education/' at the conclusion of which the important questions are proposed; 
** What Ought, Can, and Will, the Wesleyan Methodist Association now do in 
furtherance of General Education ?" 1 have said these are important ques- 
tions ; to attempt to prove them such, would be eaey, but superfluous. Is 
not Education all important ? Ask the founders, and patrons, and conductors, 
of that noble Institution, which is the glory of its country, the British and 
Foreign School Society. Ask the supporters of all similar institutions. Ask 
the legislature of this country. Consult the records of crime and social 
misery. But it is not necessary to enlarge on this subject ; the fact is 
strikingly exemplified in every country, in our towns, in our streets, in our 
houses, in short, in every place where society exists. And if it be admitted 
that Education is of such paramount importance, — by whom, and by what 
means, are its benefits to be extended ? And now comes the question 
with which we set out. First, then, we say, the Association can do some- 
thing. On referring to the Minutes of the last Annual Assembly, I find, 
there are above 26,000 members in our Society ; that there are above 42,000 
Sunday school scholars. Now, though these numbers may not be so large, 
and our pecuniary resources not so ample as some other bodies possess, yet 
we are not to sit down in despair. If we cannot count hundreds of thousands, 
we can count tens of thousands ; and though we cannot appropriate £200,000 
to this laudable undertaking, this does not prove that we are not deeply 
impressed with its great importance, and this should not discourage our efforts 
to do what we can. And what can we do ? We have 808 Sunday schools ; 
with a comparative trifling expense, many of these might be fitted up for day 
schools, in which might be taught several thousand children. For these 
schools, teachers might be found, in a short time, amongst ourselves, who 
would be a credit to the Connexion, and efiiciently discbarge the duties of 
their important oflBce. The teachers might be remunerated for their labours — 
1st, By the childrens' pence ; 2nd, By private subscriptions ; and Srdly, By 
incidental means. 

At present we have a very limited number of day schools, and fiitherto 
little attention has been paid by us to this subject, compared with its impor- 
tance« The poorer members of our Society, who cannot afford to pay high 
fees, are necessitated to avail themselves of charitable institutions, sup- 
ported by other denominations. In this town we have a Sunday school of 
8 or 900 children, but no day school. There is a British school, supported 
by the Wesleyan interest, to which some of our friends send their children. 
I find no fault with their doing so, I merely state the fact. Let the heads of 
our Society reflect upon it. Something can be done, and something ought 
to be done, and that speedily, or the work will be done by others, and the 
effects will be seen in the future history of the Wesleyan Methodist Asso- 
ciation, as a Christian church, and upon the Sunday schools connected with 
it. It remains now to answer the question, ** What wiil we do ? " I have 
endeavoured to show what can and ought to be done, and that without any 
great personal or connexional sacrifice. And though at the commeDcemeDt, 



Communications for the Magazine, 35 

our means may be limited, wbo knows the success with which the Head 
of the church may crown our endeavours? And if we show a zeal com- 
mensurate with the importance of the undertaking, we shall be able to 
effect much good. Let us reflect upon the mind-darkening, and soul-destroy- 
ing, and God-dishonouring effects of the united operations of ignorance and 
depravity— upon the benefits and blessings of a good education — ^Tet us be con- 
sistent, and honest, and devoted, and we shall say, we will do something. 

A T£ACHEB. 

Deab Sib, 

The Article in your Magazine for December on the Extension of Edu- 
cation, is calculated to awaken up those deep feelings of its importance, both 
to the national character, and to the cause of truth, which have for many 
jears impressed every free and intelligent mind. 

When Sir James Graham and his party brought forward their Factory Bill, 
and sought, by its stealthy educational clauses, to introduce a system of com- 
pulsory education, to be supported by taxation, and placed under the control 
of the clergy, It was plain to every unbiassed mind, that it was not the intel- 
lectual advancement of the rising generation that was chiefly desired, but the 
extension of priestly domination and influence. It was, in fact, a decla- 
ration to this effect ; if the poor are educated, the sectarianism of the national 
church shall be inculcated. But the public mind was already too much in 
advance for the attempt to succeed ; and the minister and his supporters retired 
before the united resistance of the intellectual and free. 

It is, however, matter of rejoicing to the friends of education and freedom, 
that their opponents are forced to adopt the very means they have formerly re- 
pudiated and opposed; yet, whilst we rejoice, it is ** with fear and trembling." 
We hope, however, that as the light of day frequently scatters the clouds of 
darkness, so education will rid the mind of the false glosses and superstitions 
that deceive and enthrall, and that eventually truth will triumph over igno- 
rance and error. 

But, Mr. Editor, you ask " What Ought, Can, and Will the Methodist Asso- 
ciation do in furtherance of the cause of general education ? " What it will 
do I vrill not presume to predicate — what it ought and can do I will venture 
to suggest. Let it identify itself with the ** British and Foreign School 
Society,*' and lend all its energies to extend the benefits of education under 
its auspices and in accordance with its well digested plans. The Association 
can add to the number of the subscribers to the British and Foreign School 
Society, and can have talented young men and women instructed, in its 
Normal School, to become qualified to act as masters and mistresses of day 
schools. If the Association will heartily engage in this work, it will thus 
confer blessings on our country, and on the world, that no human calculation 
can estimate, and which eternity alone can give scope to compute. Pardon 
me, dear sir, if on this subject I presume to write with earnestness and deep 
solicitude — most fervently do I pray that our youth may receive an education 
free, full, and unpolluted; and that the Wesleyan Methodist Association 
may engage in this work with a zeal commensurate to its importance. 

December 18, 1843. Yours truly, Eddco. 



COMMUNICATIONS FOR THE MAGAZINE. 

Me. Editor, — Sib, 

On reading the article, sent by me, on the subject of *' Communications for 

the Magazine,'* which you inserted in the December number, I was very 

much surprised at the omission of Manchester from the lists of circuits, which 

might reasonably be expected to furnish contributors. As, however, you 



36 On t/ie Evils of War. 

bave informed me, by private letter, in answer to an enquiry I deemed it 
proper to make, that the omission was my own, and not that, of the printer, 
which I previously felt confident was the case, allow me to say, that I had 
no intention to exclude Manchester. The Connexion has, I hesitate not 
to say, a right to look to that town for considerable aid in conducting the 
Magazine : and will not I trust look in vain. And there are other places, 
although not expressly mentioned, which will ill discharge their connexional 
obligation, if not found regularly on the list of literary contributors. 

The anxiety I feel, as to the result of the appeal made to our friends 
throughout the Connexion on this important subject, is not, I know, confined 
to myself. That result will be waited for with deep interest by many 
persons in difierent parts of the Association, as one in which the prosperity 
of the Magazine is deeply involved. 

4 Class Leader in a Manufacturing Toum, 

Pecen^ber 8th, }843. 



ON THE EVILS OF WAR. 

An Address to the Ministers of Christianity ; the Teachers of every 
kind of sound hrtowledge ; the Students of literature and science ; and 
all who seek to promote the intellectual^ religions^ and eternal benefit 
of mankind. Prepared for the Peace Convention^ by the Rev. John 
Pie Smith, D.D., LL.D., F.R.S., ^c. 

Friends and Brethren, — We will not suppose you to be indiflFerent to 
the question which has often hitherto, and especially in the last few years, 
drawn the attention of many wise and good men, — Whether the practice 
of war among mankind be consistent with social morality, personal virtue, 
and our supreme obligations to the infinite God. We also oelieve it to be 
a not unreasonable assumption that many of you have impartially considered 
the rational and scriptural arguments which have been abundantly laid before 
the world, in proof of the negative side of that position. From the days of 
apostolic Christianity to the present hour, the truth has been declared that 
war and genuine religion are irreconcilable opposites. During several cen- 
turies, it was almost entirely lost sight of; until, in the vear 1528, Erasmus 
again called the attention of Christians to it. A few who, in that age, held 
the same sentiment, were trampled upon, and slow was the progress of 
conviction through the clouds of almost universal prejudice. The general 
habits of mind and action were perverted by the glare of military glory, the 
ambition of rulers and conquerors, and the selfish schemings of statesmen. 
Among religious men themselves, keen debate on primary theological doc- 
trines too much engrossed time and attention ; so that this point of evan- 
gelical morals was very blameably overlooked, as were some others of no 
little importance to the integrity and consistency of the Christian system. 
Erroneous views of the peculiar nature of the Old Testament dispensations, 
and oif the design and extent of the Mosaic law, had a large share in pro- 
ducing and fostering the approbation of war ; as they also had of the assumed 
right of governments to enact and inflict the penalty of death, for whatever 
crimes they might choose so to punish. The inveteracy with which those 
opinions were held, is a distressing exhibition of human weakness, and may 
diminish our surprise that the unchristian character of all war was not 
earlier and more clearly perceived. Scattered individuals, at all times, had 
glimpses of this great moral principal ; but after we quit the early ages of 
Christianity, we do not find that any distinctive class or denomination of 



On the Evils of War. 37 

Christians has raised up its voice against this gigantic evil, till the rise of 
the society of Friends, in our own country, and but two centuries ago ; 
except partially in the case of the Moravians, or United Brethren. It is 
reserved for Peace Societies, in our own times, to unmask this evil, and invite 
general attention to the pacific character of Christianity. We have called 
war a gigantic evil ; but we might have used language more awfully strong ; 
for it may be justly asked, Is there a sin against God or man which the 
pactice of war does not, directly or by acknowledged consequence and estab- 
lished usage, include, concentrate, and aggravate ? Under the bewitching 
array of gorgeous dresses, beauty and order in manoeuvres, soul- stirring 
music, admirable applications of science, and patriotism falsely so called, the 
mUiiary system covers over a dark and unfathomable pit of crime and misery. 
h it a sin to lie and deceive, in word or action ? Stratagem is an essential 
part of the science of war. The operations of a campaign include all manner 
of contrivances for the denial of truth and the accrediting of falsehood. To 
" deceive the enemy" is sought and practised, and is even lauded as wise and 
virtuous. Is it a sin to plunder ^ steal, and rob f The storm of war falb 
with ruthless desolation upon the property of a country, — the houses, and 
fields, and other possessions of the unofiPending inhabitants. The sustenance 
of life is, by violence, taken from them ; and what cannot be consumed or 
wasted at once, is often wantonly destroyed, for the express purpose of insu- 
ring the greatest amount of misery to thousands, and eventually millions, of 
onr fellow men. Thus, besides the lawless sacking of cottages and mansions, 
bams, and manufactories, and machinery, to restore which will cost the 
revenue of kingdoms, there is inflicted upon children and women, the aged . 
and infirm,' a variety and an amount of private suffering which words cannot 
describe. Is murder a sinf Who can, in thought, realise the actions of the 
battle-field, and conceive of them as free from that guilt ? Do not the lines 
of a late bishop of London (Dr. Porteus) express the honest truth ? Men 
have been taught 

" To make a death which nature never made. 
The foulest stain and scandal of our nature 
Became its boast. One murder makes a villain ; 
MilUons a hero.'' 

Is chastity, in all its modes and connexions, indispensable to a virtuous 
character f Who can be ignorant that its violation, in all its ways, usually 
attends the progress of an army ; and that the giving up of the females of 
a sacked town is often the avowed reward conceded to the soldiery ? 

Does religion consist of love to the most holy God, and its subordinate 
but inseparable quality, cordial benevolence to men ? Is it then possible for 
sincere love either to God or man to dwell in my heart, while I am con- 
triving and labouring to take away from my fellow-man the life to which 
he has the same right as I have to mine ? Can I be guiltless in this matter ? 
Can I put off my responsibility ; and can it be taken up by generals and 
admirals, statesmen and sovereigns ? Will such a transfer be admitted at 
the bar of Divine judgment ? 

But we must check this kind of thought. If any entertain the slightest 
doubt of its perfect propriety, we refer them to the publications, small and 
large, of Peace Societies ; and we are guilty of no arrogance when we say 
that the arguments have not been, and cannot be answered. If among so 
many treatises, the writer of this paper may be allowed to point out one, 
without the slightest disparagement to the works of Mr. Joseph John Gurney, 
Mr. Macnamara, and others, he would mention the late Mr. Dymond's 
Inquiry on War, especially the American edition of 1834. 

We then appeal to all classes and orders of men, and especially to those 
who possess the means of instructing and influencing the minds of others ; 



38 On the Evils of War. 

and we ask, are ye not bound to employ the opportunities in your power 
for the widest diffusion of true sentiments upon this great subject ? 

Ministers of the Gospel, what is that Gospel to the diffusion of whfeh 
YOU have consecrated your lives ? Can you forget that its summary in the 
highest revelation from heaven is, ** Glory to God in the highest, abd on 
earth peace ; good-will towards men ? *' 

Instructors ^ youth, you have invaluable opportunities for showhig, in the 
most interesting and conclusive manner, by your comments on tbe classical 
poets and historians, the contrast of heathenism and Chflsttanity ; the 
immorality and cruelty of the one, and the beneficence and beauty of the 
other. Thus, and thus only, can you answer the solemn ebarge often brought 
forward by the best of mankind, that by the uncorrected impressions of 
your Homer and Thucydides, your Horace and Virgil, you infuse into the 
youthful mind, the love of war, and the soul-ruining abominations of poly- 
theism. That a danger so awful is attendant upon classical school-leamingy 
you cannot but be sensible. In proportion to the greatness of that danger, 
must be your desire, if ye be faithful Christian men, to use the best means of 
precluding it ; and both the theory of the subject and universal experience 
show that THIS is the only course likely to be successful. It is impossible to 
exclude classical reading from a liberal system of education ; the attempt to 
do so creates notions both erroneous and pernicious in the minds of pupils ; 
and the method which we recommend would secure the literary and moral 
benefits to be derived from such reading, and unite with them those which 
are so powerfully suggested by the character of the Lord Jesus, and the 
principles of the New Testament. 

Men of science and letters, you know that the advancement and diffusion 
of knowledge are obstructed by war between nations, and you are well 
acquainted with the immense advantages to all philosophy, to expeditions of 
discovery, to astronomical and magnetic observation, to everv branch of art, 
to the exploring of antiquities, and the most valuable applications of eru- 
dition, which have accrued to the learned world during the last thirty years ; 
and evidently because it has been comparatively a time of peace. You cannot, 
therefore, but be deeply interested in the preservation of the peace which 
has already, and in a period so fully within our knowledge, afforded scope 
for the reciprocity of such scientific benefits, and the ease and speed of the 
communication. You must wish that the peace we now enjoy may become 
completely universal, and be inviolably perpetuated. Yours, then, is the 
honourable task of coming forth with your noble ardour, and throwing all 
your weight into the scale of our argument for univebsai* and pebmanent 

PEACE. 

Within the latter part of that period more has been done than had been 
ever before achieved or imagined, in researches upon the affinities of nations 
and their languages, in actual intercourse for statistical and beneficent pur- 
poses, and in efforts to save tribes and races of men from utter extinction ; 
out such efforts must be either totally forbidden, or cramped and injured 
beyond endurance, by the system of war. 

Above all, the most exalted, comprehensive, and far-seeing enterprise of 
benevolence, is that of Christian Missions. They communicate, by the 
shortest course, and yet in the most effectual manner, those principles and 
habits of life which are the most favourable to conjugal, parental, and filial 
happiness ; the elevation of the female sex to its righSul dignity ; the crea- 
tion of domestic felicity, a joy unknown to savage life ; agricuhure and all 
other profitable industry ; a nascent literature ; in a word, the general 
blessings of civilization ; — these, and their associated enjoyments, the earthly 
blessings of the Gospel, require peace for their development and preservation ; 
but war is their fcllest foe and destroyer. Yet, even those earthly benefits, 
inestimable as they are, are but the smallest part of the good to mankind 



Sunday School Intelligence, 39 

which flows from gospel missions. The spiritual and eternal benefits, '* the 
unsearchable riches of Chbist,*' exceed our power of thought; but their 
▼erjT essence is Feace ; — reconciliation to God, '< peace on earth, good- will to 
men." Must not, then, the friends and supporters of evangelical missions 
feel themselves called upon to be the most prompt and zealous in diffusing 
oar principles ? But all good men are the friends of missions : Pbacs is 
the essence of the Christian embassage : to the friends of missions, then, 
we look for their influence, their efforts, their prayers. The object of our 
association is a necessary part of Christianity. 

Who, then, are what the Saviour calls " Sons of Peace ?" Whose hearts 
are affected with pity for mankind, groaning beneath the heaviest accumu- 
lation of sins and miseries? Who desires to see holiness and happiness 
becoming the portion of all nations? Who hath faith in the prophetic 
word, that " they shall beat their swords into ploughshares, and their spears 
into pruning- hooks ; nation shall not lift up sword against nation ; neither 
shall they learn war any more ?" A Christian is not only benevolent, but 
self-denying; even, when called to it, self-sacrificing: he is a disciple of 
Him who l2d down his own life for us, and who has said, '* As I have loved 
yoo, so do ye also love one another." Certainly, every sincere and consistent 
Christian must abhor wary — the offspring of wicked passions,^the concen- 
tntion of all vice, and crime, and airest wretchedness ; and must " seek 
peaoe» and pursue it." The attainment of the full triumphs of Christianity 
is not to be expected to be either momentary, or independent of the use of 
means. The progress must be gradual, and dependent on the faithful 
activity of our Lord's sincere disciples. Can any, then, be hostile, or cold, 
or nn willing to labour, in this field of holy exertion ? Is not our work a 
direct result of the Gospel, an embodying of its characteristic genius ? 

But we cannot conclude this appeal without calling especially on those 
Christiana who have embraced the pacific principles of the Gospel^ as a 
distinguished part of their faith, to renew in these auspicious times their 
seal in behalf of this heaven-bom cause, and unite their efforts more and 
more with the friends of peace through the world, in their present endea- 
vours to diffuse light on this subject, and to banish war from every Chris- 
tian land, and eventually from the face of the whole earth. They need, 
and have a right to expect your special countenance and co-operation ; nor 
has there ever been a time when such aid could be given with equal hopes 
of success, in hastening the accomplishment of an object peculiarly dear to 
your hearts. 

*' Our trust is in the name of the Lord :" and, '^ the Lord of peace him- 
self give us peace always, by all means !'* In this confidence we claim the 
support of '' all who love our Lord Jesus Christ in sincerity." 



SUNDAY SCHOOL INTELLIGENCE. 

To THE Editor, — Sib, 

Will you allow me to suggest the propriety of devoting a portion of your 
columns to the interest of Sabbath schools? We have between six and 
seven thousand teachers, and upwards of forty thousand children in the 
Association; these therefore are a most interesting and important part of 
onr Soeiety. If you would be kind enough to request contributions relating 
to the interests of our schools, the advantage would be reciprocal, the teachers 
would be excited to a more devotional discharge of their duties, and I have 
no doubt the sale of the Magaiine would be much increased. 



40 



Poetry, 



As we have upwards of 900 schools, a single communication in twelve 
months from each school, on Juvenile Biography, Happy Deaths, Conver- 
sions to God, Natural History, &c., would furnish twenty-five articles for 
every month in the year ; nor would it at all interfere with the sale of the 
Child's Magazine. I have also enclosed a copy of our plan for visiting the 
schools. If you would give insertion to the *' questions and remarks/' they 
may perhaps furpish some useful hints to some schools, or lead others to 
recommend plans that may conduce to the good of the whole.* 

Leeds, Dec, 15, 1843« Wm. Rindeb. 

P. S. a little girl about eight years of age, being deeply impressed under 
a sermon she heard in one of our chapels, asked me the important question, 
when may I be converted f Perhaps one of your corresiK)ndent8 will give 
an answer to this question^ in your next number. 

* It will afford us pleasure to devote a portion of our pages for the 
insertion of suitable communications relating to our Sabbath schools: 
we have formerly intimated this to our friends, and requested them 
to favour us with such communications; which request we now repeat. 
To prevent any misunderstanding, it may, however, be needful to state, 
that it is our rule not to insert, in this Magazine, accounts of the conversion 
and happy deaths of children. Such articles have their appropriate depart- 
ment in the Children's Magazine. For which latter work we shall also be 
happy to receive other communications instructive and interesting to children. 
The questions and remarks above referred to, will be inserted next month. 
They are now deferred because we have not room for their insertion. Ed. 



POETRY. 

THE TIME IS SHORT. 



" The time is short "—awake— a^rake^ 
And vrith thyself do council take 
Of things that appertain to peace, 
"When time, and life, and breath shaU cease. 

" The time is short"— arise— arise— 
Look up in faith beyond the skies i 
With humble hope and fervent prayer 
Implore, and find a portion there. 

*i The time is short "—ascend— ascend— 
Tliis earth awaits a fiery end ; 



With caution shun its lurking snares. 
And rise above its pressing cares. 

"The time i» short"— away— away — 
And seek a longer, brighter day ; 
Where cloud nor night shall intervene; 
Where fadeless glory gilds the scene ! 

"The time is short "-adieu -adieu— 
Our social hours on earth are few ; 
Spirit of God I our footsteps guide 
To that blest world where friends abide ! 



THE BREVITY OF LIFE. 



life's but a winter's day, short, cheerless, 

cold; 
A tale of trouble. Just begun and told I 
'Tis but a vapour, vanishing while view'd, 
Or floating bubble, which our hopes delude. 
lis like the snowdrop, drooping in its bloom. 
Whose early birth ensures an earlier tomb. 
'Tis like the rose the hawthorn props and 

bears. 
Which buds, expands, delights, and disap- 
pears. 
'TIS like the herbage of an eastern scene. 



Scanty and bare, and russet ere 'tis green I 
Or as the dew on the bespangled lawn, 
OfliBpring of night, and short-lived as the 

dawn; 
Or glimm'ring meteor, which the fancy fires, 
Follow'd when seen, and when o'erta'en ex- 
pires. 
'Tis like the tinge that gilds an ev'ning cloud. 
Which night envelopes with her sable shroud I 
Or like the bow, form'd by a wat'ry sky, 
Which clouds disperse, and all its glories die ! 

W. R. 



T. C. JOHNS, PH1NTER,R«1 Lion Court, Fivtt Strt^tt. 




HIET^ JAM E § MOMIIE'JZ 



^ /./'Jf.//. 









// 



y//wa /// 



v/v>y//// 



^ ^ /^i^/rf 



i I.. 






i-;^U ^>: JA*4i'.? .Mt I! ^!' % »• !> 

.• .! ?->ni.v^-'- ef the Metir ..■*:. .■•'■- 

■ ^viiioli iiad been tormi.TU ■ : . : v \- 

■ ■!' Jr.u ibc floctrin*! of ** v:iiivei ai 

! -.K.y.h .-t rioter propnety, dwij? nateU ' ■• .,' 
■■i^' -.vhicii he publi*iliKl wu.- ?|»eci«''v 
'.'*< (loctrinc; v hich at that time waf ;. 

.;•: oliiircb**? ii; thi^ kiu^dom. Mr. 
Tilt Armi'i! ■.. Magazine." Thew i.: .». 

he m<inbcr> rl the Wesleyan famUy » • i . 

■ ni^iTiians — -iPtl thiB twin has been oftcu iij^iiiicl : ? t 

■ (if rcprcwich. 

^i wev;r. fi!' •■. thht we lioU ht^v opl^iion j?v 
••' .\»«ouMUS or siny otbir u.iiwspire'l hip:-. 

'■ ;:ii:riius. Ill:* < '.ilviT', *rL' i'M' %iii ^* ;:;>. 



Arminius, and Calvin, embraced the sutue CI ccvt, ^« ..' ul. . . 

doctrines essential to salvation. Many of those who have strongly 
declaimed against Arminianiem have been shamefully ignorant of the 
opinions held by Arminius, and have therefore grossly misrepresented, 
and unjustly abused him. On the points on which those eminent men, 
Arminius, and Calvin, differed, the members of the Wesleyan family, 
without pledging themselves to all the oj>inions of Arminius, confess, 
that they believe the sentiments avowed by him more accordant with 
the Word of God, than those maintained by Calvin. For these and 
other reasons, our readers must feel highly interested in the history 
of the justly celebrated Arminius. We have therefore prepared the 
following brief memoir ; the facts of which we have taken from his 
funeral oration, delivered by one of his co-professors, and from other 
historical records. 



42 Memoir of James Arminius. 

Arminius was bom in Oudewater, a small town in Holland, in the 
year 1560. His family name was Hermans ; but he in imitation of 
other learned men of that time, chose a Latin name for himself, and 
selected that of Arminius the celebrated German, who defeated the 
Romans and secured the freedom of Germany. The parents of 
Arminius were respectable people of the middle rank of life. His 
father, was by trade a cutler, and an ingenious artist. When Arminius 
was in infancy his father died. His widowed mother, as long as she 
survived, led a life of piety, and exercised the utmost frugality in the 
maintenance of herself and three fatherless children. 

At the time of the death of the father of Arminius, a clergyman 
of great respectability, resided in the town. His name was Theodore 
^milius, and he was a man of eminent learning and piety. He had 
been brought to see the errors of Popery, and had determined never 
again to celebrate Mass. This clergyman undertook the charge of 
educating young Arminius, and had him instructed in the rudiments 
of the Latin and Greek languages. The patron of Arminius dis- 
covered in him traits of uncommon genius, and took frequent opportu- 
nities of exhorting him to devote himself to the service of God. 
Arminius was much affected by his advice and exhortations, and devoted 
himself to the study of the Scriptures, and earnestly sought to 
advance in personal holiness, and in the acquisition of useful know- 
ledge. While Arminius was studying at Utrecht, to which place he 
had removed with -^milius, his prospects were unexpectedly beclouded 
by the sudden death of his excellent patron. 

Arminius was now only in his fifteenth year, but by a gracious 
providence he found another friend who furnished the means for his 
support. A gentleman whose name was Rudolph Snellins, a native 
of the town in which Arminius was bom, visited Utrecht. By this 
means he became acquainted with the destitute circumstances in which 
Arminius was placed ; and his feeling heart prompted him to become 
his benefactor. He accordingly became his protector, and in the year 
1575, removed him to Marpurgh where he resided. Arminius had 
but just become comfortably settled with his new patron, whpn news 
arrived of the destruction of Oudewater. The Spaniards had besieged 
the town and taken it by storm. They had slain the troops and all the 
citizens that they could find, and burnt their dwellings. This intelli- 
gence so affected the heart of Arminius, as to cause him to spend the 
whole of fourteen days in weeping and lamentation. He then de^ 
termined to go and see his native town. On his arrival he could 
discover nothing but heaps of rubbish ; scarcely a single inhabitant 
had escaped the general carnage ; his mother, sister, brother, and 
other relations had perished. He now with mournful steps returned 
to Marpurgh, performing the entire journey on foot. 

In the year 1575, the Prince of Orange founded the University at 
Leyden, in Holland, as a reward for the bravery, and constancy of the 
inhabitants of the city, in resisting the Spanish troops who besieged 
the place. As soon as Arminius heard that the University was open 
for the reception of students, he desired to go there, and arrangements 
were made for that purpose. On his way he visited Rotterdam, and 
remained there for a short time. When he went to Leyden, he was 



Memoir of James Arminius, 43 

accompaDied by Peter Bertius as a fellow student and both of them 
became professors in this University. 

Arminius distinguished himself by his rapid progress in literature, 
and by the soundness of his judgment. A^er having studied during 
six years at Ley den, the Senate of Amsterdam, on account of his 
eminent talents and good conduct, took upon them the expense of 
sending him to the University at Geneva for his further improvement. 
When Arminius had reached that city, he went to hear the celebrated 
Beza, who was then engaged in expounding the Epistle to the Romans. 
After a short time spent at Geneva, Arminius removed to the Univer- 
sity at Basle where he obtained great honours. It was then a custom, 
during the Autumnal recess, for some of the most accomplished under- 
graduates, to deliver public lectures on Theology. Arminius engaged 
in these exercises, and obtained the applause of his hearers and the 
thanks of one of the professors of the University. When be was 
about to return from Basle, to Geneva, the faculty of Theology in the 
University of Basle, offered him, at the. public expense, the degree of 
Doctor, but he modestly declined its acceptance on account of his 
youth. In the year 1583, the authorities at Amsterdam, by whom 
his expenses were then defrayed, required testimonials from the pro- 
fessor at the University of Geneva, as to the conduct of Arminius. 
The following letter was sent to the Rev. Martin Lydius, by Beza, 
in answer to the enquiries sent to him : — 

Dbarbst Brother, 

" Your letter was some time since delivered to us, in which, both on 
account of the determination of your Church Assembly, and at the 
desire of their honours the Magistrates, you ask our opinion of James 
Arminius, the young man whom you have taken under your patronage. 
Although we returned an answer to that letter soon after we had 
received it, yet since in these perilous times that answer may never have 
reached you, and a favourable opportunity now offering itself for 
transmitting another copy by a safe courier, we have thought proper 
to write you a second answer, that no detriment may accrue to the 
studies of Arminius tiirough our further delay. 

*' To describe all in a few words, be pleased to take notice, that from 
the period when Arminius returned from Basle to us at Geneva, both 
his acquirements in learning and his manner of life have been so 
approved by us, that we form the highest hopes respecting him, if he 
proceed in the same course as that which he is now pursuing, and in 
which, we think, by the favour of God, he will continue. For the Lord 
has conferred on him, among other endowments, a happy genius for 
clearly perceiving the nature of things and forming a correct judgment 
upon them, which, if it be hereafter brought under the governance of 
piety, of which he shews himself most studious, will undoubtedly cause 
his powerful genius, after it has been matured by years and coi^firmed 
by his acquaintance with things, to produce a rich and most abundant 
harvest.— These are our sentiments concerning Arminius, a young raan> 
as far as we have been able to form a judgment of him, in no respect 
unworthy of your benevolence and liberality. T. Bkza.'* 



44 Memoir of James Arminius, 

Arminius in 1586, spent a few months in Italy, and visited the 
University of Padua, for the purpose of attending the lectures of a 
celehrated professor of Philosophy. He also went to Rome, and had 
his mind deeply impressed with the abominations which he there 
witnessed. His visit to Rome was made an occasion of raising slan- 
derous reports concerning him, through which he incurred the tem- 
porary displeasure of the Senate of Amsterdam ; but he was able 
afterwards satisfactorily to disprove the charges which had been 
brought against him. After his return from Italy, he spent a few 
months in Geneva ; and in the autumn of 1587, was recalled to Amster- 
dam, to enter upon the work of the ministry. 

Immediately upon the commencement of the ministry of Arminius 
in Amsterdam, he became exceedingly popular. His style was argumen- 
tative and perspicious, his voice melodious and flexible, and his 
powers of persuasion were extraordinary. It is said, that no man 
ever listened to his public discourses who did not confess himself to be 
greatly moved. By some persons he was designated ** the file of 
truth;" by others, "a touch- stone for the men of genius j'" or, "a 
razor to cut down the budding errors of the age." The learned and 
eloquent ministers of Amsterdam rendered homage to the talents of 
ArminiuS) acknowledging that by sitting under his ministry they 
derived great profit. 

In consequence of the celebrity to which Arminius had attained, 
he was requested to write a reply to a pamphlet entitled " An answer 
to some of the arguments adduced hy Beza and Calvin ; from a Treatise 
concerning Predestination" Arminius was not unwilHng to comply 
with the request He therefore undertook the task, and entered upon 
the work. While he was engaged in preparing his reply, he found 
himself baffled by the evidence supporting the opinions which he had 
undertaken to refute. Ultimately he found himself obliged, by the 
force of Scripture testimony, to renounce those opinions on Predestina- 
tion which were then held by Beza and Calvin ; and he adopted the 
opinion, then held by Melancthon, that God's Predestination is to elect 
those who would answer, by the true obedience of faith, to the call of 
God. 

This change of opinion occasioned many enemies to rise up against 
Arminius. Some were for publicly preferring charges of heterodoxy 
against him. But their impetuosity was restrained, by those who 
possessed more wisdom, higher authority and influence. He there- 
fore continued to dwell with his colleagues in a state of fraternal 
union and friendship. He was highly esteemed for his candour, 
moderation, equanimity, and cheerful submission to the authority of 
Christ, as made known by his Word. 

After he had been settled about two years at Amsterdam, and being 
in the thirtieth year of his age, he became united in marriage to 
Elizabeth, the daughter of Laurence Jacobson Real, one of the 
judges and senators of Amsterdam. This gentleman was one of the 
earliest assertors of religious liberty in Holland, and took a very 
active part in the interests of "The Reformation." The daughter 
of such a man was likely to become a true help-meet to Arminius ; 
and such she proved to be. She possessed great genius, uncommon 



Memoir of James Arminius, 4iy 

firmness of mind, and invincible courage ; for which, from the perse- 
cutions her husband had to endure, she had sufficient need. The 
issue of this marriage was seven sons and two daughters. Arminius 
had the pleasure of enjoying uninterrupted domestic happiness. 
His wife esteemed it as her highest felicity, to share the joys and 
sorrows of her husband. 

The University of Leyden. in the year 1 602, lost two of its pro- 
fessors, who were removed by death. Public attention was directed 
towards Arminius, as the most suitable person, to become the professor 
of divinity in that University. When application was made for his 
services, the inhabitants of Amsterdam refused their consent to his 
removal. Upon which, a deputation was sent from the University, 
and from the Prince of Orange, to prevail upon the Senate of Amster- 
dam to consent to the removal of Arminius. At length all the diffi- 
culties, were overcome, and Arminius went to Leyden. Upon his 
arrival, the degree of doctor of divinity was conferred upon him ; the 
first conferred by that University ; and he forthwith entered upon his 
duties as professor of divinity in the University of Leyden. Upon 
his removal from Amsterdam, the Presbytery gave Arminius the fol- 
lowing testimony of their approbation : — 

" Since in the social intercourse of mankind, a consideration of equity 
alone, has, long since, required it to be established as a law, that they 
who had on any account deserved well of the Commonwealth, should 
be accounted worthy of singularly eminent commendation and honour- 
able testimonials to the truth; more abundantly worthy of such an 
honour are those persons who labour in God's word, and wJiQ,with 
remarkable success, and to their singular praise, have during many years 
discharged the duties of the sacred ministry of the gospel in the church 
of our Lord Jesus Christ. Wherefore, as James Arminius, Doctor 
of Divinity, our reverend brother in the Lord, has now required such a 
testimonial from us, we think that it ought by no means to be refused. 

** By these presents, therefore, we desire to testify to all and every 
one, that the high integrity of the above-named most accomplished 
man and greatly beloved fellow- steward with us of the mysteries of 
God, (both in regard to the innocency of his life, the soundness of his 
doctrine, and the propriety of his manners,) has by means of an 
uninterrupted acquaintance and constant intercourse been so fully 
known, tried, and confirmed by us, as to cause us to account nothing 
dearer to us, or of greater value, than always to enjoy the benefit of his 
counsel, aid, conversation, and intimacy, and tote permitted to cultivate 
that friendship which has now for a long period subsisted between us. 
But since it has pleased Almighty God otherwise to dispose of him 
and us, it is a circumstance on account of which we yield great and 
unfeigned thanks to the Lord our God for his marvellous kindness 
hitherto manifested towards us and the whole of this our church, and 
which has afiforded us the opportunity to behold such fruits as are not 
to be lamented, and with the greatest pleasure to perceive the 
success which has accrued from the study and labours of this, the 
before-named gentleman and fellow-labourer in the vineyard of Christ, 
who is most ardently beloved by all of us; which labours he un- 



4G Memoir of James Arminius. 

weariedly and most cheerfully sustained, in company with us, among 
the people of our charge. All of us confess with a very willing mind, 
that there is nothing which is not due for us to this our much beloved 
brother in the Lord, from the exertion of his powers in common with 
our own in the Lord, for the cheerfulness with which he sedulously 
undertook the maintenance of equal portions of the pastoral office, in 
conjunction with ourselves, and for the very ready communication of his 
counsel to us on all occasions. Wherefore, since his piety, consummate 
probity, and rare erudition se^m in their own right to claim such a 
token of approbation from us, — and, that we may briefly compress into 
a single sentence all that we desire to say, — we commend to all men 
of piety, honour, and learning, this most respectable gentleman, and 
most venerable brother in Christ ; and it is not possible for us to frame 
any recommendation with greater affection and favour, or more heartily 
than we do this. — Given in our Presbytery at Amsterdam, the Eighth 
day of September, 1603, 

** Signed in the name of the whole Church, 

" John Ursinus, Minister of God*8 word and 

President of the Council, 
** John Hallius. Minister at Amsterdam. 
•* John Halsbbkgius, Pastor of the same Church. 

Soon after Arminlus had entered upon the duties of his professorship, 
he found that the divinity students were eagerly engaging in 
disputations and controversies, on knotty theorems and difficult 
problems, to the neglect of the study of the holy Scriptures. He 
therefore endeavoured to correct this evil, by inculcating the study of 
God's Word, and urging the students to cultivate Christian charity and 
to follow after the truth which is according to godliness. 

Arminius very much deplored the then divided state of the church of 
Christ. He could seldom refer to this subject without shedding of 
tears. He abominated the persecuting spirit of the Church of Rome ; 
a church which he regarded as not seeking the things which are 
Christ's, but the pleasures, honours, riches, and splendour of the world ; 
and for the acquirement of these, exercising a system of tyranny over 
the bodies and souls of men. Other religious denominations he 
regarded as not intentionally violating the peace of the church. He 
repudiated the use of coercion in matters spiritual— he did not think, 
that those who erred were to be reclaimed by swords, halters, racks, 
gibbets or by burning people alive, — but by gentle and friendly 
instructions, entreaties, and the example of holy conversation. He 
therefore exhorted all men to the exercises of piety, to renouce that 
mass of absurdities contained in the scholastic theology of those times, 
and to search the Scriptures that they might learn what they ought to 
believe, and how to live in a state of holiness and happiness in union 
with Christ Jesus. 

Francis Gomarus, one of the joint professors with Arminius was a 
staunch defender of the Calvinistic doctrines ; and the differences of 
opinion which existed, between Arminius, and Gomarus, extended to 



Memoir of James Arminius. 47 

the stadents in the University ; and the latter appear to have conducted 
their controversies with immoderate zeal. Arminius and Gomarus 
would probably have continued to cultivate friendship with each other, 
and would have used their influence to abate the controversies which 
existed among their students, if other persons had not interfered. The 
synod of South Holland which met at Rotterdam on the 30th of 
August 1605, resolved to enquire into the doctrinal articles which were 
the chief subjects of discussion among the theological students in the 
University of Leyden. The synod appointed deputies to investigate 
those matters, but Arminius demurred to their authority ; and ultimately 
the States of Holland entered upon the investigation of the charges, 
which the opponents of Arminius brought against him, on account of 
his repudiation of the Calvinistic doctrines. 

On the 30th of October, 1608, Arminius appeared before the 
States of Holland in their Hall of Session, and delivered a noble 
declaration of his sentiments and valiently defended himself against the 
attacks of his opponents. On the subject of Predestination he 
expressed his sentiments at great length— assigning his reasons for 
rejecting the opinions of the super- lapsarians, and suh-lapsarians. He 
also gave his sentiments, on »* The Providence of God — The Free- 
will of man — The Grace of God — The Assurance of Salvation — The 
Perfection of Believers in this Life — The Divinity of the Son of 
God " — and on some other topics of lesser importance. If many of 
those who have spoken reproachfully of Arminius had, before they 
had ventured to give judgment against him, consulted his recorded 
sentiments, they would have been much better qualified to have given 
a correct judgment concerning his opinions. It is clear that, no man 
ever held more firmly the doctrines of grace, which teach, that man 
can only be saved by the grace of God, through the atonement of 
Jesus Christ, whom God the Father gave to be the Saviour of the 
world, and that all good in man results from the quickening, enlighten- 
ing, and sanctifying influences of the Holy Spirit — which are made 
effectual to the salvation of all who believe. Probably we shall here- 
after lay before our readers some passages from the writings of 
Arminius, which will justify this statement. 

Gomarus, the chief opponent of Arminius, became increasingly 
bitter against him as the controversy advanced. He charged him with 
Pelagianism, Jesuitism, and other heresies. In June, 1609, Arminius 
presided at a pubHc disputation in the University of Leyden. On this 
occasion he stated, " that men are not converted by an irresistible 
force; and that God gives men sufficient grace to enable them to 
discharge the duties he requires of them." Gomarus was present, and 
denounced the sentiments of Arminius, asserting the doctrine of irre^ 
sistible grace. In the month of August following, Gomarus and 
Arminius appeared before the States of Holland, and in their presence 
disputed on Predestination, Irresistible Grace, Free- Will, and Perse- 
verance. While thus engaged, Arminius had a return, of a disorder 
by which he had on former occasions been attacked. He was con- 
veyed home from Hague, and was then directed, by the States of 
Holland, to write out the propositions which he had maintained in his 
disputation with Gomarus. On the 12th of September, he addressed 



48 Memoir of James Arminius. 

a letter to the States of Holland, stating, that " he was confined to his 
bed by indisposition, and had written a great portion of what was 
required of him — that at present he was compelled by sickness to 
desist, but would, if it were their wish, in case of his recovery, put 
them in possession of what he had written in an entire and perfect 
state ; and if his sickness should be anto death, they should have his 
papers in their unfinished condition." " He also stated that the declara- 
tion which he had delivered before them, he believed to agree in every 
particular with the Word of God ; and with the faith which he pro- 
fessed was prepared to appear at the judgment-seat of Jesus Christ, 
the Son of God, and the Judge of both the living and the dead." 

From this attack he never recovered ; his afflictions and sufferings 
increased, notwithstanding the exertions of several eminent physicians 
to stop the progress of the disease. Some of his opponents, the rigid 
PredestinariaM, wickedly afiirmed» that his affliction was a judicial 
punishment inflicted upon him for opposing their favorite dogma ; and 
they, foolishly, from his sufferings argued its truth. It is most lament- 
able that professors of Christianity should ever thus exalt themselves into 
the throne of judgment, forgetting that God often permits, or appoints, 
severe afflictions to befall those whom he most tenderly loves. 

Although the body of Arminius was greatly reduced by his suffer- 
ings, he preserved his usual firmness of mind and placidity of temper. 
He freely engaged in conversation, and was gentle, courteous and 
cheerful ; frequently engaging in ardent prayer, imploring the Divine 
bletfsing on himself and others, and earnestly beseeching God to give 
unity and concord to the church. His physicians having signified that 
his end was rapidly approaching, he received the information with the 
greatest equanimity, and with much composure of spirit prepared to 
meet death. He made his will, and felt it to be his duty, therein, to 
leave his dying testimony concerning the reasons which had actuated 
his conduct as a minister of Christ. Having completed all his worldly 
arrangements, he spent his few remaining days in offering prayer and 
thanksgiving, and in meditating upon that rest to which he was 
hastening. On the 19th of October, 1609, he with his eyes lifted up 
to heaven, rendered up his spirit to God the Father, his Creator, to the 
Son his Redeemer, and to the Holy Ghost, his Sanctifier. Those who 
surrounded him when he died, were led to exclaim " Let me die the 
death of the righteous." 

Thus to the example of a holy life, this eminent divine added, that 
of a happy death. In stature he was a middle sized man ; and died 
in the forty-ninth year of his age. His works were pubHshed by his 
children, and contain the best possible refutation of the calumnies, 
which some of the ignorant and zealous defenders of predestination 
and reprobation have attempted to cast on his memory. The following 
testimony to his character is given in the Edinburgh Encyclopedia. 
" By all, except the bigotted few, who are so much attached to the 
doctrines of election and reprobation, as to think a belief in them 
necessary to salvation, Arminius has ever been regarded as a man of 
unaffected piety, and upright conduct, of principles and character that 
were truly Christian. His learning was considerable; his under- 
standing solid and acute ; his discourses from the pulpit were im- 



Tiie Christian Ministry » 49 

pressive, eloquent, and useful ; his labours as a minister, and as a 
professor of divinity, were faithful and productive ; his private .life 
was animated with the Spirit, and adorned with the grace, of the 
religion which he taught; and his writings are distinguished by 
accurate thinking, distinct views of the subjects he discusses, and by a 
simple and perspicuous style." Seven of his children died in their 
youth, shortly after the death of their father ; one became a merchant, 
and the other a celebrated physician. 

After the death of Arminius, the controversy respecting the doctrines 
of election and reprobation was carried on, and this led to the calling 
of the celebrated Synod of Dort, which commenced its sittings in 
November 1618. By this Synod those who held the opinions of 
Arminius, and who were then called Remonstrants, were treated with 
great injustice and cruelty. 



THE CHRISTIAN MINISTRY. 

The Substance of an Address delivered to the Young Men received 
into Full Connexion at the Annual Assbmbly of thk Wbs- 
LEYAN Methodist Association; held in Leeds, 1843. 

BY MR. T. TOWNEND, Ex-President. 

Published at the request of the Annual Assembly. 

Giving no offence in any thing, that the ministry he not blamed: 

Bat in all things ajyproving ourselves as the ministers of God, in much 
patience, in afflictions, in necessities, in distresses^ 

In stripes, in imprisonments, in tumtdts, in labours, in watchings, in fastings ; 

By pureness, by knowledge, by long-suffering, by kindness, by the Holy Ghost, 
by love unfeigned, 

By the word of truths by the power of God, by the armour of righteousness 
on the right hand and on the left. — 2 Cor. vi. 3 — 7. 

It devolves upon me, officially, this evening, to address a few 
remarks to you, my junior brethren, who have, during this Annual 
Assembly, been received into full connexion. You have now completed 
the usual term of ministerial probation among us, with credit to 
yourselves and satisfaction to the churches in which you have 
laboured. Y'ou have also, during this Annual Assembly, been 
subjected to a close and searching scrutiny with reference, more 
especially, to j'our religious experience, your views of Christian 
doctrine, and the motives and reasons which have induced you to 
enter the sacred office. Subsequently, to this enquiry, you have 
been solemnly and publicly recognised as persons set apart and 
entirely devoted to . the high and holy functions of the Christian 
ministry. The hopes of the churches, the eyes of angels, and the 
vows of God are now upon you. And from the manner in which 
you perform the duties of your office, the weightiest consequences 



60 The Christian Ministry, 

will ensue. Eternity only will fully unfold them. An aged apostle 
addressing a young minister whom he tenderly loved, and whom he 
called his son in the Gospel, employs the following affecting words, 
** Be thou an example of the believers, in word, in conversation, in 
charity, in spirit, in faith, in purity. Give attendance to reading, 
to exhortation, to doctrine. Neglect not the gift that is in thee. 
Meditate upon these things ; give thyself wholly to them ; that thy 
profiting may appear to all. Take heed unto thyself and unto thy 
doctrine : continue in them : for in doing this, thou shalt both save 
thyself and them that hear thee." ' These are weighty sayings, and 
should be graven on the memory and hearts of all ministers as on 
tablets of brass. We hope and pray that their mighty importance 
may be duly felt by you, my brethren, and that your future course 
may manifest a strict and happy conformity to the bright and pure 
models held up to our view in the striking language of the text. 
** Giving no offence in any thing, that the ministry be not blamed : 
but in all things approving ourselves as the ministers of God," 
&c. &c. 

Favour me with your attention while I endeavour to place before 
you a few reflections upon three points here presented to our con- 
sideration with reference to Christian pastors, — 

I. Their Official Designation. *• Ministers of God." 
.II. The Conduct suited to their vocation. •* Giving no offence," 
&c. 

III. The Motive which should influence them. ** That the minis- 
try be not blamed." 

I. Their Official Designation, " Ministers of God." 

Civil magistrates are so called because they are the representatives 
of Jehovah in the administration of civil justice. " For this cause 
pay we tribute also ; for they are God's ministers, attending con- 
tinually upon this very thing." ^ Angels are so styled because they 
are the swift winged messengers of providence. *• He maketh 
his angels spirits — his ministers a flame of fire. Bless the Lord, 
ye his angels that excel in strength. Ye ministers of his that do 
his pleasure." "^ But Christian pastors are designated ministers 
of God, because they, as his ambassadors to a guilty world, are en- 
trusted with the ministry of reconciliation.*^ They are appointed, in 
connexion with other officers, to administer the discipline of the 
church ;• and are the divinely authorised overseers or bishops of 
the flock of Christ.' This ministry, then, is " from heaven and not of 
men." All who truly sustain it, have been called by God into it, 
have been by him invested with suitable qualifications for it, and 
from motives such as he inspires and approves have devoted them • 
selves to it. 

Ist. They have been called by God into it. The apostles received 
their commission directly from the lips of Christ, accompanied with 
the promise of his continual presence ; » hence they could look up 
to him with confidence for support, direction, and success. They 

• 1 Tim. iv. 12—16. •» Rom. xiii. 1—6. «= Heb. i. 7; Psa. ciii. 20, 21. 

^ 2 Cor. v. 1&-20. « Heb. xiii. 17 ; 1 Cor. iv. 1. f Acts xx. 28 ; 

1 Pet. v. J— 4. «f Matt, xxviii. 19, 20. 



The Christian Ministry, 51 

did not enter the sacred office, as men take up a worldly profession, 
for the sake of emohiment, or from the love of fame. ** But as 
they were allowed of God to be put in trust with the Gospel, even 
so they spake. Dot as pleasing men but God who tried their hearts." • 
Knowing their commission to be divine, they durst not retire from 
the work when it brought upon them reproach and persecution, and 
the loss of all things. They did not " count their lives dear unto 
themselves that they might finish their course with joy, and the 
ministry which they had received of the Lord Jesus to testify the 
Gospel of the grace of God." ^ It is still the prerogative of hint 
who is Lord of the harvest, to thrust out labourers into his harvest ; 
to appoint stewards of his household, to give the members of his 
family their portion of meat in due season ; and it is his prerogative 
to bring in, by himself as the door, all those whom he entrusts with 
the care of his flock ; and such are distinguished^ by their love of 
Christ and his flock, from the mere hireling, who, when he sees the 
wolf coming flees because he is a hireling, and careth not for the 
sheep. "" The genuine ministers of Christ, then, have a divine 
commission, though not communicated by supernatural visions and 
voices, yet, by an influence which is supernatural. They have been 
moved by the Holy Ghost to take upon them this oflice and ministry. 
It is he who reveals to them, *' the mysteries of the kingdom of God," 
opens to them the spiritual world, gives them to feel the worth of 
souls, and inspires them with zeal for the glory of God. It is he 
who lays it upon their hearts and consciences to engage in 
this work; vouchsafes to them his gracious presence in it, and 
clothes their ministrations with his own living and mighty unction.*^ 
my brethren, you profess to have received such a commission from 
God to preach his word, and labour in his vine3'ard, and to have 
devoted yourselves to this work, not only from upright motives, 
but also from a conviction that God requires this at your hands. 
O then make full proof of your ministry. Let the sincerity of 
these solemn professions be made manifest. " Walk worthy of the 
high vocation wherewith you are called; endure hardness as good 
soldiers of Jesus Christ," and, in all the labours, trials, temptations, 
and sorrows of your ministerial course, trust in the faithfulness of 
him, who has said, " Lo, I am with you always, even unto the end 
of the world." • 

2nd. But as the call is from above, so also are the qualifica- 
tions of Christian ministers : " When he ascended up on high, he led 
captivity captive, and gave gifts unto men, and he gave some apostles, 
and some prophets, and some evangelists, and some pastors and 
teachers, for the perfecting of the saints, for the work of the ministry, 
for the edifying of the body of Christ : till we all come in the unity 
of the faith, and of the knowledj^e of the Son of God, unto a perfect 
man, unto the measure of the stature of the fulness of Christ." ' As 
we do not now need, so neither can we now boast, the possession 
of miraculous powers. But those whom God has called to be his 

• I Thess. ii. 4. ^1 Cor. iv. 11, 12, 13; Acts xx. 24. <= Matt. ix. 38; 

Luke xii. 42; John x 1, 8, 12, 13. «* 1 Cor. ii. 9—16; xii. 3—12. 

« 2 Tim. ii. 3 ; Matt, xxviii. 20. ' Eph. iv. 7—13. 



52 lite Christian Ministry, 

ministers, have received from him, as the God of nature, of pro- 
videncBi and of grace, those various gifts which are necessary to 
qualify them for their work. These gifts may be divided into 
three classes — Physical, Mental, and Moral. 

(1.) Physical.— The blind, the deaf, the dumb, the maimed, the 
infirm, and the sick, whatever may be their mental and moral 
qualifications, are by their bodily infirmities rendered incompetent 
for many parts of ministerial labour. The gifts of health and of 
utterance are essential. Without the former, frequent preaching to 
large congregationis, walking to considerable distances through bad 
roads on dark nights, and regular visitation of the societies would 
be impossible ; and without some considerable portion of the latter, 
you cannot communicate to listening audiences, in clear, connected, 
and impressive style, the great truths of the Gospel. Permit me 
to urge upon you a proper attention to the conservation of these 
precious gifts. Do not trifle with your health. Without it. you 
cannot discharge the duties of your ofHce with cheerfulness, promp- 
titude, and energy. Do not destroy your sight and your strength 
by midnight studies. Acquire the habit of rising early. Neglect 
not to take your meals at the proper seasons. Let the sedentary, and 
active, duties of your office be so regulated and proportioned as to 
exert a friendly influence upon each other. Shun the drinking of 
drams, do not strain your lungs or rupture your blood-vessels by 
violent vociferation. Endeavour to speak loud enough to be distinctly 
heard to the extremities of your congregation, and acquire such 
a command of the tones and inflections of voice as will enable you 
with perfect ease, to rise or fall, to become calm or impassioned, and 
to express all the varied feelings of the heart in a manner at once 
natural and impressive. But to do this will require both the posses- 
sion and the culture of those gifts which are — 

(2.) Mental. — The mind of a minister needs to be strong, fertile, 
and well disciplined. As flame kindles flame, so mind kindles mind. 
Men are not to be convinced by strength of lungs, but by strength 
of argument. They are not to be persuaded by rant and noise, but 
by the power of truth clearly stated and affectionately enforced. A 
bishop, or overseer of the flock is to be " apt to teach," which implies 
the capability of understanding the truth himself, and the ability to 
communicate it with facility to others. To attack successfully the 
strong holds of error, to carry light into the dark chambers of 
imagery, to expose the sophisms and answer the cavils of scepticism, 
to cover with silent blushes the bold face of infidelity, and so to 
state the evidences, truths, claims, and sanctions of religion, as to 
leave the careless thoughtful, the giddy serious, the wavering decided, 
the mourner comforted, the ignorant instructed, and the believer 
edified, is the work, not of a novice, but, of one whose mind is pos- 
sessed of native vigour, carefully cultivated, and well instructed unto 
the kingdom of God. When we consider the weight of talent, 
learning, and influence, which are arrayed on the side of error, and 
the growing intelligence of the age in which we live, we cannot but 
perceive that, intellect is necessary to encounter intellect, and mind 
to grapple with mind, and piercing light to scatter the powers of 



The Christian Ministry. 53 

darkness. Moreover, there are in most of our congregations and 
societies, men of superior mental endowments, of liberal education, 
and of enlarged intelligence. These, instead of being profited, will 
be disgusted by pulpit ignorance and impertinence. You, my 
brethren, would not have occupied the position in which you now 
appear before this assembly, if God had not furnished you with 
those powers of understanding, judgment, memory, and imagination, 
which enable you profitably to proclaim his truth to others; but 
the magnitude of the work in which you are engaged, requires you 
to furnish them with all the materials which reading, study, obser- 
vation and experience can supply. And there must be something 
more, and beyond all this. There must be those qualifications which 



(3.) Moral and Spiritual.— There should be light, but not without 
heat. Reasoniitg should be logical, but it must not be cold. It 
must be glowing and burning ; such as will not only illuminate, 
but animate. A preacher must have a warm heart as well as a clear 
head. " Though I speak with the tongues of men and of angels, 
and have not charity, I am become as sounding brass, or a tinkling 
cymbal." • The Scriptures are full and particular in describing the 
moral qualities requisite to ministerial character;** and they insist 
upon them with an emphasis which proves them to be absolutely 
essential. Where they are not possessed, no mode of induction 
into the ofBce, no form of ordination, can convey ministerial right or 
authority. If it be impossible that God's institutions should con- 
tradict his own inspired word, then it is impossible that God should 
give a wicked man authority and right to enter the sacred office by 
any mode of induction whatever. For " unto the wicked, God saith, 
what hast thou to do to declare my statutes, or that thou shouldest 
take my covenant in thy mouth, seeing thou hatest instruction, 
and casteth my words behind thee ? " * On the other hand where 
there is the existence of ministerial qualifications, and the inward 
call of the Spirit of God, it is not the absence of any outward form 
of induction or mode of ordination which can render it unlawful to 
exercise and sustain the functions of the ministry. Had any exclu- 
sive mode of ordination to the pastoral office been essential to its 
validity, that mode would have been clearly described and distinctly 
enjoined ; but the absence of all such authority, and the evidence 
which the New Testament furnishes that the mode of recognizing 
or inducting ministers and other church officers in the age of the 
apostles varied in different times, places, and circumstances, proves 
that this is a matter left to be determined by the wisdom and dis- 
cretion of the churches. But neither the bulls of popes, nor the 
decrees of councils, nor the practice of ages, nor the sanction of 
conferences can add to, or subtract from, the essentials of religion. 
They cannot give, to that which the Word of God does not enjoin, 
the sanction of law. Nor can they make that non-essential which 
the Word of God requires and enjoins as essential. Could our high 
church divines prove^ (which is impossible) the historical integrity 

* 1 Cor. xiii. 1. ^ 1 Tim. iii. 1—7. *^ Psa. 1. 16, 17. 



54 The Christian Ministry, 

of their boasted succession chain, what would it amount to ? Just 
nothing, — since links of that chain were, in numerous instances, of 
human, and not of divine manufacture, consisting of heretics, 
Simonists, and the first-born sons of Satan. My brethren, were the 
imposition of episcopal hands to connect you as links in such a chain, 
what would that do for you, if not accompanied by ministerial gifts 
and graces, and the inward call of the Holy Ghost? The New 
Testament frowns upon wicked and heretical teachers, and commands 
Christians to discountenance and forsake them.' It is not by their 
ordination, but by their conduct and doctrine that we are to know 
them ; ^ " If any man have not the Spirit of Christ he is none of his ; " 
iiow then can he be His ambassador ? Even the deacons, who were 
inferior officers, were to be " full of wisdom and of the Holy Ghost." 
The most splendid gifts are nothing without love. Those to whom 
the ministry of reconciliation was entrusted, were themselves recon- 
ciled to God, and he that entereth not by Christ, the door into the 
sheepfold, but ** dimbeth up some other way, the sama is a thief and 
a robber/'* The ceremony of laying on of hands was probably 
borrowed from the custom of the synagogue. Though sanctioned by 
apostolic usage, it is no where enjoined as essential, and does not 
appear to have been employed by our Lord in the appointment of 
the seventy, or of the twelve, or by the apostles in the case of 
Matthias.*^ " It seems," says one, ** to have been nothing more than 
a ritual solemnity, employed in all grave cases where blessing was 
invoked, or religious designation implied. And in such cases as 
the ordination of a church officer serving an end analagous to that 
which in civil affaifs is served by the coronation of a prince, who 
already is the rightful possessor of the throne, or the installation 
of a public officer who has already been, by the suffrages of his 
countrymen, constituted possessor of the dignity with which he is 
invested." • 

drd. The ministers of God are such as have not only been called 
and qualified by Him for this work, but they also, in obedience to 
the call of God, employ their talents. and opportunities in the great 
work of building up the church and saving souls from death. They 
are therefore *' workers together with God," " labourers in his vine, 
yard," "watchmen over the house of Israel," and •* stewards of the 
mysteries of God." They have " left all and followed Christ," and 
are anxious above all things to spread his praise and extend bis 
kingdom in the earth. All, then, that is requisite to constitute a 
minister of God, is a divine call, and obedience to that call, which 
of course always implies suitable qualifications. This it is true does 
not constitute any one the minister or pastor of a particular and 
previously existing church ; for this supposes his recognition by that 
church as their pastor, and his previous appointment to that office, 
according to the form of induction established in that church. But 
in the absence of any such recognition and appointment he may 
rush into every open door, may go out into the high ways and 

• 2 John ix. 10, 11 ; Gal. i. 9, 10. ^ Matt. vii. 15, 16 ; I John iv. 1 — 3. 

f Rom. viii. 9; Acts vi. 3; I Cor. xiii, 1— .3; 2 Cor. v. 18; John x I. 

*» Luke X. 1—12 ; John xx. 21, 23; Acts l 2.}— 2G. ' Alexander. 



The Christian Mimstry. 55 

hedges, calling sinners to repentance, and publishing "the glad 
tidings of the kingdom/' and thus he may be the instrument of 
turning many " from darkness to light, and from the power of Satan 
unto God." And now, my brethren, having in obedience to the 
call of God, devoted yourselves to this work, though perhaps with 
much fear and trembling, and having been invested with talents in 
the use of which you are required to occupy till your Lord come, 
and having been called by the church to take charge of societies 
which have been gathered by the labours and prayers of others, 
and having, though not with imposition of hands, yet by a service 
in all respects, decent, solemn and appropriate, been ordained and 
publicly recognised as pastors of the flock of Christ, which he has 
purchased with his own blood. I trust it will be your study, and 
care, and labour, to be found " able ministers of the New Testament," 
and *< workmen that need not to be ashamed, rightly dividing the 
word of truth." That this may be the case, I shall now proceed to 
point out to you. — 

II. The Course of Conduct which will be suitable to the high 
Vocation in which you are engaged. 

This is strikingly set forth in the text, both negatively and 
positively. 

1st. Negatively, ** Giving no Offence," &c. — This implies, (1) 
freedom from gross and scandalous crimes. In this respect the 
minister of God must be blameless. He must be ** just, holy, tem- 
perate." * The greatest inconsistency upon earth is a wicked im- 
moral minister. St. Paul's searching appeal to the ungodly Jew 
applies with still greater force in such a case.- "Behold thou art 
called a Jew, and restest in the law, and makest thy boast of God, 
and knowest his will, and approvest the things that are more excellent, 
being instructed out of the law, and art confident that thou thyself 
art a guide of the blind, a light of them that are in darkness, an 
instructor of the foolish, a teacher of babes, which hast the form 
of knowledge and of truth in the law. Thou therefore which 
teachest another, teachest thou not thyself? thou that preachest a 
man should not steal, dost thou steal? Thou that sayest a man 
should Dot commit adultery, dost thou commit adultery ? Thou that 
abhorrest idols, dost thou commit sacrilege ? Thou that makest thy 
boast of the law, through breaking the law dishonourest thou God?" 
Alas ? How has th^ name of God been blasphemed in the world 
through the crimes of godless ministers, and through the fall of 
those who were previously holy and consistent men ! When one who 
has been deservedly esteemed for his piety, zeal, usefulness, and 
talent, is overcome by temptation, and falls into heinous sin, who 
can calculate the amount of evil which ensues ? It is as *< when a 
standard bearer fainteth." Multitudes who hung upon his lips with 
delight and profit are confounded, the pious are made to weep in 
secret places. The lame turned out of the way, enquirers after truth 
staggered, the impenitent hardened in their crimes, and the sceptic 
confirmed in his doubts. And should such a person be recovered 
out of the '* snare of the devil," and regain his former piety, it is 

• Titus i. 7, 8. 



56 The Christian Ministry. 

not likely that he can ever remedy the mischief which he has occa- 
sioned, or ever obtain the same share of public favour, or seat 
himself again so deeply in the esteem and confidence of the church — 
or have the same chance of extensive usefulness in the world. He 
has got a wound and dishonour, and his reproach will not be wiped 
away. You have now a good report of them that are without, a good 
name which is better than great riches, and can rejoice we trust in 
the testimony of a good conscience, but " let him that thinketh he 
standeth, take heed lest he fall." You are in a world of snares and 
dangers, surrounded by evil spirits, and having much to fear from 
your own hearts. Watch and pray that ye enter not into temptation. 
" Giving no offence that the ministry be not blamed," implies — 

( 2 ) The avoidance of those lesser improprieties of conduct, which, 
although they might not involve you in the charge of immorality, 
would nevertheless grieve the Spirit of God, lower you in the esteem 
of the pious, and render your labours far less efficient. It would be 
impossible at this time to specify and enumerate all such impro- 
prieties. That which you need, in order to avoid them, is exquisite 
tenderness of conscience, great prudence, and the watchful circum- 
spection which shuns the very appearance of evil. You must, for 
instance, be on your guard against a spirit of trifling levity. I do 
not mean that you are to be gloomy and melancholy, no, it is your 
privilege to carry a cheerful countenance, a peaceful conscience, and 
a rejoicing heart. But all this is perfectly consistent with habitual 
seriousness of spirit, and becoming gravity of deportment. Whilst 
your conversation is free, easy, and natural, far removed from affected 
stateliness, and studied solemnity, let it at the same time be equally 
remote from frothy levity and foolish jesting.' Your intercourse with 
others should convince them, that you have been with God in the 
mount, that you have no room for mirth and trifling— that you are 
impressed with the responsibility of your office, and that you feel 
the weight of eternal things. Thus you will study to be wise, rather 
than witty ; to profit, as well as to please ; to instruct, more than 
to amuse ; and to promote the feeling of devotion, rather than of 
giddy dissipation. 

Permit me also to warn you against habits of indolence and 
needless self-indulgence. Do not waste your precious hours in 
unprofitable chit»chat, or frequent parties of pleasure. Never stay 
longer in the houses of your friends than is convenient and profitable 
for them. Not that you are to neglect frequent pastoral visitation. 
Due attention to this part of your duty is of infinite importance. But 
your visits should be short and spiritual. Paul visited from house to 
Louse, but it was not to trifle and amuse ; it was to urge upon the 
people individually the great things which belonged to their peace. 
It was that he might '*keep back nothing which was profitable to 
them." That he might testify to them personally and in private, as 
he had done collectively and in public, ** repentance towards God and 
faith towards our Lord Jesus Christ." It was that he might **warn 
every one, night and day, with tears ; be pure from the blood of all, 
and not shun to declare unto them all the council of God," ^ Imitate 

• Eph. V. 4. ^ ActB XX. 17—37. 



The Christian Ministry. 57 

this noble example^ and redeem the time because the days a/e evil. 
For this purpose buy up every opportunity. Let your time be wisely 
apportioned. Live by rule. Have your stated seasons for private devo- 
tion, for study, for reading, and for pastoral visitation. Let no trifles 
break in upon your plan. Never be unemployed. Be always well 
employed. Avoid laborious idleness, the busying yourselves with 
trifles and the discharging of great duties in a spirit of listless 
indifference. Not only attend to your duties, but do so in earnest. 
Read in earnest, study in earnest, pray in earnest, preach in earnest ; 
and let the whole be so adjusted and proportioned that each duty may 
have that share of attention which its relative importance demands. 

It may be well also to guard you against grieving the minds, or cast« 
ing discredit on the reputation of your colleagues and brethren in the 
ministry. When you hear them spoken of in terms of commendation, 
do not try to cast a shade on the sunshine which invests them. If they 
are more talented, more popular, and more useful than yourselves, re- 
joice that God has qualified them, so admirably, to be the instruments of 
spreading his glory in the earth. They are engaged in the same great 
work with yourselves, and if your motives are pure, you will rejoice 
in its advancement, by whatever instrumentality it is achieved. If 
they have infirmities, so have you. Be as ready to spread a veil over 
theirs, as to cover your own. If they are your superiors do not envy 
them, if your inferiors do not despise them. In a word, let your 
brethren see and feel that you love them. Then you will secure 
reciprocal attachment and cordial co-operation, and find how good 
and how pleasant it is for brethren in the ministry to work together 
in unity. "Giving no offence that the ministry be not blamed," 
implies : — 

(3.^ The giving up in many instances that which is innocent, and the 
denymg yourselves of that which i& in itself lawful, that you may 
avoid shocking those prejudices which are founded, not in the 
wickedness, but, in the weakness of human nature. " All things are 
pure, yet it is good neither to eat flesh nor drink wine, nor anything 
whereby thy brother stumbleth, or is offended, or is made weak. We 
that are strong ought to bear the infirmities of the weak, and not to 
please ourselves. Let every one please his neighbour for his good to 
edification : for even Christ pleased not himself." ' << Though I be 
free from all," says Paul, <* yet have I made myself servant to all, that 
I might gain the more, and unto the Jews I became as a Jew, that I 
might gain the Jews, to them that are under the law, as under law 
that I. might gain them that are under the law, to them that are 
without law, as without law, (being not without law to God, but under 
the law to Christ) that I might gain them that are without law. To 
the weak became I as weak, that I might gain the weak. I am made 
all things to all men, that I might by all means save some." ^ And 
again, *< All things are lawful for me, but all things edify, not. Let 
no man seek his own, but every man another's wealth. Give none 
offence, neither to the Jew nor to the Gentiles, nor to the church of 
God, even as I please all men in all things, not seeking mine own 
profit, but the profit of many that they may be saved." ° Thus by 

Rom. xiv. 20, 21 ; xv. 1-3. * I Cor. ix. 19-22. « 1 Cor. x. ^,0^^^,^. 



58 Eeviewi and lAUrary NoHees. 

kieeping at a distance from all crime, by shunning the very appearance 
of evil, and by avoiding whatever might shock the innocent pre- 
judices of others, you will prevent that scandal olr offence by which 
the ministry ibight be blamed. 

(To be concluded nest month.) 



REVIEWS AND LITERARY NOTICES. 

CHRISTIAN CONSOLATION: or the Unify of the Divine 
Procedure, a Source of Comfort to Afflicted Christians. By Ae 
Rev. £« Maknerino. Royal 18mo. 810 pp. Jork Snow. 

Afflictiok is BO commonly the lot of man, that Job said, *' Man 
is bom to trouble." Suffering, in this life, is the lot not only of the 
wicked, but also of the people of God. David said, " Many are the 
afflictions of the righteous ;" and an apostle has said, " Whom the 
Lord loveth he chasteneth, and scourgeth every itfon whom he re- 
ceiveth." Many parts of the holy Scriptures have been designed to 
afford consolation to the people of God when in affliction. It is 
therefore the duty and privilege of Christians, especially when in 
affliction, to acquaint themselves with the gracious words of comfort 
and instruction which their Heavenly Father has addressed to his 
afflicted children. 

To instruct and comfort the suffering people of God, is the design 
of the volume now before us ; and we must say, that it is well adapted 
for the use of afflicted Christians. In the introductory address, the 
author has made some excellent observations upon the importance of 
giving due attention to the teachings of God's holy Word, and 
not allowing human productions, so to engage our time as not to 
leave sufficient leisure for reading and meditating upon the all-im- 
portant teachings of the sacred writings. He also, justly guards his 
readers against the mistake of supposing, that true spiritual comfort 
is to be obtained by the mere exercise of reading. Without the 
influence of the Holy Spirit, the Comforter, we shall not be able to 
derive real comfort from, even the reading of the holy Scriptures. 
Yet it is through the application of the knowledge derived from the 
Word of God, that the Divine Spirit, applies comfort to the afflicted 
soul ; revealing the love of God, who gave his Son to die f<Mr us, and 
bringing Christ the hope of glory into the heart. 

Notwithstanding the Word of God demands our primary attention, 
and is of supreme value for comforting afflicted Christians— yet, con- 
siderable benefit may also be obtained from human productions of a 
suitable character. The reading of the Scriptures does not supersede 
the necessity of attending upon the preaching and exposition of God's 
Word ; and many human productions are very valuable helps to our 
knowledge of the things of God. Hence, although the afflicted 
Christian, must apply to the Bible, and to the throne of grace 
for instruction and support^ yet there are other helps^ which, under 



Rmiws and IM&rairy NUiou. 59 

the Divine blessing, are likely to afiPord important couniel and 
encouragement. Such is the character of the volume bow before ub. 

The following are the leading topics, which the author has pro- 
pounded and discussed, for the instruction and encouragement of 
afflicted Christians.—" The Christian is an object of God's especial 
care. That afflictions are peculiar to the people of God. The nature 
and design of afflictive dispensations. The faithfulness and love of 
God manifested to his afflicted people. The effect of affliction on the 
impatient Christian, a proof of its necessity. The harmony between 
the purposes of God and afflictive dispensations. The relation which 
sanctified affliction bears to the death of Christ Affliction a medium 
through which the Holy Spirit ordinarily conveys spiritual blessings 
to the souls of men. Affliction considered in connexion with hi- 
lieving prayer. The unity of God's procedure illustrated by the 
variety of his dispensations. The relation which the Christian's 
afflictions on earth bear to his rest in heaven. The glorified Chris- 
tian more than compensated for all his afflictions. The practicid 
tendencies of faith in the unity of the Divine procedure. And, Chris- 
tian simplicity essential to Christian consolation." 

These topics are unfolded, illustrated and applied, in a manner 
well suited to instruct, comfort, and edify afflicted Christians. 
There are only a very few passages in the work to which we cannot 
fully subscribe. Those are such as encourage Christians to draw 
comfort from a belief of their personal election before they were 
born ; " that grace was given them in Christ before the world began." 
If we were to admit the doctrine of a personal election, which is 
irrespective of faith, either exercised or foreseen — ^we might then ask, 
how is it possible for any one to be assured that he has been so 
elected ? We know, indeed, that it may be said, that the bestowment 
of the grace by which the soul is brought to seek salvation by Christ, 
is evidence of such election. But have all who have believed 
themselves to be sincere seekers of salvation, given evidence, by 
their subsequent conduct, that they were personally elected to eternal 
life ? Many who have professed Christianity, and who, as . far as 
either themselves or others could judge, were once sincerely seeking 
salvation by Christ, have awfully fallen, and have died, without leaving 
any good reason to suppose they have gone to heaven. A timid 
Christian is very likely to doubt his personal election, as it, at the 
best, can only be known inferentially— but from such a belief some 
persons derive encouagement to continue in sin. We remember convers- 
ing with a person who had made a profession of Christianity, and bad 
preached the Gospel of Christ, but who had awfully departed from 
the ways of religion ; upon remonstrating with him, he assured us, 
" that he was satisfied of his personal election, for he was once a 
subject of the grace of God— that nothing but that grace could have 
eflBected in him what had once been effected, and he was sure that 
Grod would never have given him his Holy Spirit unless he had been 
'a chosen vessel ;' " and consequently, notwithstanding he had subse- 
quently awfully violated the laws, both of God and man, he, in his im- 
penitence, said, <* he was sure of his final salvation ! " Mr. Mannering, 
the author of the work before us> would^ we believe, be equally shocked 



60 lievUws and Lilerofy Natiees, 

with ourselves to hear such a statement from such a character. Hov- 
ever, the conclusion^ from the doctrine of personal election irrespec* 
tive of repentance and faith, either exercised or foreseen, was legiti- 
mately drawn. We are aware that it will be replied, that the man 
was deceiving himself in supposing that he had ever been the subject 
of Divine grace — this, however, be would not admit. But a sincere 
Christian may doubt his personal election, as the only evidence 
he can have of this election, if it be possible to have any, is that of 
his conversion to God, and his faith in Christ. What reaJ advantage, 
then, can the believer in his own personal election to salvation have 
over him who only believes the scripture testimony, that << Jesus 
Christ tasted death for every man,*' that God is " not willing that any 
should perish," and that "whosoever believeth in Christ shall not 
perish, but have everlasting life ? " It is not, now, our intention to 
investigate the doctrine of personal election, or its twin doctrine of 
personal reprobation. We only intend to show that this doctrine does 
not afford thiit special comfort to the afflicted believer, which some 
persons suppose it to be calculated to impart. On this point we differ 
from Mr. Mannering ; we are, however, happy, to be able to say, that 
the things about which we agree, as contained in his work before us, 
are numerous and important, and that our differences are very few, 
and comparatively unimportant. We shall now quote a few passages 
from the work. The first is from ;; the Chapter on, — •• Afflic 
tions common to the people of God {" the other from the Chapter 
on,— .« The honour and happiness of glorified Christians." 

'* It may be observed, that those whom the Holy Spirit hath pointed out in 
the Bible as distinguished from others bv absolute or comparative excellencies, 
have endured verv severe trials. In the eleventh chapter of the epistle to 
the Hebrews, faith and trial are placed in so close a connexion, as almost to 
lead us to the conclusion that believing and suffering are inseparable. Abra- 
ham, the father of the faithful ; Isaac, the child of promise ; Jacob, who 
wresded and prevailed with the Angel of the covenant; Joseph, Moses, 
Joshua, David, Elijah, Isaiah, Jeremi^, and Ezekiel, were all tried. Shad- 
rach, Meshach, and Abednego, were cast into a burning fiery famace, 
because they would not worship the golden image which Nebuchadnezzar 
had set up. Daniel, in whom was an excellent spirit, was thrown into a 
den of lions. The apostle Paul was called to suffer as well as to plead for 
Christ ; and in all his writings he teaches that those who would wear the 
crown must fight for it: ?eter assured his brethren that there was a ** needs 
be "for the. trial of their faith, and he exhorted them to the patient endur* 
ance of all their calamities, *< Beloved, think it not strange concerning the 
fiery trial which is to try you, as though some strange thing happened unto 
you ; but rejoice, inasmuch as ye are partakers of Christ's sufferings ; that 
when his glory shall be revealed, ye may be glad also with exceeding joy.** 
1 Pet. iv. 12, 18. 

Wherein then lies the sinffularity of your afflictions ? Are you treading 
an unbeaten path ? Is the Almighty, for the first time, teaching the world, 
through your trials, that the followers of his Son must be conformed to him 
in suffering ? Are your afflictions experiments which have never been tried 
upon others? Does the history of the church leave you In the dark as to 
the nature . and design of those trials by which your patience has been 
exercised? Are you without a companion in tribulation? Is the com- 
munion of saints a privilege from which you, the chastened of the Lord, 
jwe excluded t Why, the reverse of all this is the case. You are not alone 
/n the HirttMce of aOiction. Others ore there \ and man^ have been tried, 



JteviiWi and Literary Noticti. 61 

not only as severely as youneWes, but precisely in the same way, and by the 
lame means. 

Are you poor ? it may be well for you to read the history of the woman 
at Zarepbathy who, though she had only a handful of meal and a little 
oil in a cruse, was commanded to feed Elijah the prophet. 1 Kings xvii. 
1—16. 

Are you sick ? The touching account given by St. John of the family 
of Bethany, will afford you instruction and comfort. John xi. 

Are you persecuted, and then tempted to think your lot hard ? Tou will 
And both renuke and balm in the last nine verses of the eleventh chapter 
of the epistle to the Hebrews ; and also in that part of our Lord*s sermon 
on the mount, in which he refers to persons in your circumstances, for the 
very purpose of describing their blessedness. Matt ▼. 10 — 12. 

Are you a widow, just returned from the grave of him you so tenderly loved, 
to sigh over your loss, to deplore your solitude, and to ask, " How can I, the 
weaker vessel, struggle with cares which brought my huslNind to the grave V* 
Bo not, O do not, allow unbelief to deprive you of the comfort which the 
God of widows has so plentifully supplied you m his word. Naomi, and Ruth 
her daughter-in-law, were both widows, and God took care of them. Their 
history is a striking exemplification of the doctrine of a particular providence, 
and it will do you good to read it Ruth i.— iv. The woman whom Elisha 
directed to borrow empty vessels of her neighbours, and who had nothing 
in her house save a pot of oil, was a widow, and a widow in embarrassed 
circumstances, too ; for the creditor went to take her two sons to be bond- 
men : but who can doubt the interposition of Divine goodness on her behalf? 
2 Kings iv. 1—7. The time you spend in meditation and prayer over her 
case will not be lost. When our Lord was upon earth, a certain widow was 
so reduced as to have only two mites, which she cast into the treasury. 
Mark xii. 42. And when Jesus came nigh to the gate of the city called 
Nain, behold, there was a dead man carried out, the only son of his mother, 
and she was a widow. Luke vii. 12. The evangelist Luke has recorded 
for your instruction and encouragement, the pious devotions of Anna, a 
widow of about fourscore and four ^ears, Luke ii. 36—88 ; and as a sure 
mode of obtaining peace for' the mind and food for the body, widows are 
ducted to trust in the Lord.** Jer. xlix. 11 . 

But you may be a widower, lamenting that God hath taken awav the 
desire of vour eyes with a stroke. Should this be the case, your trials are 
not singular. The sacred historian informs us that Sarah died in Kiijath- 
arba, and that Abraham came to mourn for her and to weep. Gen. xxiii. 2. 
Jacob lost his beloved Rachel on his way to Bethel ; and before he left the 
place of her interment, he set a pillar upon her grave. Gen. xxxv. 19, 20. 

Are you an orphan — the son or daughter of parents, one or both of whom 
have departed to their rest ? Do not forget that Isaac lost his mother, and 
Esther, the niece of Mordecai, her father and mother too. Esther ii. 5—7. 

It is not improbable that some scoffer may have impugned your motives, 
slandered your reputation, and that your spirit, in consequence, may be deeply 
wounded. But this is not the first time innocence has bled, and you are not 
deprived of the pity and help of die God of righteousness, who defends 
the cause of all who trust him. *' Reproach,** said David, '* has broken my 
heart, and I am full of heaviness : and I looked for some to take nity, and 
there was none; and for comforters, but I found none.** Psa. Ixix. 20. 
And God hath made this promise for your support, a promise in every 
way suited to your circumstances—*' Fear ye not the reproach of men ; 
neither be afraid of their reviliugs : for the moth shall eat them up like a 
garment, and the worm shall eat them like wool: but my righteousness 
shall be for ever, and my salvation from generation to generation." Isa. Ii. 
7,8. 

Is your body diseased ? does the pain caused by it render )ouc da^a and 



2 Reviews and lAterary Notices. 

nights wearisome ? If the patriarch of the land of Uz, and HezeUahi king 
of Judahv could sit for an hour at your bedrside, and relate their saflferingSy 
you would not then think your own heayy. Job ii. 7^ 8 j Isa. xxxriii, 21. 

Have you been deprivedf—^whether wickedly by roan, or righteously by 
God, is not the question, — but have you lost the property which at one time 
enabled you to live in respectability and comfort^ and which you expected 
would meet the necessities and minister to the gratifications of your children 
after your death ! This must be a heavy trial, and one in which you need 
the presence and support, not so much of the creature, as of your Father 
who is in heaven. Still, your circumstances are not singular, and there is 
a controlling, dispensingpower, which, to be peaceful and happy , you must 
recognise and own. ''The gold and Uie silver are the Lord*s.'' Hag. ii. 8. 
'< He giveth power to get wealth ;*' and he sometimes takes what ne has 
given, Deut. viii. 18; Job. i. 21. '*The Most High ruleth in the kingdom 
of men, and he giveth it to whomsoever he will.'' Dan. iv. 17. Raohael 
and Leah said to Jacob, *< Are we not counted of our father as strangers 1 
iot he hath sold us; and hath quite devoured also our money.*' Gen. xxxT. 15. 
Those who are engaced in trade and commerce are liable to painful fe verses. 
What with competition on the one hand, and with overstocked and restrained 
markets on the other, connected with the concealed duplicity and detected 
hypocrisy of those who care not how they injure others, so that they benefit 
themselves, many a conscientious tradesman finds it difficult to maintain his 
credit, and to secure a fair remuneration for his capital and time. How 
strikingly applicable are the words of the wise man, to persons in these 
circumstances ! '* For what hath man of all his labour, and of the vexation 
of his heart, wherein he hath laboured under the sun P For all his days are 
sorrows, and bis travail grief ; yea, his heart taketh not rest in the night.'' 
£oel. ii. 22, 23. *' It is naught, it is naught, saith the buyer ; but when he 
is gone his way, then he boasteth." Prov. xx. 14. *' And as with the 
buyer, so with the seller, the earth also is defiled under the inhabitants 
thereof." Isa. xxiv. 2—6. 

And what if vou are called to occupy some servile post, to submit even to 
tiie drudgery of life ? Are not the goings of a good man ordered by the 
Lord ? Are not the bounds of his habitation fixed ? Is not he that is called 
in the Lord, being a servant, the Lord's freeman ? The Jews were brick- 
makers in Kgypt. — Exod. iii. 14. Jacob was Laban's servant, and we have 
his own account of the character and period of his servitude. ** In the day 
the drought consumed me, and the frost by night ; and my sleep departed 
from mine eyes. Thus have I been twenty years in thy house." Gen. 
xxxi. 40, 41. Joseph was a carpenter. — Matt. xiii. 55. Bezaleel and 
AhoHab were weavers. Exod. xxxv. 85. Zeehariah was porter of the door 
of the tabernacle of the congregation. — 1 Chron. ix. 21. Onesimus was 
a slave.«-Paul, Aquila and Priseilla were tent-makers. — Acto xviii. 3. 
Noah was a ship-builder. — Gen. vi. 14, &c. Lydia was a seller of purple. — 
Acts xvi. 14. David was a shepherd.— 1 Sam. xvi. 11. Boaz was a farmer. 
«— Ruth ii. 4. Peter and some other apostles were fishermen. — Matt. iv. 18, 
19. Luke was a physician.— Col. iv; 14. 

But time would fail us were we to attempt to enumerate all the occupa- 
tions and circumstances of God's people, noticed in the Bible. The few at 
which we have glanced are sufficient, surely, to convince you that there is 
nothing peculiar in your condition ; and that you are bound to pursue the 
course to which God hath called you, with a cheerful countenance and a 
loyful heart. Connected with the duties just adverted to, there must have 
neen cares and disappointments such as Christian people now experience, 
excepting only the difference occasioned by the age of the world, and the 
customs and climate of the country." * * * 

Hay we ooty then, reach the apostle*s conclusion—** that the sufferings 



BivUws and IMerary NMet$. 68 

of diis present time are not wofthy to be eompared with the glory that shiU 
be revealed in us ?^ 

Paul did reaeh this conclusion ; but he did not reach it hastily, nor 
without evidence. He placed the trials of earth and the joys of beaten in 
joxtapondony and then decided upon the case, recording his oonviction that 
the one was unworthy of a comparison with the other. Take the idea of 
number^ — the joys of heaven are infinitely greater than the sorrows of earth ; 
the idea of weight,-— the one are light as air, the other are more substantial 
than the pillars of the universe ; Uie idea of degree, — the one just make up 
a cup that may be drank, the other constitute a fathomless, a shoreless 
ocean ; the idea of duration, — the one are but for a moment, the other are 
for ever. 

Was not the apostle right, then, in the judgment he formed ? But, it 
may be asked, if we joys of heaven so far exceed the sorrows or earth, why 
did he institute a comparision between them? Why? Just because it was 
the Lord's will that his people should, by comparing one thing with another, 
be induced to think much of the end of their journey, and but little of the 
way, and because he wishes them to be happy in time as well as in eternity. 
P^ul knew also the trials to which the Lord s saints were exposed in his day, 
and the consolation they needed to enable them to bear up under them. He 
was further aware that some of them were tempted to think their lot a hard 
one. Hence he brought before them the cross and the crown,— the conflict 
and the spoil, — the storm of time and the calm of eternity. 

There were, moreover, certain convictions and feefings which he was 
anxious to produce in their minds. 

He wished to convince them that the terms of discipleship were not hard. 
Hear this, ye afflicted saints, and ponder it The terms of disdnleship, even 
when goods were confiscated, when persons were imprisoned, wnen life was 
sacrificed, were not hard. Even then God dealt mercifully, kindly with his 
church. And will you complain of your trials ? To be glorified with Christ, 
you must sufier for him the afflictions which he lays upon you. Of this you 
have no doubt. You gave up your hearts to the Lord, assured that, if you 
enjoyed the consolations of his Spirit, you must bear and do his will ; and 
the prospect of trial did not deter you from making unreserved consecration 
of yourselves to his service. You were told that you would have to enter 
the kingdom through much tribulation, and you believed it. At the very 
moment you took up his cross, you touched his sceptre ; and you swore 
allegiance to his cause at the very time you apprehended the assault of his 
foes. Your oath of fidelity was their signal of attack. As you entered the 
pasture to feed, you were apprised of the struggle that awaited you. You 
were called to part with sin for Christ, and you hesitated not to — 

'^ Tread the world beneath yonr feet, 
And all that earth calls good or great.*' 

You expected afflictions, and you have had them. But, do not think that 
they have been either too many or too heavy. You may have had trials 
which others have escaped ; but, in all probabilitv, you have received bles- 
sings which have been withholden f^m them. If the Bible be true, the 
more you are tried, the more you are blessed. Much of your knowledge and 
expenence is attributable to sanctified affliction ; and, but for the piercing 
thorn, you would have been unconscious of the virtue of the balm that 
heals. Comparing, then, your present enjoyments with your afflictions, you 
cannot say that the terms of discipleship are hard. But how disproportioned 
are your sorrows here, and the glory that shall be revealed in you hereafter ! 
The terms of discipleship hard I— on the contrary are they not easv ? The 
apostle wished suffering Christians to feel that they were easy. Will you say 



64 Reviewi and Litttafy NoHees, 

they are not easy ? No, you cannot say this f for what are the perils 6f a 
short voyage to the land of promise that lies before you ? Storms may beat, 
fears may arise, it may be difficult for you to make way against wind and 
tide ; but the vessel is safe, your Father is at the helm, and you must reach 
the shore. How trifling are your present inconveniences, to the glorious 
treasure in store for you 1 Heaven is near. A moment or two more, and 
heaven is your own. And can you get to heaven so soon, and in circum-r 
stances so merciful ? Is it true that eternal day will certainly succeed this 
short night of storms ? — that upon the termination of your conflicts you will 
receive a crown that fadeth not away ? And will you, can you complain ? 
For your salvation Christ bled and died ;— the Father bruised him for you. 
The chastisement of your peace was upon him. By his stripes you are 
healed. For your sakes he endured the contumely and rejproach of a wicked 
world. He died thatyou might live, and endured his Father*s frown that 
you might enjoy his Father's smile. He was afflicted for your sakes, but he 
opened not his mouth. He meekly bore tbe burden, and sunk that you might 
rise : and rise you will. After you have suffered awhile, he will make you 
perfect, stablish, strengthen, settle you. In his righteousness you shall be 
exalted. Already he has taken you out of the miry pit and horrible clay, 
and establised your goings ; and soon he will bid you rise from earth, once 
the scene of his triumphs. 

And will you, dare you murmur ? Your rest is above. The Lord throws 
his shield over you. He appoints your path. He weighs and measures 
your afflictions. £very moment of your life, every step of your journey, 
every incident of your history, bears testimony to his wisdom, faithfulness, 
and love. He has been with you, is still with you, and he will be with you 
to the end. And can you not trust him day by day ? Will you not confide 
in him with child-like confidence P To live in peace, and so to live as to 
glorify his name, you must live one day at a time. Prudent arrangements 
respecting the affairs of this life are not opposed to his will — they are in 
harmony with it. Yet, as there is to be no boasting of to-morrow, there 
ought to be no unbelieving care about it. Live by faith upon the Son of God, 
and you will be prepared for the events of life as they arise. 

** What may be my fature lot, 
Well I know concerns me not; 
What the Lord appoints is best. 
This should set my heart at rest." 

Indeed it should. *^ The lot is cast into the lap, but the whole disposing 
thereof is of the Lord.*' Prov. xvi. 33. You are safe here, and you may 
be happy ; and when you take possession of your allotted heavenly portion, 
you will be more than compensated for all your trials. 

With this impression, afflicted Christian, bear your trials, and pursue your 
course. The prospect of glory had an influence upon the Saviour's mind, 
and upon the minds of those who early suffered in his cause. ** For the 
joy that was set before him, he endured the cross, despising the shame ;** 
and in a great fight of afflictions, they took joyfully the spoiling of their 
goods, knowing in themselves that they had in heaven a better and an endur- 
ing substance. Heb. xii. 2 ; x. 34. The hope of heaven should influence 
you in like manner. Why, else, are these glorious prospects disclosed P The 
mind is so constituted as to be influenced by the hope of that which is future 
---especiallv when the anticipated good far exceeds the good in actual posses- 
sion. And God has revealed to you so much about heaven, that you might 
calmly bear the changes of earth, exclaiming — ** None of these things move 
me, neither count I my life dear unto myself, so that I might finish my 
course with joy," 



On Public Warship. 65 

When Christ's disciples sorrowed, by what means did he seek to turn their 
sighs into songs ? Did he divert their attention from the afflictions which he 
knew were ooming upon them ? or did he simply promise them support 
under their sufferings, and leave them without any distinct intimation of his 
will respecting their condition in another world? No. He admonished 
them of danger, apprised them of approachine calamities, and assured them 
that they should have a place in his heavenly kingdom. ** Let not your heart 
be troubled : ye believe in God, believe also in me. In my Father's house 
tsre many mansions : if it were not so, I would have told you. I go to 
prepare a place for you. And if I go and prepare a place for you, I will 
come again, and receive you unto myself ; that where 1 am, there ye may be 
also." Johnxiv. ]— 3. 

From the preceding extracts our readers may conclude, that the 
work is well adapted to administer important instruction, and rich 
spiritual consolation to suffering Christians. By attending to the 
lessons which this excellent volume inculcates, they will derive, from 
the sanctified influence of their afBictions, all those spiritual and glo- 
rious advantages which their heavenly Father designs them thus to 
receive. We do not remember any work which would be a more 
suitable present to send to a Christian friend who is mourning under 
pain^l dispensations of Divine providence. 



FOX'S BOOK OF MARTYRS. Edited by the Rev. John Gumming, M.A. 
Royal 8vo. Part XXX. G. Vibtub. 

This is a work which ought to be possessed by every Protestant family. It is 
aD invaluable record of the horrible cruelties practised by a papistical state church. 
This part contains a portrait of Queen Mary, during whose reign so many Pro- 
testants were put to death, for refusing to profess to believe the doctrines which 
the church established by law, and the civil government, unitedly, professed and 
resolved to compel the people to believe. 

THE SEQUENTIAL SYSTEM OF MUSICAL NOTATION: an entirely 
New Method of Writing MusiCf in strict conformity trnth Nature^ and essentially free 
from aU obscurity and intricacy. With Explanatory Plates. By Aathua Wall- 
saiDGE. Wm. Stbange. 

The design of this work is clearly expressed in its title. We are not sufficiently 
skilled in musical science to be competent to pronounce an opinion upon the 
merits of the proposed new system of musical notation. 



ON PUBLIC WORSHIP.-No. II. 

(For the Wesleyan Methodist Association Magazine,) 
PRAYER. 

How important the duty ; how solemn the act of prayer ! Prayer is a 
distinct recognition of the Divine existence; an acknowledgment of the 
attributes, and perfections of Deity. It implies a belief in the omnipresence, 
omniscience, infinite power and benevolence of God ; and of man's sub- 
ordinate and dependent relation to him. But in connection with Divine 
revelation, and the teaching of God*s blessed Spirit, much more than this 
is implied in the prayer of a human being. It is the language of a conscious 
sinner, and humble penitent, seeking mercy and salvation in the divinely 



iS6 On PubUe Wonhip. 

appointed way: the devout offering of a heart deepljr impreffed with a 
•ense of the goodness of God; and the expresrion of an earnest desire, 
felt in the inmost soul, for the eiyoyment of blessines needed, and {>romised. 
If, therefore, there is a single act of a man's life which demands sincerity ; 
a moment when every feeling should be absorbed In the nrofoundest 
humility — surelv it is when man, a sinner and rebel against nis Maker, 
presumes, whetner in public or in private, to address the Divine Being. 

Prayer to God has oeen represented by the infidel school as worse than 
useless; — as an absurdity; and an insult ofi^ered to Deity. It has been 
said that the Great first Cause is necesssrilv, so infinitely exalted above the 
petty concerns of human creatures, as totaUy to disregard them ; — to pray 
to him therefore would be an act of folly. That provided the Almighty 
were in anv way to interest himself in the affairs of men, yet as he must 
know, infinitely better than man, what is suited to him, and as his own 
benevolent nature would prompt him spontaneously to bestow the good 
which may be needed, so, to ask such things would be deroeatory, as an 
attempt to instruct the Divine Being; and, as imnlying a £>ubt of hia 
willingness to give what is necessary, prayer would carry with it the 
character of an insult I 

We, however, "have not so learned Christ." The Almighty has 
represented himself, to us in his own word, in all the greatness of his 
character as a Divine Being; yet as deeply interested in everything that 
relates to man's happiness. As "looking down from heaven** upon the 
children of men, taking cognizance of their affairs ; and declaring that no 
circumstance however minute, and apparently insignificant, escapes his 
vigilant notice. And yet, notwithstanding the perfect knowledge which 
God has of man*s circumstances and wants, and the infinite delinit mani- 
fested by him in supplying them, he has said, that for these things " he 
will be enquired of.* The whole tenor of scripture therefore, as well as 
enlightened reason justifies, and enforces, the duty of praying to God as 
obligatory upon man. 

In Divine worship, prayer must necessarily constitute an important 
element ; and no worship offered by human beings can be supposed, to be, 
suitable to the character of man, or acceptable to Deity, winch does not 
include much sincere and fervent prayer. The ordinary routine of our 
relidous services on the Sabbath day, includes two separate occasions of 
public prayer : but it has long been a subject of doubt in my mind, whether 
more prayer, and less of preaching in those services, would not be most 
in accordance with the professed object of our assemblinff together. It will 
scarcely be affirmed, I am disposed to think, that the wish of the inspired 
apostle, that prayer should be offered " for all men/' in the large and com- 
prehensive sense which appears to be intended in the passage, can be 
realized in the limited opportunities afforded in our usual public services, 
as now conducted. It is a numan infirmity to run into opposite extremes, 
and in avoiding what may perhaps be consido'ed in many instances, an 
unnecessary repetition in the formulary of the church of England, and in 
seeking to guard against formality ; may it not with some show of reason, 
be said, that we have fallen into the opposite error, and have left ourselves 
without sufficient opportunity of entering into the holy exercise of prayer 
and supplication, in our usual Sabbath day services, in the way, and to the 
extent, which is the duty of every Christian congregaUon ? 1 am well aware 
that we have among us special occasions for united intercession, when the 
members of the church may associate together, and in 'Miftlng up holy 
hands without wrath or doubting,** may bring before the throne of the 
heavenly grace, man in every condition and circumstance of life, but it 
appears to me that it is in the "great congregation,'* in the ordinary assem- 
mmg of ourselves together for Divine worship^ that the catholic and 



On Public Warship. 67 

mivasal prayer ^'for «U a&ets and eooditiont of men,'* should rather 
he <^red up. Much, therefore, as I should feel it a duty to guard agaiost 
unnecessary ehange in our system, it would I think be worth a serious 
eonsidenitioii, whether in public worship, as conducted in our Connexion 
the pmcHee of proffer could not by some judicious and suitable arrange- 
ments, be more extensiyely promoted ; and by such means our religious, 
worship be made to bring ourselves, onr families, and firiends, the church, 
and the whole world, into more frequent and close contact with the God of 
all grace, for his blessing and salvation. 

I will not dwell upon what may be considered the elementary parts of 
public prayer, which are said to be, ''invocation, adoration, confession, 
petition, pleading, dedication, thanksgiving, and blessing;** nor would I 
suffgest tluit every such part should be found in the ordinary course of the 
Sabbath day Divine worship. There are, perhaps, however, some distinct 
portions of prayer which a minister of the Gospel, speaking before God 
as ihe representative of a public congregation, should never omit. For 
instance, confession of sin is on every such occasion absolutely indispensable ; 
for O ! how Innumerable are the sins of an entire people ; and what sorrow 
and contrition ought to accompany such exercises I Thanksgiving is another 
necessary part of prayer, which I am of opinion should never be neglected : 
every day we live, showers of blessiDspi are poored down upon us, whatever 
may be omr condition in life ; but, alas, how prone we are to forget them, 
and the hand that bestows them ; and instead of offering thanks for what 
we have received, man is more frequently found lamenting the absence 
of other gifts ; indulging the cravings of an unsanctified, and ungrateful 
heart. With these, there are other portions of public prayer which the 
occasion, the general character of the congregation, and other circumstances, 
will naturally suggest to a minister ; and which ought not to be overlooked. 
More particularly, it may be remarked, for the sick of the church and con- 
gregation ; — ^for those who are called to suffer family bereavements, and are 
passing through the furnace of affliction ; and especially for the young. 
But we are directed to pray '* for all men ; for kings and all that are in 
authority ;** and not only so, in order, that we may '' lead quiet and peaceable 
tives,** but also for the higher reason assigned, namely ; that God ''will 
have all men to be saved, and to come unto the knowledge of the truth. ** 
It 18 evident, therefore, that the prayers and intercessions of a minister of 
Christ, publicly engaged, must not be bounded by the wants and necessities 
of the persons within the hearing of his voice, or the ordinary limits of his 
congregation. Preachers of the Gospel should not forget therefore that it 
is a dmtyj imposed upon them, by the highest authority they recognise, when 
praying in the great congregation, to ask the Divine blessing upon the 
sovereign oi these realms, and upon the government, legislative and executive, 
under which we live. And that by their example, the people of their charge, 
and the congregations to whom they minister, are to be taught the true 
nature of the reugion of Jesus Christ ; which offers a provision of mercy to 
every human being, and seeks the present and future welfare of all mankind ; 
and teaches them, in the language of prayer, offered at the feet of the com- 
mon Father and Saviour of all, to acknowledge themselves members of the 
universal family of man, and as interested in everything that promotes its 
happiness. 

I^yer, as a part of public worship, to be effective — so far as relates to 
the congr^iation — should not be too lengthened; and must be fervent. 
Several reasons might be assigned why long prayers are not generally suitable 
in public ; but it may perhaps be sufficient to state, that it is difficult to 
preserve the mind in a public congregation, in a proper state of devotion for 
a lengthened period ; and that probably, about twelve minutes^ consecutively, 
is the utmost, unless under an extraordinary influence, — that a minister can 



66 



On Public Worship. 



appointed way: the devout offering of a heart 
sense of the goodness of God; and the expri*- 
felt in the inmost soul, for the enjoyment of blcs 
If, therefore, there is a single act of a man's lii'i 
a moment when every feeling should be al 
humility — surely it is when man, a sinner ::. 
presumes, whetner in public or in private, to :: 

Prayer to God has been represented by t: 
useless ; — as an absurdity ; and an insult - 
said that the Great First Cause is necessari! 
petty concerns of human creatures, as to^ 
to him therefore would be an act of f ' 
were in any way to interest himself iii 
know, infinitely better than man, what 
benevolent nature would prompt him 
which may be needed, so, to ask fi. 
attempt to instruct the Divine Beini: 
willingness to give what is neccssa 
character of an insult ! 

We, however, "have not so 
represented himself, to us in hi^ 
character as a Divine Being; yo* 
relates to man*s happiness. Ap 
children of men, taking cognixiP^ 
circumstance however minute, 
vigilant notice. And yet, no* 
God has of man's circumstanc 
festcd by him in supplying' 
will be enquired of." The 
enlightened reason justifies. ' 
obligatory upon man. 

In Divine worship, prfiv 
element ; and no worship «♦' 
suitable to the character 
include much sincere ai. ' 
religious services on th* 
public prayer : but it has 
more prayer, and \e^< 



• • rv 

li.ed'! 

..• rci>es ; 

witered in 

' >ii'^rv*ei''^iion 1 

tiieir pride of 

;>in the world as 

.qlc desire towards 

- to be acceptable to 

. must he J'ervent {"^ii 

lieart. 3 Jut fervency of 

. as its medium, nor does 

.. There is danger, indeed, 

.: the mere excitement of 

c coding from the heart. It 

and may be as truly found 

. and with the still small 



in accordance with the * 
scarcely be affirmed, J 
apostle, that prayer si 
prehensive sense wi 
realized in the limt. 
as now conducted, 
and in avoiding wi 
unnecessary f qi t iit l 
seeking to gPiiU ^'^ 
be uid, ^mjl^km 



• .'i to be shown that it was im- 

t .he ^actuary, by a lengthened 

.uing an opportunity at the close, 

.Aiuiut surely be less improper to 

«iia«nce which prayer gives to man 

■«.v*u. liierefore, ministers should take 

... iiiv .'ur the concluding prayer. It is 

^•.v% -Miiy be w confused in hb thoughts 

^, > -^1 t«i iC the close that he had been 

.1^\«>. uid possibly that, to a considerable 

.^ , i^fc ci :he service be terminated by a 

...J.i ;)« wMOgregatioo shall feelingly unite, 

. > ^.ifiicicncy ; and the audience will not 

* ^1 . tv .Hticr iioad if a ready utterance, and 

.. .>%v4ikavT. 4nd he feels able to say all that 

. ^» VivmL^u »*tt die subject, yet, if the apostle's 

.4^» «aiu. 4iid Apollos water, but that God 

. ««i .utv 'tiiui who has the least concern to 

c. ,iv»waw ^uhgut sincerely and earnestly, 

»*. U'*'»» '»'* <<RjcCi to do good? Besides, 

.iv u«fe^*« ot* oar congregations may be 

^!.>» *itv\ aunii^ the sermon, have probably 

%v>«*ca« ^i^v*c6». and who, at the close, if 

.iiMuicc account of the nature of the 

,Hii tcv dM seed sown be, as it were, 

^ , _ 4ra those seeds which still remain 

^' Jv *uoK may then possibly take root, 






* ' BtBlmikm ef EAieaOon. 69 

'<ng1e lenteoce of the lennon may not 

^ be completely loBt that has been 

^f the service, the concluding 

'bingelse has failed. Some 

'ocher's voice, and the 

inn concern for the 

:i of the unconcerned, 

iinisters would do well 

:ic ])art shall not be made 

>■ ;:ui]ty of defrauding the 

. in the congregations of his 

linisli a discourse or not, — if 

■ at deal unsaid, which he may 

:.e full time, which ought to be 

rcdiy reserved for that solemn duty, 

•n prayer, as a part of public worship, 

lund uniformity in the repetition from 

1 am quite aware that the two evangelists, 

II— possibly neither of them — make use of 

!i were uttered by our blessed Lord, when, 

, iiu taught them "how to pray;** and in the 

iilcnce as to words, it is prooable that the form 

<i all the churches in this Kingdom was adopted ; 

:i)ii, it would be well universally to follow. The 

•^^y, which those who depart from the usual standard 

iitiun of this sublime prayer, is frequentlv great ; — some- 

thc extraordinary, and even occasionally bordering on the 

the most dangerous innovation is that, which goes in 

.:rn the great principle upon which the moral government 

is man ismised; namely, that of rendering to him according 

;o others ! Hence we sometimes hear, words to the following 

.v\y uttered from the pulpit: — "Forgive us dur trespasses, and 

' forgive ihem thai trnpuss against vs." Whereas we are taught 

: I II d' distinctly, throughout the whole of God*s blessed book, and in 

:. passages in so many words, that the measure of our forgiveness of 

- • who ouendf or tresptsi against us, will be the exact rule of the Divine 

.jiveness of oar tins, or trespasses against himself. I would respectfully 

n-commend to any who may have hitherto felt a disposition to depart from 

the usually adopisd form of the Lords prayer, to consider whether there 

realiy is any advantage to be obtained, which will sufficiently compensate 

for the ineoDvenieDeef (to me the mildest term) to congregations, by the 

adoption of mch an erratic eourse. It is not too much to assert, that the 

more flimirie^ and aniform, ministers of the Grospel are in a matter of such 

vitid importanee as this, in which every congregation in Christendom is 

mtereated, the more probable it is, that the peopte at large will be instruct^ 

in aooDd doetrinei ana built up in the true faith. 



ON THE ABILITY OF THE ASSOCIATION TO 

EXTEND EDUCATION. 

2fm. EniTom, Dbab Sib, 

Yfama I wrote to jon on Saturday last I had not seen the January Bfagazine, 
and but Toy few of the articles in the J>eeember one ; it having banj^ened 
thalldil nugetmjreogfy untiU oar quMrtaij meeting, held on the \iillu»\anl« 



70 On the Extension of BdueaHon^ 

was over, or I probably might have said somethiDff in reply to your enqniriei, 
** What ought, can, and will the Wesleyan Methodist Assodation now do in 
furtherance of the cause of general education ? ** 

I have read over, carefully, the communications published in this month's 
Magazine from your correspondents, '* A Tbacbeb, ' and '< Enoco,'* in reply 
to these enquiries, the former, affirming with confidence that '* the Assodanon 
can do something '*»and the latter suggests what it ought and can do. 

Now Sir, what the Association ought to do, must necessarily, I apprehend, 
be determined by its ability ; and what it will do, ought to be judiciously 
regulated by its obligations and ability conjointly. 

These are the points, therefore, which should first be settled ; and it is 
only fair, before the Connexional Committee finally decide what to recommend 
the Association to attempt to do herein, that we should not onlv *' talk over 
this subject," but also communicate our various sentiments in reference to it, 
that we may ascertain what they generally are, or a measure may be recom* 
mended which would fail for want of the necessary means* 

The point of obligation in the Association to do what it can, I readily 
concede, and therefore the business rests entirely on the hinge of its ability. 

Permit me then to say, that for the Committee '' to devise an efficient plan 
for extending the benefits of education by Sabbath and Day schools*' — 
excluding the means, would be an easy taskf but to raise the means for 
carrying it into efficient and extensive operation, would, I think, be an 
arduous undertaking : I thus judge from past experience, and I therefore, 
venture to point out for the serious consideration of our SANauiHB VBixHnt, 
the following facts :— 

1. That although the Minutes of the Annual Assembly, report 26,216 
members in our Societies ; by a careful analysis of the Report, it will be found 
that we must deduct the number on our Missionary stations, (4959) those in 
connexion with the Scottish churches who manage their own pecuniary affidn 

i242) and the number of member^ in 32 out cf 58 of our CircuiU (4622) who 
lad grants made them, by the last Annual Assembly, exceeding their ordinary 
and extraordinary contributions, by the sum of £782 IBs, 7d. leaving only 
16,393 members in the other twenty-six Circuits, and only these, I apprehend, 
can be expected to do anything in furtherance of general education ; and even 
some of these Circuits in order to meet the expectations of the Annual 
Assembly, in affording their usual or increased aid, suffer their own financies 
to remain considerablr embarrassed : moreorer, notwithslandinff the liberty 
of those Circuits, which have contributed to the general fund, the A^nnal 
Assembly, for some years past, has had a large increasing amount of ^hunis 
made upon it, by which it has not only been necessitated to incur a considerable 
debt, (the balance due to the Treasurer in August 1842, was £562 Os. 24d.) 
but has also been greatly cramped in its operations of usefulness ; and although 
extraordinary exertions were made during the past year for the liquidation oi 
this debt, the balance is reduced by only £l63 10s. 5|, and there still remains 
£398 98. 9d. to be liquidated. 

2. They ought to bear in mind, that the Association has abeady been 
called on to do extraordinary things, in the building of chapels, in establish- 
ing Sabbath schools, and in calling out and supporting a ministry in some 
degree equal to the wants and expectations of tne people ; that as a large 
majority of our preachers are married men with families, for their accom- 
modation, it has been necessary to rent houses and furnish them, by which, 
to a considerable extent, the means of the liberality of many of its friends, 
are, as it were, mortgaged for years to come ; and that of the twelve preachers 
now on trial in the Association, nine of them will have completed tne period 
of their probation the next Annual Assembly. 

3. They must allow me also to state for their information, that the 
Annual Assembly of 1843, resolved on the establishment both of a chapel 



On the Ihuensian of EdueaHan. 71 

f uin>, and ▲ bbnbficbht fuvo : the farmer, which is intended to render 
assistaDoe to trustees of chapels secured to the Connexion, and to prevent the 
necessity for appeals of a private character ; the Chapel Fund to be supported hj 
annual collections and by private subscriptions; the Beneficent Fund by 
nivate subscriptions only, the object being '' to assist such of the Itinerant 
machers as from personal affliction shall be rendered unable to discharge the 
duties of the Itinerancy, and whose circumstances may require pecuniary 
assistance/' 

4. They must, moreover, excuse me if I remind them that the Thank- 
OFFBRiN Q-FUNB, whlch has becu four years before the Association, has reached 
in amount only equal to about one third of what was at first anticipated ; and 
that, I believe, chiefly by the princely contributions of our Rochdale brethren. 
Its objects are (Ist.) For the benefit of aged superaouated Itinerant preachers 
and their families, to the amount of 40 per centi (2nd.) To grant donations 
to those aged local preachers whose long continued gratuitous services in the 
diurch of Christ, general excellence of character, and necessitous circum- 
stances may render deservine of pecuniarv aid 20 per cent, (drd.) For the 
extension of Sabbath schools in the destitute parts of our Connexion 20 per 
cent. And (4ih.) For the assistance of the Home and Foreign missions and 
other objects of a connexional character 20 per cent. 

Now Sir, here are enumerated various important objects of a connexional 
character, which demand attentive consideration. If applications are made 
throughout our Connexion in behalf of the Chapel and Beneficbnt Funds, 
they will be in addition to the claim* of previously introduced (Ejects, Allow 
me then to ask are these two objects to present their claims to the beneficence 
of the Association for their due establisnment ? Or are they to be superseded 
by the one involved in your enquiries, and remain in steUu quo t If the former 
is intended, I am very doubtful of the propriety of adding a third object, 
however laudable; and am still more doubtful, of. the ability of the Association 
to do justice to them all : I again repeat, therefore, that to devise an efficient 
plan for extending education would be an easy taeh\ but to raise the 
necessary means an arduous undertaking: let the zeal of our friends be 
tempered with prudence, or in their benevolent exertions they may outrun 
themselves : hence the necessity of checking their ardour by reminding them 
of facts which, peradventure may have escaped their notice : nor ought we to 
forget the ordeal through which many of the friends of the Association in 
connexion with trade have passed, (but from which our itinerant brethren 
have happily been exempt) which has scathed them to the quick, and it will 
require more years of steady and profitable trade to recover from, than will, 
it is to be feared, fall to their lot. 

Will you, then, do me the favour to lay these thoughts before the 
Association through the medium of its Magazine; that whatever the 
Committee may recommend the Association to attempt, may be after careful 
examination and full consideration of its present state and future prospects. 

I remain, Dear Sir, 

Yours very truly, 

JoAH Mauuksoh. 
Leeds, January 11, 1844. 



Another Communication. 

Mb. EniTOB,— Deab Sib, 

The subject of General Education has of late occupied the attention of a 
class of individuals who have not hitherto paid much attention to the matter ; 
but the discussions that have arisen in consequence of the introduction of the 



72 ' The Extension of Education. 

Factories' Education Bill into Parliament, and its rejection by the country, 
have placed the whole question, in some respects, in a new light. Minds of 
the highest order have uken it into consideration, and we have the results 
of their various deliberations exhibited before us. It has long been the 
opinion of some in this neighbourhood, who have been actively engaged in 
Sunday school instruction, that it is impossible to establish, in this country ^ a 
National plan of Education. It may be done in France, Prussia, and in some 
other countries, but our Institutions totally prohibit it ; and after due investi- 
gation, it appears that not only the Established Church, but the Conference 
Wesleyans, and Dissenters have come to the same conclusion ; and that each 
denomination must undertake the work of general education in connection 
with their own religious bodies as far as their means will allow. We have 
beheld with admiration the extensive efforts already made by the Established 
Church, the Conference Methodists, and Independents; but as it is not 
likely that the Wesleyan Methodist Association can, at present, do any thing 
on a large scale, they must be contented to use their local means to the very 
best advantage. 

In most of our Circuits there are Sunday schools ; and, no doubt, the societies 
conducting and supporting them will, in many instances, feel it their duty 
immediately to make arrangements that their school-rooms may be usefully 
occupied during the week as Day schools, if they are not already so occupied ; 
and that thus the wants of their neighbourhoods may be supplied. Another 
duty will be to procure suitable and efficient teachers ; and every facility will 
be granted by the British and Foreign School Society, Borough -road, 
London ; which will render all the assistance in its power in the establish- 
ment of day schools. This Society has a very valuable Institution, in full 
operation, for preparing teachers suitable to the work. 

The contributions of the scholars will not be sufficient, in general, to 
defray the expences of teacher's salary, rent, cleaning, books, &c. ; but the 
deficiency must be made up by local subscriptions. In those cases where 
new schools are required, asistance, no doubt, can be obtained from the 
Privy Council, through the British and Foreign School Society, and grants 
towards the erection of buildings. I fully expect that the amount set apart 
for this object by Parliament, during the next session, will be considerably 
increased, and it is desirable that the application should be made as early as 
possible.* 

You will perceive that I have been aiming, by the above short remarks, 
to prevail on every society in our body immediately to set to work, we cannot 
reap except we sow, but these suggestions can be acted on at once ; and it is 
imperative on us to do every thing within our power in aiding and assisting 
that the rising generation may be blest with a substantial general Christian 
education. I deem it unnecessary to enter on any discussion as to the pro- 
priety or necessity of such a movement : I consider that to be fully settled, we 
nave done right to wait for the determination of the larger societies, but as 
that is now before us, our way is plain, let us endeavour to do our duty, and 
have a committee of education formed in eyerj circuit to carry out the 
object as far as practicable. 

Manchester. B. S. 

♦ To apply to Government for grants in aid of the support of either clerical 
or scholastic instruction, is, virtually to acknowledge it to be the duty of Govern- 
ment to levy taxes for such purposes, and to exercise such control as it may 
think needful to secure the proper application of such money, in the commuuica- 
tion of approved instruction. Regardinf^ this as fraught with great danger to our 
civil and religious rights, we cannot join in recommending any act involving 
this principle. Ed. 



73 



IMPROVEMENT OF SABBATH SCHOOL TEACHERS. 

Mr. Editor, — Dear Sir, 

Enconraffcd by a request from our last Quarterly Meeting, ** That all who 
could should do somethiog in support and aid of the Magazine," and by the 
fact that it is ever open to any proper suggestion that may have for its 
obiect the -weal of mankind, I venture to trespass upon its pages and the 
indulgence of its readers. '* What otight, caUy and wilt the Wesleyan Metho- 
dist ^Association do in furtherance of the great Educational Movement/' are 
questions which of late have been frequently put to us through the medium 
of our Magazine, and have gone the round of our Connexion, I would answer 
those questions by asking another, — Cannot we, as an Association, help on 
this " March of Intellect" bv raising the ItUellectual condition of the teachers 
of OUT Sabbath schools ? If this can be accomplished we shall be co-opera- 
ting with, and giving an impetus to, the laudable efforts which other Churches 
are making for the diffusion of useAd knowledge. Is it not to be regretted, 
on visiting our Sabbath schools, to find among their teachers so much 
intdlectwU sterility f At the head of twelve or more juveniles men whose 
caDabilities for such situations are any thing but competent ; to hear them 
hooblinsly spell a monosyllable, or vulgarly pronounce a word, or, perhaps, 
to see uem. secretly, made the butt of riaicule by some clever boy in the 
class, is a state of things much to be lamented; vet for its existence we can 
vouch, as can many of your readers. None will ouestion that to teach we 
should ourselves be taught. If an individual has tne work at heart, surely 
the task of a little seff cultivation will not cause him to forego his labours and 
to quit this most interesting department of ''God's vineyard." For the 
Sanday school teacher, especially, there are manv incentives to the cultiva- 
tion oi his mind. In common with other men, wno " Hide not their talents 
in a napkin," he should drink in the soul filling and mind refreshing draughts 
which are obtainable only at the springy of Helicon. Along with these 
enjoyments he would have the untold pleasure of communicating his know- 
ledge to others. How it would enhance his delight when surrounded on the 
Sabbath by his little ones to know that he was furnishing them with facts 
which womd benefit them through life ; and how his hands would be borne 
tip with the thought that, perhaps by his unremitting efforts he was rubbing 
off the crust from some oright gem that ere long might shine in the con- 
stellation of genius. The Bible would not be & ' Dead letter ' to him, its 
doctrines he would understand ; with its histories, countries, its cities, and 
tbeir localities he would be acouainted ; and with the manners and customs 
of their inhabitants he would be familiar. In one word he would be what 
one in his important situation should be A Teacher, Without further 
darkening counsel with words^ I would say to each Sabbath school teacher, 
let UM he assiduous in the cultivation both of heart and mindf and we shall 
confer a boon on the present and yet imbom generations of our youth, and 
shall leave the world better than we found it. ^y way of encouragemeat and 
conclusion I would offer the old proverb, — ** Labor omnia vincit*" 

Leeds. S. K. 



" Questions to be asked by the Visitors of the Wesleyan Methodist 
jissociation Sabbath Schools in the Leeds* Circuit. 

1 What 18 the number c^ Children, male and female, in the School 

at present? 

2 How many of the Scholars are at Work during the week, and how 

many attend a dav-school ? 

3 What is the number of Teachers, male and female, Superintendants, 

and other officers ? 



74? Neglect of the Lords Table by Teetotallers. 

4 How often do the Teachers attend the School, and are they punctual 

in their attendance ? 

5 Do the Teachers hold Monthly Meetings for Prayer, and for the 

Management of the School ? 

6 Are the sick, and absent, Children regularly visited ? 

7 Is there a Select Class for the elder or more seriously disposed 

Children, and bow is it conducted ? 

8 Have you a Library for the School, how many Volumes does it contain^ 

and how is the money raised for its support r 

9 Do you supply the Children with Bibles, and Hymn Books, by receiving' 

their weekly subscriptions ? 

10 Are the Modern Improvements in teaching introduced into the 

School ; if not, for what reason ? 

1 1 What number of Teachers were once Scholars in this, or any other, 

Sunday School, male and female ? 

12 How many of the Teachers, and Scholars, are joined in Church-mem- 

bership, male and female ? 

13 Have you seen any Fruit of your labour, either among the Children, 

their parents, or in the neighbourhood ? 

14 What is the general State of your School, prosperous or decreasing ? 

If the latter, what is the cause ? 

15 What is Ae Annual Expenditure of the School, and how arc the 

Funds raised ? 

The Visitors are reauested to pay particular attention to the Organization 
and Dbcipline of tne Schools ; tne mode of teaching with reference to 
Modern Improvements ; the formation and encouragement of Libraries ; 
the supplying, the Children with Bibles and Hvmn-Books; teaching 
them to sing; and the establishment of select Classes. Also to obtain 
answers to the above questions, and report them to the General Com- 
mittee. 

Thb SECBBTABifis of the Schools are requested to call a Meeting of the 
Teachers before each Visit, and to obtain from them such information as 
they[ may require, to enable them to answer the above Questions ; and 
to give aue notice in the School, of each Visit. They are also requested 
to place the Visitors' Plan in some conspicuous part of the School, so that 
the Teachers may be lidly aware of eacn Vislt/^ 



NEGLECT OF THE LORD'S TABLE BY TEETOTALLERS. 

We have received a communication from a teetotaller, on the subject of, 
the neglect of partaking of the communion of the Lord's Supper practised 
by some teetotallers, on account of the use of fermented wine at that 
ordinance. We have not room this month for its insertion, and besides 
which, we fear that it might possibly give rise to an unpleasant and unpro- 
fitable discussion. Nevertheless we think it not improper to advert to some 
of the points noticed by our correspondent. He strongly condemns the con- 
duct of those who, for the reason above mentioned, neglect to join in com- 
memorating the Lord's Supper. He admits, that he would prerer the use <^ 
unfermented wine in that ordinance, but contends that it is sinful, simply on 
account of the use of other wine, not to communicate. He also suggests that 
it would not be improper for an arrangement to be made to meet the 
scruples of those who refuse to use fermented wine, so as to allow them to 
have unfermented wine at the Lord's table. Such is our respect for scruples 
of conscience, that we would strongly recommend such an arrangement. In 



75 

■ il at the 

'. and the 

i cume to 

Imvc expc- 

in to have 

.my of the 

.: to be irn- 

. iuur used at 

nti'd; and as 

\n 1)0 used, in 

matter of rcil 

1 1 link that in 

.1 ube, in cons- 



up 
Mr. 
elation, 
presided 
■ dsing man- 
ike, (Baptist), 
^iopwood, and 
upriate speeches, 
.le disappointed, in 
a strangers whom we 
be present with us to 
..via one of the most interest- 
lite -of the roost productive 
m regard to money) ever 
'■Hk connection with the As- 



.!s circumstance has 
j Drlant lesson, which 
iiially learned before, 
xtra elfori is required 
ue should not depend 
.i lorei»<i* help, but em- 
...oly our own resources 
■, depend injy especially 
■;iiised help of God. The 
the evening were as fol- 
.ce friends gave £5 each, 
■Is gave £l each, ten friends 
-. each. Collection and sub- 
1 at the meeting £7. The pro- 
of the tea amounted to £lO ; 
.0 trays were kindly furnished 
IS for the occasion. The sum 
vd\ thus obtained was £42. Before 
iJie tea meeting, in order to liquidate 
the debt, three friends gave £143, 
which, added to the £42 obtained at 
the meeting, amounts to £l85. We 
expect to have permission to wait 
upon the friends in other circuits, and 
hope to raise £ 120 by that means, so 
that we have the pleasing expectation 
of being able very soon to clear off 
£300 of the debt upon our chapel. 
The friends are in good spirits upon 
the subject ; I hope that when the 
appeal to the Connexion is made it 
will be met with a hearty and cheer- 
ful response. After singing and prayer 
the meeting broke up about ten o'clock. 
We held our Quarterly meeting on 
the 18th of last month. Our numbers 



74? Neglect of the Lords Table by Teetotallers. 

4 How often do the Teachers attend the School, and are they punctual 

in their attendance ? 

5 Do the Teachers hold Monthly Meetings for Prayer, and for the 

Management of the School ? 

6 Are the sick, and absent, Children regularly visited ? 

7 Is there a Select Class for the elder or more seriously disposed 

Children, and how is it conducted ? 

8 Have you a Library for the School, how many Volumes does it contain^ 

and how is the money raised for its support r 

9 Do ^ou supply the Children with Bibles, and Hymn Books, by receiving' 

their weekly subscriptions ? 

10 Are the Modern Improvements in teaching introduced into the 

School ; if not, for what reason ? 

1 1 What number of Teachers were once Scholars in this, or any other, 

Sunday School, male and female ? 

12 How many of the Teachers, and Scholars, are joined in Church-mem- 

bership, male and female ? 

13 Have you seen any Fruit of your labour, cither among the Children, 

their parents, or in the neighbourhood ? 

14 What is the general State of your School, prosperous or decreasing ? 

If the latter, what is the cause ? 

15 What is the Annual Expenditure of the School, and how arc the 

Funds raised P 

The Visitors are requested to pay particular attention to the Organization 
and Dbciplinc of the Schools ; tne mode of teaching with reference to 
Modern Improvements ; the formation and encouragement of Libraries ; 
the supplying the Children with Bibles and Hvmn-Books; teaching 
them to sing ; and the establishment of select Classes. Also to obtain 
answers to the above questions, and report them to the General Com- 
mittee* 

Thb Secbbt ABIES of the Schools are requested to call a Meeting of the 
Teachers before each Visit, and to obtain from them such information as 
they may require, to enable them to answer the above Questions ; and 
to give aue notice in the School, of each Visit. They are also requested 
to place the Visitors' Plan in some conspicuous part of the School, so that 
the Teacherg may be fully aware of eacn Visit.** 



NEGLECT OF THE LORD'S TABLE BY TEETOTALLERS. 

We have received a communication from a teetotaller, on the subject of, 
the neglect of partaking of the communion of the Lord's Supper practised 
by some teetotallers, on account of the use of fermented wine at that 
ordinance. We have not room this month for its insertion, and besides 
which, we fear that it might possibly give rise to an unpleasant and unpro- 
fitable discussion. Nevertheless we think it not improper to advert to some 
of the points noticed by our correspondent. He strongly condemns the con- 
duct of those who, for the reason above mentioned, neglect to join in com- 
memorating the Lord's Supper, He admits, that he would prefer the use of 
unfermented wine in that ordinance, but contends that it is sinful, simply on 
account of the use of other wine, not to communicate. He also suggests that 
it would not be improper for an arrangement to be made to meet the 
scruples of those who refuse to use fermented wine, so as to allow them to 
have unfermented wine at the Lord's table. Such is our respect fbr scruples 
of conscience, that we would strongly recommend such an arrangement. In 



lieligious Intelligence, 



75 



some of our societies both fermented and unfermented wines are used at the 
Lord's table. Notice is given as to which wine is first to be used, and the 
coRununicants choose for themselves which they will receive, and come to 
the table accordingly. We have presided on such occasions and have expe- 
rienced no difficulty. It is much better to adopt such a course than to have 
any contention in the church on such a subject, or to have any of the 
Members of the church neglecting the ordinance. We believe it to be im- 
possible^ for any person to ascertain what kind of wine our Saviour used at 
the institution of the ordinance, whether fermented or unfermented ; and as 
the Scriptures give no information respecting the kind of wine to be used, in 
commemorating of our Ix)rd*s Supper, we conclude, it is not a matter of real 
importance as to what kind of wine is used. At all events, we think that in 
the absence of explicit information, we may allow others to use, in com- 
municating, such wine as they can conscientiously take. 



RELIGIOUS INTELLIGENCE. 



YORK. 

Dear Sib, 

On Tuesday the 14th of November 
last, the annual Chapel Fund tea party 
of the Wesleyan Methodist Association 
was held in the chapel, Lady Peckett's 
Yard. Some of the friends had enter- 
tained fears that in consequence of a 
tea meeting to be held at the same 
time, in another part of the city, by 
the Independents, the number of our 
visitors would not be so large as usual, 
but those fears were dissipated ; soon 
after five o'clock 240 persons sat down 
to tea, and were amply supplied. The 
company appeared delighted with the 
arrangements made by the Committee 
appointed to superintend the aiiair. 
After the tea, the writer commenced 
the proceedings oi the evening by 
givmg out a hymn and offering up 
prayer to the giver of all good. Mr. 
Terry, a tried friend of the Association, 
was <»dled to the chair, and presided 
in his usually able and pleasing man- 
ner. The Rev- J. Clarke, (Baptist), 
Messrs. Pickwell, Hopwood, and 
Hollins gave appropriate speeches. 
Although we were disappointed, in 
every one of the strangers whom we 
expected to be present with us to 
assist, it was one of the most interest- 
ing, and one of the most productive 
meetings (in regard to money) ever 
held here in connection with the As- 



sociation ; and this circumstance has 
taught us an important lesson, which 
some had only partially learned before, 
that when any extra effort is required 
to be put forth we should not depend 
too much upon foreif^u help, but em- 
ploy more largely our own resources 
and energies, depending especially 
upon the promised help of God. The 
proceeds of the evening were as fol- 
lows.— Three friends gave £5 each, 
five friends gave £l each, ten friends 
gave 10s. each. Collection and sub- 
scription at the meeting £7. The pro- 
ceeds of the tea amounted to £lO: 
all the trays were kindly furnished 
gratis for the occasion. The sum 
total thus obtained was £42. Before 
the tea meeting, in order to liquidate 
the debt, three friends gave £143, 
which, added to the £42 obtained at 
the meeting, amounts to £l85. We 
expect to have permission to wait 
upon the friends m other circuits, and 
hope to raise £ 120 by that means, so 
that we have the pleasing expectation 
of being able very soon to clear off 
£300 of the debt upon our chapel. 
The friends are in good spirits upon 
the subject ; I hope that when the 
appeal to the Connexion is made it 
will be met with a hearty and cheer- 
ful response. After singing and prayer 
the meeting broke up about ten o'clock. 
We held our Quarterly meeting on 
the 18th of last month. Our numbers 



76 



Religious Intelligence. 



were 117 full members, and eleven on 
trial ; during the year 1843 we have 
increased seventeen full members, and 
nine on trial, as twelve months ago 
we stood 100 full members and two 
on trial. Praise the Lord for his 
favour and love. Our seats in the 
chapel are letting better, the congre- 
gations are good, we are rising in 
public confldence, we have a good 
prospect before us, and having entered 
upon the New Year we have renewed 
our covenant engagements with God, 
and resolve to use our talents and 
energies in the service and for the 
glory of Him whose we are and whom 
we ought to serve. 

January, 1844. F. Baowv. 



MACCLESFIELD. 
To THE Editor, 
Dear Sir,— When I lef\ the Wes- 
leyan Connexion in March 1836, I 
left through, what I then conceived to 
be, the improper, unmethodistical, and 
anti-scriptural, conduct of certain per- 
sons in power, in that religious body. 
Since that time I have read, thought, 
and conversed upon the subject of 
Church Government, and from the 
whole I feel persuaded that our move- 
ment, at the time referred to, (to say 
the least of it) brought us, in Church 
polity, nearer to the great principles 
of the New Testament. Admitting 
that our principles have been deserted 
by some of those persons who formerly 
espoused them, and that our success 
has not been equal to our desires and 
hopes, yet, the importance of these 
principles is not thereby lessened. It 
has generally been the lot of great 
principles to have to contend with 
difficulties, but perseverance ensures 
success. I desire most sincerely that 
those principles which we, as a religious 
body, have espoused, may prevail to 
the utmost extent ; and in connection 
with this desire I may just say I have 
long thought that one way of accom- 
plishing this desirable object, would 
be to extend the circulation of our 
Magazines. When I came to Maccles- 
field, last August, I found the number 
of Magazines coming to this circuit 
was six, I then re«oived| if spared to 



the end of the year, if possible, I would 
increase the number. I commenced my 
efforts in the beginning of December, 
and I am happy to be able to say, that 
those efforts have not been made with- 
out some measure of success. The 
order for the month of January was 
as follows : — Seventeen large, and 
thirty-nine small Magazines, so that 
the increase is eleven large and the 
whole of the small Magazines. I 
trust many other circuits will have to 
report a similar increase, and most 
sincerely do I pray that the reading 
of the Magazines may be made a great 
blessing to the persons who have 
engaged to take them ; and that thereby 
the principles of our Connexion may 
be propagated, and the Redeemer's 
kingdom enlarged. I subjoin an ac- 
count of a meeting lately held in this 
town. 

On Monday, Dec. 25th, the friends 
held their annual tea meeting, in our 
chapel, when about 225 persons sat 
down to tea. After tea, the meeting 
was opened with singing and prayer, 
and Air. Thomas Burgess, the super- 
intendent of our Sunday school was 
called to preside. The meeting was 
addressed by the Rev. J. Lindley, 
(General Baptist), myself, and Messrs. 
Lunt and Ainsworth (local preachers 
of this circuit). Several pieces were 
then sung by the choir, and several of 
the Sunday scholars gave some recita- 
tions, which appeared to be highly 
interesting to all present. It ought to 
be stated, to the credit of the friends, 
that twelve of the trays were furnished 
gratuitously. The clear profit realized 
by the tea meeting was £9 10s. 7d, 
which is to be apropriated to the funds 
of the chapel. The Trustees feel, that 
they are laid under obligation to the 
friends who came forward so liberally 
to assist them on the above occasion ; 
and more especially to Messrs. Dun- 
calf and Broadhurst, who acted as 
secretaries, and exerted themselves to 
the utmost to render the meeting inter- 
esting to the friends, and advantageous 
to the trustees. 

Should you think the above worthy 
of a comer in our valuable Magazine, 
its insertion will oblige, 

Yours, very truly, T. Kix. 



Religious Intelligence. 



77 



SCARBOROUGH. 

To THE Editor, 

Dear Sir, I have been desired to for- 
ward to you, for insertion in the Maga- 
line, some information respecting the 
attempts we have recently been making 
towards liquidating the debt upon our 
chapel in Scarborough. In doing so, 
I may be allowed to state that, when 
t)ie time for holding the anniversary 
tea meeting had nearly arrived, we 
resolved on making an effort to get 
the trays furnished gratuitously; and 
although this was quite a new thing in 
oar society, yet by a little perseverance 
we happily succeeded. We engaged 
the Odd Fellows Hall, and had an 
attendance of more than 350 persons, 
who all sat down to tea. A number 
exceeding, by 100 persons, the average 
attendance on former occasions. After 
the tea, addresses were delivered by 
the Revds. M. Beswick, (Associa- 
tion), B. Evans, (Baptist), and Mr. 
S. Wyrill, Senr. On making up the 
accounts, it was ascertained that the 
proceeds of the tea and the collector's 
boxes, which included two years col- 
lections, and a donation of £lO, left 
a nett balance of £43, towards the 
liquidation of the chapel debt. Such 
an amount was never realised at any 
previous tea meeting in this circuit. 
On the whole it was considered to be 
the most interesting public meeting we 
have had in this town. 

A few months ago we were visited 
with a gracious revival of religion in 
our society, and upwards of thirty 
persons, who were then savingly brought 
to God, still hold on their way. We 
are looking for a more extensive work ; 
and our prayer to the Great Head of 
the Church is that he may again visit 
us with the special tokens of his Divine 
presence and blessing. O for more 
diligence, perseverance, and zeal, — 
diligence which is opposed toslothful- 
ness, indifference, and inattention, — 
perseverance which never flags or shews 
signs of langour and hopelessness, — 
and zeal which burns incessantly day 
after day^and month after month, a 
high, holy, and influential zeal. I am 
fully of the opinion. Sir, that if the 
members of the Chui^ch of Christ were 



living in the enjoyment of a higher 
standard of moral purity, than that 
which they now experience, and if 
there were more of a spirit of self-denial 
and a determination tocome out boldly 
and prominently to unfurl the banners 
of the cross, and to beseech men in 
Christ's stead to be reconciled unto 
God, we should be a thousand timet 
more successful in turning men from 
darkness to light, and from the power 
of Satan unto God. ** Save nmo, I 
beseech thee, O Lord : O Lord, I 
beseech thee, send now prosperity.'' 
M. Beswick. 



NANTWICH. 
To THE Editor, 

Dear Sir.— Many of our friends who 
take the Magazine have frequently 
expressed their disappointment on 
account of the paucity of articles of 
Connexional intelligence. I wish my 
brethren, the preachers, would more 
frequently send you such communi- 
cations; but I dare not say much, 
lest they should retort "Physician, 
heal thyself. " I, however, promise 
to do something in future, more than 
I have done, in sending intelligence, 
and present you here with the first 
instalment; which, should you deem 
it will be interesting, you can insert 
in the Magazine. It is an extract 
from my note book of a fortnight's 
labour. 

December 10th, Sunday. Planned 
this day at Nantwich ; commenced by 
renewing tickets of a class meeting, 
at half-past nine o'clock ; found the 
members apparently prospering in 
their souls, and felt encouraged; 
preached at half-past ten, from John 
i. 12; the congregation was pretty 
good, and there was, I think, a good 
feeling. In the afternoon renewed the 
tickets of two classes, and preached at 
six o'clock to a numerous congrega- 
tion ; a very powerful influence ap- 
peared to rest upon the people during 
prayer, and the sermon, on Elijah's 
interrogation, " How long halt ye be- 
tween two opinions," was listened to 
with deep seriousness: the prayer 



78 



Religious Intelligence. 



meetinjir ^as not so numerously at- 
tended as I had expected ; but there 
\rere four or five persons who ex- 
pressed their penitence, three of whom 
promised to meet in class. My soul 
had been drawn out tliroughout the 
whole day in strong desires for the 
salvation of sinners ; my expectations 
were by no means fully realized, still 
I felt that I had cause to thank God 
and take courage. 

Monday, tlih. Preached at Rease 
Heath (one mile and a half distant), 
at seven, p. m., to a good and attentive 
congregation ; one young woman un- 
der serious impressions, and desiring 
to unite with the people of God, but 
in service, and unable to attend class. 

Tuesday, 12th. Met four classes 
at Nantwich, and renewed their tickets. 

Wednesday, 13th. Appointed this 
day at Stoke upon Trent, in Stafford- 
shire, (sixteen miles distant.) Mr. 
Smith, our circuit steward, kindly 
lent me his horse. 1 had a safe and 
pleasant journey ; preached at seven, 
P.M., and gave tickets. I trust the 
services were profitable. 

Thursday, 14lh. Planned at Wor- 
leston, nineteen miles from Stoke ; 
rode back to Nantwich, and walked 
to Worleston (three miles) ; took tea 
with a kind lady, a member of the 
Wesleyan Society, and preached to 
a good congregation ; had a good 
time; afterward met the class, and 
renewed tickets. Gave tickets to two 
persons whom God has made me the 
instrument of reclaiming from a back- 
sliding state during the past quarter; 
God was with us, and we rejoiced 
together. Walked home with a tired 
body, but somewhat refreshed in spirit. 

Friday, 15th. Walked in the after- 
noon to Hunkelow (five miles), from 
whence brother Massie drove me in a 
gig to Market Drayton, Salop, where 
we have lately opened a mission. I 
preached at half- past six in a house 
almost crammed with people, who lis- 
tened with deep attention. I after- 
wards gave tickets to nine full mem- 
bers, and to four on trial ; 1 was much 
pleased with the aspect of the mission. 
The people seemed most reluctant to 
leave the house after preaching, and 
some waited about the door until the 



class had concluded. Left Drayton 
about 8 quarter-past nine, reached 
Hunkelow about half-past ten, and 
after taking some refreshment, started 
on my solitary walk home, at eleven ; 
being dark and rainy, my walk was 
not a pleasant one, but the Most High 
was my defence. 1 reached home 
about half-past twelve o^clock. 

Saturday, 16th. Walked to Mins- 
hull Vernon station (six miles and a 
half), and rode thence to Winsford. 

Sunday, 17th. Renewed tickets at 
half-past nine o*clock ; preached at 
Winsford at half-past ten; walked 
after dinner to Clive Green (one mile 
and a half), preached at half-past two, 
p. M., and administered the Lord's 
supper; A good time. Walked back 
to Winsford, and preached at six ; felt 
considerable liberty in preaching, and 
believe serious impressions were made 
on many minds. Met three classes 
afterwards, and gave them tickets. 
Experienced much good ; congrega- 
tions very encouraging. 

Monday, 18th. Forenoon and after- 
noon visiting members and others. 
Had an interesting and profitable time 
with a backslider, afflicted in body 
and soul; she appeared deeply hum- 
bled, and nigh to the kingdom of God, 
Preached at half- past six, p. m. to a 
very excellent congregation, and re- 
newed the tickets of four classes after- 
wards. Very weary. 

Tuesday, Idth. Spent morning in 
visitation, afternoon walked to Swan- 
low Lane (2 miles), preached there ; 
congregation rather small; renewed, 
tickets of members. 

Wednesday, 20th. Morning walked 
home to Nantwich (eight miles), led 
my class in the evening, and preached* 

Thursday, 21st. Broomhall (tliree 
miles and a half), congregation not 
very large ; a good feeling ; and in the 
prayer meeting afterwards a young 
female sought the Lord, and after a 
brief struggle, of perhaps twenty min- 
utes, the Lord set her soul at liberty, 
or, to use her own words, made her 
unspeakably happy. I returned home 
much tired in body, but joyous in 
mind. 

May the drops fall thicker, may a 
plenteous rain speedily fall on God's 



Obiiuary. 



79 



heritage, and the wilderoess become a 
fruitful field. 

Thomas A. Bayley. 



IPSWICH. 

To THE Editor, 

Dear Sir, — From a full conviction 
of the necessity of a special effort to 
re? ive the interests of religion amongst 
OS, we resolved to hold a series of 
protracted meetings, in the humble 
hope that, under the Divine blessing, 
this desirable object might be thereby 
promoted. Accordingly, these meet- 
ings were held on the 4th, 6th, and 
8th of December, when Messrs. 
Dnimmond and Jones delivered brief 
lectures on the following subjects : 
vix. the state of man as a sinner ; the 
way of salvation by Jesus Christ; 
Christian communion; the encour- 
ai^ements to exertion in the cause of 
Christ ; death ; and, judgment. The 
meetings were opened with singing 
and prayer ; a verse or two was sung 
between the lectures ; and the services 
of each evening were closed with a 
prayer meeting. The attendance at 
these meetings was equal to the ex- 
pectations of our friends, and we trust 
that the seed sown will vegetate, and 



ultimately yield an abundant har- 
vest. 

On the 26th of December we held 
our quarterly tea meeting, when be- 
tween sixty and seventy persons sat 
down to partake of the exbilerating, 
but not inebriating cup. After tea, 
the chair was taken by Mr. Jones, 
the minister on the circuit, and 
the meeting was addressed by Messrs. 
Loveweil, Drummond, Balls, Pea- 
cock (General Baptist), Johnson, and 
Rushbrook. The speeches were in- 
teresting and appropriate, and a feel- 
of mingled seriousness and gladness 
appeared to pervade the minds of all 
present. 

On the 31 St of December we en- 
deavoured to improve the flight of 
time, by holding a watch-night. The 
writer preached a sermon suited to the 
season, and impressive addresses were 
delivered by Messrs. Johnson, Love- 
well, and Drummond. The attend- 
ance was far beyond our most san- 
guine anticipations. Solemnity seemed 
to rest on every spirit. We fervently 
pray that the stream of time may 
eventually bear ns into the ocean of 
a blisful eternity. " God be merciful 
unto us, and bless us, and cause his 
face to shine upon us. Selah.'' 

Wm. Jones. 



OBITUARY. 



Died, at Whitehaven, on the 22nd of 
May, 1B43, Hannah, late wife of Mr. 
Jonathan Seaman, under the following 
distressing circumstances : — 

On the 16th of May, being very 
busily employed in her temporal du- 
ties, it is supposed, by her medical at- 
tendant, she had overreached herself, 
which brought on internal inflam- 
mation, which speedily terminated her 
earthly career. For a period of five 
dajrs and a few hours her sufl^enngs 
were great, but being favoured with 
the gracious presence of the Son of 
God, she was enabled to endure them 
with exemplary patience, and finally: to 
conquer tne fast enemy. To add to 
her afBietions, her husband had sailed 
only fourteen days previous for Ame- 
rica, and consequently was ignorant of 



the sufferings of his beloved partner. 
During her illness she frequently prayed 
that God would give him grace to sub> 
mit with resignation when he should 
hear the sad tidings of her death, and 
that he might be preserved on his way 
to heaven. She frequently reflected, 
with gratitude to God, on the precious 
privileges she had enjoyed in her child- 
nood and youth, in the Methodist Sab- 
bath school, then under the superin- 
tendance of Mr. Richard Gordon, under 
whose instructions she received her 
first religious impressions, and whom 
she greatly respected to the end of her 
life. 

This Sabbath school training, through 
grace, kept her, to a certain extent, in 
the fear of God ; but about eight years 
since her impressions were deepened. 



80 



Poetry. 



and while a few friends were praying 
for her, she obtained forgiveness of 
sins, peace with God, and a sure hope 
of heaven. 

As soon as she overcame her natural 
diffidence, she went to her esteemed 
Buperintendant's class, where she ob- 
tained much good, and was regular in 
her attendance until prevented by do- 
mestic circumstances. Being thus de- 
prived of this precious mean of grace, 
she did not make that rapid progress in 
the divine life which she sincerely de- 
sired, but ever retained a considerable 
degree of the love and fear of God. 

For the last eighteen months she 
received much good in all the means 
of grace, but particularly after she 
began to meet in a female class, held 
in the preacher's house, and often said 
to her leader, that her husband, her- 
self, and family, never prospered so 
much spiritually and temporally as 
when they were both regular at their 
class, and all the other means of grace. 

During her short, but severe illness, 
her conversation was chiefly spiritual, 
and so deep were the impressions of 
death upon her mind, that three hours 
after she was siezed, she said to her 
pious sister, * O Elizabeth, this is 
death I this is death ! ' Of her two 
little boys she spoke with the deep 
emotions of a most affectionate, yet 
dying mother; but confidently and 
prayerfully commended them to God. 
On one occasion, being rather over- 
come with the natural yearnings of a 
mother's solicitude, she suddenly ex- 
claimed, * O what will become of my 



children ? * Her sister said, * I will 
take care of them till Jonathan comes 
home.' With much emphasis, she said, 
' May the Almighty bless thee, now I 
am satisfied ; * adding, * Why am I thus 
taken up with worldly things ? ' 

On Sabbath, the Slst, I administered 
the sacrament to her, and it was a most 
gracious season, the Lord's presence 
filled the room. 1 left her sayine, 
" Bless the Lord, O my soul, and all 
that is within me bless his holy name." 

On Monday morning she had strength 
to repeat, with her sister, those beau- 
tiful lines, — 

The Lord of Sabbath let us praise. 

In concert with the blest ; 
Who, joyM in harmonious lays. 

Employ an endless rest. 

And having said, to a dear friend who 
stood by her, * Do you think I shall be 
long? come Lord Jesus, and come 
quickly.* She was removed from the 
bed to an armed chair, and in a few 
seconds her happy spirit fled (without 
a struggle or a groan) to the bosom of 
her God, with whom she now lives and 
reigns. 

On the following Sabbath evening 
her sudden and happy death was im- 
proved, by the writer, to a very large 
and deeply affected congregation, from 
Ecdes. viii. 8, ** There is no man that 
hath power over the spirit to retain the 
spirit ; neither hath he power in the 
day of death t and there is no dischai^e 
in that war." 

J. Thompson. 



POETRY. 

TRUE RELIGION. 



Tritb ReUgioD, be thou mine 
To guide my feet, point oat my way, 

A ligbt apon the path to shine 
That leads me on to endless day. 

This fallen world, without thine aid, 
Presents a gloomy vale of woes. 

With ills and snares my path is laid ; 
Within are fears, without are foes. 

This changing scene, the tide of life 
So ebbs and flows, each day and hour } 

If fair the mom, the eve is rife. 
With some portentious gath*ring shower. 

Without thine aid, some sudden shock. 
Like thunder loud, or llght'nings glue, 

May dash me on presumptions rock. 
Or plunge me into wild despair. 

Secure in thee, I calmly meet 
Stem disappointment loss or grief} 

LUkeard, 



In thee a treasury complete, 
In scenes of want a sure relief. 

Upheld by thee, m safely go 

Through life, a smooth or rugged road. 
Nor flattering fHend or flowing foe, 

Shall turn or drive "me flrom my Gkxl. 

When down the vale of life I tread 
Towards the grave my Journey's end. 

Not death shall make my heart aflraid. 
The King of terror is my friend. 

And when on Jordan's brink I stand. 
Relying on thy power to save. 

When full in view the promisM land, 
I'll fearless cross the swelling wave. 

WhUe Canaan's land, (deUghtftd view), 
Invites my soul its bliss to share ; 

With steady pace may I pcrsue. 
The guide that will conduct me there, 

R. RBTALI.1CK. 



T. C. JOHNh, PRINTER, B«a UonC«m,V\«fV S\t«\. 



THE 

WESLEYAN METHODIST ASSOCIATION 

MAGAZINK 



MARCH, 1844. 



MEMOIR OF THE LATE MISS ELIZABETH GALLOP. 

By Mr. Thomas Ellery, 

Direful is the sway of death — friends and relatives, neighbours 
and acquaintances, are severed by his cruel stroke, and the kindred 
spirits that once blended their sympathies together, and were united as 
one soul, are separated, — at least for a season. 

Our respected young friend, Miss Elizabeth Gallop, was born at 
Blagdon, in the county of Somerset, Feb. 7th, 1816, of parents who 
were anxious to promote her happiness, according to the extent of 
their ability. At an early age they sent her to the Sabbath-school 
connected with the Established Church. The kind instructions of her 
teachers, under God, were made a blessing, inasmuch as by the light 
of Divine truth she was brought to a discovery of her wretched, miser- 
able, and lost condition through sin. For several months she conti- 
nued in this state, weary and heavy laden, groaning the sinner's only 
plea, " God be merciful to me,'* The distress of her soul was so great, 
that at length it affected her constitution so, that fears were entertained 
of her speedy dissolution. Immediately medical aid was obtained, but 
it proved ineffectual. Her friends had mistaken the disease ; it was 
the disease of sin which had branched itself throughout the whole of 
her system. With the Apostle Paul, she felt, '< in me, that is in my 
flesh, dwelleth no good thing." It was the great Physician of souls^ 
with his sovereign balm, that she needed; but no one seemed to re« 
commend Him, until October, 1836, when she went to reside at Worle, 
in the family of Mr. W. Rich. Here she soou heard of Him who is 
able to heal all diseases of the soul, and of His blood, precious blood, 
which gives to the wounded conscience ease. In the use of the means, 
she ardently sought the application of the precious balm to her heart. 
Thank God, she did not seek in vain ; although she could never declare 
the exact time when it was first applied by the Holy Ghost to her 
conscience ; yet she knew it had been sprinkled upon her heart, for 
she could call God, Father << by the Holy Ghost given unto her." Now 

i\ 



82 Memoir of the late Miss Elizabeth Gallop. 

her affections were loosened from earth, and fixed upon the Saviour ; 
hence she said — 

"Thee will.I love, my strength, my tow'r, 
Thee will I love witn all my heart." 

That such was her determination appeared throughout the whole of 
her subsequent life. She was greatly attached to the worship of God's 
house. It may be truly said of her, she '* loved the gates of Zion." 
She highly appreciated all the means of grace : the class meeting she 
greatly prized. She was, indeed, '< a companion for all them that 
feared God." Her language often was, '* Blessed be the God and 
Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who hath blessed us with all spiritual 
blessings in heavenly places in Christ" 

The word of God was her constant delight ; her Bible had a place 
in the shop ; yes, and in her heart ; she meditated on it day and night : 
like the Psalmist, she " treasured it up in her heart, that she might 
not sin against God." Every leisure moment was either employed in 
reading God'^ holy word, or in private supplication to the throne of 
the heavenly grace. Hence she said to a friend, a little before her 
happy exit, " Frequently in the shop I have had sweet intercourse with 
my heavenly Father, while imploring his special blessing upon myself, 
my master and family, my fellow servants, my Christian friends, 
iny own family, the church, and the world." Her walk was close 
with God, and her heart was full of God : heaven was always beaming 
in her countenance. Her uniform conduct, evenness of disposition, 
exemplary piety, and genuine humility, endeared her to all who knew 
her, and testified that she had been with Jesus, and learned of Him." 
Her whole life harmonised with the Christian character as portrayed 
in the word of God;-<-yes, she was '< faithful and feared God above 
many." 

She aimed at living to glorify God, both in her body and in her 
apirit, by endeavouring to advance the interest of His kingdom in every 
possible way. In the Sabbath-school she was very active and useful, 
labouring assiduously as one that must " give an account ;*' to many 
of the children she was made a blessing ; some of them, I have no 
doubt, '< will be the crown of her rejoicing in the day of the Lord 
Jesus." 

The salvation of her parents she ardently panted after ; this is evi- 
dent from the following extracts taken from her letters :— '< We have 
just entered upon another year. Many of our neighbours, during the 
last year, have been called away by death, but God has spared us as 
monuments of his mercy. I hope, my dear father, this will be the 
year that you will resolve with Joshua, ' As for me and my house we 
will serve the Lord.' I think of the value of your soul, the shortness 
of time, and the duration of eternity. my dear parents, may we be 
found among the few that are striving to walk in the narrow path that 
leads to life. We may have trials and difiiculties to encounter, but 
heaven will make amends for all. We know that while we are in thb 
world, we are commanded to be diligent in business, but fervent in 
spirit, serving the Lord. Please to forgive me for being so plain on 
this subject. I know the Lord has done much for my soul ; and I am 



MBHunr qf fhe lat» MU$ EUzabeA ChtUcp. 63 

anzions that you, my dear parents, should feel the same. I hope my 
dear brothers wiU begin to think about these things : they are not too 
young to die ; the death of poor sister Sarah reminds us of this ; I hope 
to see you soon." In a subsequent letter, she writes :<— <' I think I 
never heard of so many sudden deaths ; and this should be a warning 
to us. ' Be ye also ready/ &c. I often think of the accounts parents 
will have to give at the day of judgment for training of their children : 
it is ia solemn thing to die^ and stand before Grod to give an account of 
the deeds done in the body^ whether they be good or bad : these things 
shoald lead us to a serious concern about our soub : we should pray 
to God, through Christ, to blot all our sins out of the book of His 
remembrance ; for there is no repentance in the grave, where we are 
all going. I hope you will receive these remarks from a child that sees 
the value of her own soul, and who is anxious for the salvation of her 
parents." 

In April, 1841, this bright star, in our religious hemisphere, began 
gradually to sink below the horizon ; though, at its first descent, no 
one imagined that it was so soon to be hid from our vision ; but God, 
who does all things well, had designed to remove it to a happier region, 
to shine more gloriously for ever and ever. 

The hand of affliction became heavy upon her, which prevented her 
from attending to the duties of her situation. A change of air was at 
once resorted to, but, alas, to no benefit ; the disease had taken such 
deep root in her system, that her medical attendant thought she could 
not survive a month. When visited by her fnend and leader, a fort- 
night before her removal to glory, she expressed herself amidst her 
sufferings, very happy in God ; her religious experience was to him 
satisfactory. Soon after he had taken leave of her, a change for the 
worse took place, inasmuch that a neighbour was called in to witness 
her last moments. For several hours she lay motionless, except, at 
intervals, she was heard to say, *' happy, happy, what glory I I shall 
soon be with Jesuii I'' Such were her rapturous exclamations. Con« 
trary to all expectations, soon after twelve o'clock in the night, she 
revived, and expressed herself disappointed in being called back to earth 
again. She also added, '< Is this dying ? I thought I was going home." 
It appeared as though she had been permitted to arrive at the gates 
of the celestial city, and view the heavenly plains where her 
Redeemer dwells— 

" 'Tis there, she says, I am to dwell 
With Jesus in the realms of day ; 
Then I shall bid my cares farewell, 
And he shall wipe my tears away. 

Jesus on thee my hope depends; 
To lead me up to thine abode ; 
Assured my home will make amends 
For all my toil upon the road." 

Her mother said, " It is excitement, my dear." '< Oh no, mother, no 
excitement, it is Jesus, my Jesus, blessed Jesus^-rl shall soon be with 
Him." She then took up her pen, and wrote the following letter to 
Miss P., of Worle ;r^** I intended ivriting you before, but have not 



84 Memoir of the late Mr. Samuel Price. 

been able. Received your kind letter to-day ; was much pleased with 
Mr. R's. visit to Blagdon ; but soon after he left I was seized suddenly^ 
and life was not expected an hour. My eyes were fixed, and I was 
streaming with perspiration. My mother called in a friend, who re- 
mained with me till twelve o'clock, expecting that I should breathe 
my last ere that hour arrived. I then revived again ; but the joy I 
felt I cannot tell you. I seemed in a dying state all the time, but as 
happy as I could be : the promises of Scripture came to my mind one 
after another ; they were very precious to my soul. I can say, my 
dear Elizabeth, that I had a foretaste of heaven. If it had been the 
Lord's will to have taken me away that night, I should now have been 
in glory, in that happy place where there is no pain or sickness among 
the inhabitants." 

Our dear sister's afflictions, which were great and severe, were borne 
with the greatest patience and resignation. Her mind was calm, 
peaceful, and happy. On being asked, if she felt resigned and happy ? 
her reply was, *• Yes, yes ! I know if I die I shall go to glory* 0, 1 feel 
so much of the love of God, my soul is full— and 

* My hope is full, O glorious hope ! 
Of Immortality.' " 

During the last few days of her life she was constantly endeavouring 
to impress her parents, and brothers, and sisters' minds with the neces- 
sity of seeking religion ; testifying to its advantages and glorious re- 
sults from her own experience ; until nature had so far sunk that she 
could bear it no longer. She then exclaimed, " I cannot bear it, I 
must give you all up ;" and thus committed them to God with many 
prayers for their conversion. As her flesh failed, her soul waxed 
stronger and stronger, which enabled her to say, ** Yea, though I walk 
through the valley and shadow of death, I will fear no evil, for thou 
art with me, thy rod and thy staff they comfort me." She entered 
the valley with a steady step, leaning on the arm of her Saviour, and 
arrived in safety at the heavenly city, and was put in possession of 
her eternal mansion, amidst the shouts of the shining multitude, on the 
10th day of Sept., 1841. Her death was improved in our chapel at 
Worle, on Sunday the 19th of the same month, by Mr, James Carveth, 
to a very crowded and attentive congregation. 



MEMOIR OF MR. SAMUEL PRICE, OF SANDBACH. 

The subject of this brief memoir was born at Chester on the 31st 
of May, 1790. In the year 1826 he came to reside in Sandbach. It 
does not appear that previous to 1830 he had possessed any serious 
convictions of his state as a sinner ; but in the autumn of that year he 
wont to the Wesleyan Methodist Chapel, to hear Mr. Whittingham, 
one of the Itinerant preachers, at that time labouring in the circuit. 
The passage of Scripture explained and enforced was, "We all do fade 



Mmoir of ihe laU Mr. Samuel Price. 85 

as a leaf." The word came to him with power ; he saw his precarious 
state, and, not only so, he felt and deplored his sinful condition, his 
ingratitude to and rebellion against a most gracious and benevolent 
God. He thus remained mourning over his sin, with '* the arrows of 
the Almighty sticking fast in his soul/' for the space of a month, when 
his heart was lightened of its load, and his spirit blessed with the en- 
joyment of that peace which passeth all understanding. His convic- 
tions were not of a light or transitory character. It will evince the 
mighty struggle that took place in his heart, to state, that on the re- 
turn of Mrs. Price, who was from home when the circumstance just 
related took place, he transmitted to her a note from the Abbey 
Fields, where he performed the duties of his situation, requesting her 
to sit up in the evening until he came home. When he arrived he 
acquainted her of his state, and charged her not to tell any of the Me- 
thodists. Yet the next love-feast held in the Methodist Chapel, and 
which was led by Mr. Whittingham, he attended, and was with some 
difficulty restrained from giving vent to his feelings in the meeting. 
The ensuing week, while at prayer in his closet, the following passage 
of the word of God, « Be thou faithful unto death, and I will give thee 
a crown of life," was forcibly applied to his mind ; his darkness was 
then turned into light, and confidence in the mercy of God through our 
Lord Jesus Christ sprung up in his soul ; bringing joy and peace with 
believing ; and, to use the expressive language of the prophet Isaiah, 
he obtained, *' beauty for ashes, the oil of joy for mourning, and the 
garment of praise for the spirit of heaviness." From this time he went 
on his way rejoicing. He instantly cast in his lot with the people of 
God, and esteemed it not only a duty but a privilege to attend the 
means of grace. That his love to the means was real, and not pro- 
fessed only, is evident from the fact, that, when from the circum- 
stances in which he was placed, he was not able to attend his class 
regularly, he would be present if it were only for ten minutes; and 
when not able to go at all, he sent notes of his experience, which, it is 
needless to add, was very pleasing to his leader. Our late brother 
was the subject of much and often repeated affliction of his body. As 
he advanced in life, the attacks of his disorder became alarming, 
and of more frequent occurrence, until, in December, 1840, his health 
was so bad, that he was obliged to leave his situation, never again to 
resume it. From this time the disorder with which he was afflicted 
gradually, yet constantly, gained on his constitution, until death 
finally put a period to his sufferings. 

A very short time before he died, he wrote a meditation on his reli- 
gious state, partaking partly of the nature of an address to the Divine 
Being : a few extracts from which as they may serve to shew the state 
of his mind in immediate prospect of dissolution, shall be here given ; 
and, first, as to his views of his state previous to his conversion :•— 

•* Blessed God, I may truly say, I was found of thee, who sought th€C 
not. Thou wast pleased, O Lord, by the preaching of thy word, to 
make known to me my real state and condition, as a sinner deserving 
of hell. O the goodness and mercy of God to such a vile sinner as I» 
in awakening me to a sense of the danger I was in, and showing mci 
that if I went on in the course of life I was then in, eternal ruin would 



86 Memoir of the UOe Mr^ Samuel Price. 

come upon me ; and, O how the Spirit of God strove with me, and 
shewed me the exceeding sinfulness of sin ; and glory for ever be to 
God, that I was enabled to yield to the striving of the Spirit of God." 
Let it be understood, here, that Mr. Price had not been immoral in his 
outward conduct* In this respect he had been exemplary ; but he had 
lived without regard to the future destiny and eternal welfare of his 
soul, without God and without hope. 

The next extract has a reference to his afflictions. ** It has now 
pleased my Heavenly Father to lay me in the furnace of affliction ; 
but, O glory be to his holy name, he has not placed me there without 
the comfortable assurance, that it is but for a moment, and that it will 
in the end work out for me a far more exceeding and eternal weight 
of glory. Glorious prospect ! who would not suffer a little pain here, 
to enjoy such pleasure throughout eternity ? I shall have to praise 
God throughout eternity, for all that he has laid upon me while 
tabernacling here. But the Lord has tempered all with mercy, for 
he has not laid more on me than I am able to bear." 

Recording the following and concluding extract, was nearly the 
last attempt he made to write down his thoughts, and was evidently 
written when the hand could scarcely guide the pen. It shows his 
prospect of a future and happier state of existence. " This body, 
which will soon be mouldering into dust, will be raised in the glorious 
image of the Son of God. I shall be like him, for I shall see him as 
he is. No dimness shall then affect the eye — no deafness the ear— no 
dulnessthe senses— no withering the limbs— no wrinkles the face.— 
There shall be no hoary hairs, no fading as the leaf, but everlasting 
vigour and immortal youth. Who would not be a follower of the 
Lord Jesus Christ, to inherit such never-ending blessedness ?" 

In this state of mind he continued to the day of his death. His 
experience, as narrated to the various friends, who from time to time 
visited him^ was of the same character. He had no distracting doubts 
or fears ; nor had he the rapturous feelings which some have ; but, 
what is of, perhaps, more importance, he had deep, settled, peace of 
mind, a firm, unwavering, confidence in God ; a bright, but steady 
hope, and entire resignation to the will of his Heavenly Father. On 
the 22nd of July, 1843, he breathed his last. 

On the character of our late brother, as this is not intended to be 
an eulogy or a criticism, it is not needful to enlarge. But there were 
two or three features in his religious experience which it may be use- 
ful to point out. And, first, that of his love to the means of grace. 
This has been adverted to before, and not only had he great love for 
the means, immediately after his conversion, but this love continued 
unabated ; though, from the circumstances in which he was placed, 
he was not able to attend so often as he wished. But when from ill 
health he resigned his situation, then he was seen in the means, public 
and private, as long as the state of his health permitted him to walk to 
and from the house of God. Another trait in his experience, was his 
love to the word of God. In evidence of this, it will be sufficient to 
state, that he wrote out, with his own hand, the whole of the Epistle 
to the Romans, and various other portions of holy writ, with the design 
of impressing them more strongly on his memory. He was also re- 



ne ChriHian MiniHry. 87 

markable for his resignation and submission to the will of God. In 
all adverse circumstances, in all cross events, in all his afflictions, his 
constant saying was, «* It is all for the best." He had been afflicted 
and tormented with disease for years, and yet he used to say, ** I would 
not exchange my condition with that of any person in the world." 
Thus lived, and thus died, our deceased brother, in the hope of the 
Gospel. May we follow him as he followed Christ. 



THE CHRISTIAN MINISTRY. 

The Substance of an Address delivered to the Young Men received 
into Full Connexion at the Annual Assembly of thk Wb8< 
LBTAN Methodist Association; held in Leeds, 1843. 

BY MR. T. TOWNEND, Ex-President. 
Published at the request of the Annual Assembly. 

Giving no offence in any thing, that the ministry be not blamed: 

But in aU things approving ourselves as the ministers of God, in muck 
patience, in afflictions, in necessities, in distresses, 

In stripes, in imprisonments, in tumults, in labours, in watchings, in fastings; 

Bypureness, by knowledge, by long'Suffering, by kindness, by the Holy Ghost, 
by love ut^feigned. 

By the word qf truth, by the power of God, by the armour of righteousness 
en the right hand and on the hft, — 2 Cor. vi. 3 — 7. 

(Continued from page 58.) 

But the Apostle describes the course of ministerial duty not only 
negadvely, but also positively : not merely shewing us what we must 
not do» but likewise what we must do. " In all things approving our- 
selves as the ministers of God" — and this is to be done : 

(1st.) *'In much patience." An ordinary measure of patience will 
not suffice. There must be much patience. This grace must be kept 
in constant and vigorous exercise. There must be the patience of faith 
— strong faith — faith which relies implicitly on the word and promise 
of God! and which, if the vision tarry, waits for it. • There must be 
the patience of hope. That hope which, when the storm rages, << is 
as an anchor to the soul, both sure and steadfast, and entering into 
that within the veil." * There must be the patience of love. That 
love which *' suflfereth long, and is kind— which doth not behave itself 
unseemly, and is not provoked — which beareth all things, belie veth all 
things, hopeth all things, endureth all things." " This will give you 
command of temper in circumstances calculated to provoke and irri- 
tate. A Christian minister should not be soon angry. ^ He should 
be a pattern of meekness and gentleness. ^* He that is slow to wrath 
is of great understanding, but he that is hasty of spirit exalteth folly. 

• Hah. ii. 3, ^ Heb. vi. 19. ^ 1 Cor. xiii. 4—7. Titus i, 7, 



88 This ChriiHan Mihutry. 

He that is slow to anger is better than the mighty, and he that ruleth 
his spirit than he that taketh a city." * Much patience will enable 
you also to endure affliction, persecution, and opposition, with a calm 
and tranquil spirit. You may not, indeed, be called to that severe trial 
of patience mentioned in the text, which arose out of those complicated 
afflictions, necessities, distresses, stripes, imprisonments, tumults, 
labours, involuntary watchings and fastings, which fell to the lot of the 
primitive ministers and martyrs of the church. But as the carnal 
mind is still enmity to God^ as the unrenewed heart is still opposed to 
the truth of the Gospel, and as those whose deeds are evil still hate the 
light, and refuse to come to the light lest their deeds should be re- 
proved, ^ it is likely you will have to encounter various forms of oppo- 
sition, reproach, and contempt. If you do not hold back, conceal or 
palliate any part of the truth : if you do not, to avoid giving offence, 
soften the truth, or smooth your tongue : if you hold up the faithful 
mirror of the word, and place it so steadily before the eyes of the people 
that each may see his own character faithfully reflected, and hypocrites, 
formalists, and sinners of every grade startled at their own deformity ; 
if, with all plainness, fidelity, and affectionate earnestness, you urge 
home upon the conscience those truths which you know to be unpa- 
lateable to many of your hearers— if whether they will hear or forbear, 
you determine to be pure from the blood of all men, then those who 
will not yield to the power of the truth, but harden their hearts, stiffen 
their necks, and resist the Holy Ghost, may be highly offended at your 
faithfulness, and manifest their hatred of the truth by persecuting and 
maligning the messenger of truth. But patience will smile at opposi- 
tion. It will inspire a calm intrepidity of soul, and count the reproach 
of Christ greater riches than all the treasures of the earth. Again, 
'' much patience " will ensure perseverance amidst temptation and dis- 
couragement. To labour earnestly, and yet not to see immediate 
fruit— to cast our bread upon the waters, and not to find it till after 
many days — to retire from the scene of labour, exclaiming, <* who hath 
believed our report, and to whom is the arm of the Lord revealed "— 
or, from a full heart, uttering the sorrowful complaint, ** surely I have 
laboured in vain, and spent my strength for nought"*— to be com- 
pelled on many occasions to witness the apathy of professors, the love 
of many waxing cold, and those who did run well hindered and turned 
aside by the spread of schism or heresy in the church*— all this is 
deeply discouraging, and a source of strong temptation to those who 
watch for souls, who weep for the desolations of Zion, and who spend 
and are spent for the salvation of men. In these circumstances you 
will need much patience to ensure a steady perseverance in well-doing, 
and the untiring zeal which labours on at the command of God, and 
relies upon him for final success. You must commend yourselves as 
the ministers of God, — 

(2.) " By pureness." By the pureness of upright intention. Motive 
must be pure. The eye must be single. * What is to be your object 
and aim ? Popular applause ? No. Secular advantage ? No. A life 
of ease and indulgence ? No« Your only aim must be the glory of God 

• Prov. xiv. 29; xvi. 92. ^ Rom. viii. 7; John iii. 19. 

*• Is. liii 1 ; xlix. 4 ; Eel. xi. 1. •« Gal. v. 7 ; Mat. xiiv. 12. • Mat. vi. 22, 23. 



ne Chmtian Ministry. 89 

in the salvation of mankind. For this you are to study, and preach, 
and labour^ and pray without ceasing. Purity of motive will give 
dignity to your feeblest efforts, secure ministerial fidelity, and impart 
to your labours a well-directed, marvellous, and telling energy. But 
if you lack purity of motive, whatever may be your talents, whatever 
your zeal, whatever your success, God will frown upon all that you 
do. You may succeed in gaining the plaudits of men, but you will 
have no reward of your Father which is in heaven. * "By pureness." 
By the pureness of spotless chastity. Hating even the garment spotted 
by the flesh — keeping at the utmost distance from all that is indelicate 
either in word, or look, or deed ; and dreading an impure imagination 
more than noisome pestilence. Here, my brethren, many of the mighty 
bave fallen, never more to rise. Your safety will be found in strict 
temperance, constant diligence in the discharge of duty, entire devo- 
tedness to God. Never dally for a moment with temptation, but 
'*flee youthful lusts which war against the soul." " Run not as uncer- 
tainly, fight not as one that beateth the air, but keep under your body, 
and bring it into subjection, lest after having preached to others, you 
yourselves should be cast away." ^ ** By pureness.*' By the pure- 
ness of perfect holiness. If it be the duty of Christians to perfect holi- 
ness in the fear of the Lord, how much more of Chrbtian ministers, 
who are to be ensamples to the flock, and examples to the believers in 
word, in conversation, in charity, in spirit, in faith, in purity. You 
believe that it is your privilege to have your hearts cleansed from all 
unrighteousness— to be fllled with the Spirit— to love the Lord your 
God with all your heart, with all your mind, with all your soul, and 
with all your strength. You believe that *< the very God of peace is 
able and willing to sanctify you wholly, and to preserve your whole 
body, soul, and spirit, blameless, to the coming of Jesus Christ." Then 
do not stop short of this great salvation. '< Reckon yourselves to be 
dead indeed unto sin, but alive unto God through Jesus Christ." Then 
will it be your meat and drink to do the will of God, and both in your 
public ministrations, and private intercourse with tbe people, spiritu- 
ality, unction, and power will dwell upon your lips. ^ You must 
approve yourselves as the ministers of God, — 

(3.) " By knowledge.'* The priests* lips should keep knowledge, 
. and the lips of the wise disperse knowledge. '^ Purity of heart is a 
great thing ; but it is not every thing. In the minister of God, it 
should be accompanied with a sound mind — a judgment clear and 
accurate in its decisions. This supposes experience, acquaintance with 
men and things, and that maturity of intellectual power which is 
acquired by careful reading, patient study, and attentive observation. 
It was the wisdom of <* the preacher " which enabled him to teach the 
people knowledge ; to seek out and set in order many proverbs ; and 
to select acceptable words, and that which is upright, even words of 
truth. They are not the words of the foolish and ignorant, but the 
words of the wise, which <' are as goads, and as nails fastened by the 
master of assemblies, which are given from one shepherd.*' " By 

• Mat. vi. 1. *» Jude 23 ; Eph. v. 3, 4 ; 2 Tim. ii. 22 ; 1 Ccr. ix. 26, 27. 

«= 2 Cor. vii. I ; 1 Pet. v. 3 ; 1 Tim. iv. 1 ; I John i. 9; Deut. vi. 5 ; 1 Thess, 

T. 23,24; Rom. vi. 11 ; John iv. 84,- * Prov. xvi. 10; Mai, ii. 7, 



96 The Christian Wmi9tt%. 

knowledge." By some acquaintance With Science in geneiial: If this 
is not absolutely essential, it b at least highly useiuL A knowledge 
of history, of geography, of natural and moral philosophy, of grammar, 
rhetoric, and logic, cannot fail to ripen the faculties, discipline the 
judgment, and enrich the mind. " We want teachers," says one, 
** who are able to discern and unfold the consbtency of revealed reli* 
gion with the new lights which are breaking in from nature, and who 
are able to draw from all men's discoveries in the outward world and 
in their own souls Illustrations, analogies, and arguments for Christi* 
anity.'* '^ By knowledge," By a knowledge of theology in particular. 
Divinity must be your cUef study : and this contains those profound 
mysteries, which even the angels desire to look into. Like Apollos, 
you should be mighty in the Scriptures. * A knowledge of the lan- 
guages in which they were originally written, would enable you to 
enter more fully into the criticisms of the learned, and also to discern 
those nicer shades of meaning, which cannot be fully expressed in any 
translation. A portion of each day (excepting the Sabbath) may be 
profitably devoted to this branch of study; and, as you are but young, 
a few years' application would ensure that success which would be 
grateful to yourselves and useful to others. Study to acquire an ex- 
tensive knowledge of the true meaning of the Scriptures. Your 
delight must be in the law of the Lord, and in that law you must medi- 
tate day and night. ^ Men's desire of knowledge may be infinite, but 
their capacity for knowledge is limited ; and since they cannot know 
every thing, it behoves them to study that which appertains more 
especially to their duty and interest. What should we think of the 
physician who studied any, and every, thing rather than anatomy, 
and medicine ? or, of the barrister, who studied anatomy, and medicine, 
but neglected to acquaint himself with the laws of his country ? If 
men are expected to bend the full force of their minds to the study of 
the profession in which they are engaged, even when that profession 
relates only to the body and the interests of time, how deeply culpable 
must he be who neglects to acquire the knowledge which his vocation 
requires, when that vocation relates to the soul and eternity. But 
your knowledge of theology must not be merely theoretical — it must 
be spiritual, experimental, divine — not merely that which is acquired 
by study, but that also which is communicated by the Spirit of wisdom 
and of revelation. For Tas Dr. Clarke observes) ** what the eye is to 
the body, the understandmg is to the soul. As the eye is not light in 
itself, and can discern nothing but b}' means of light shining, not only, 
upon the objects to be viewed, but also into the eye itself, — so the 
understanding of man can discern no sacred thing of or by itself, but 
sees by the influence of the Spirit of wisdom and revelation. For 
without the influence of the Holy Spirit, no man ever became wise 
unto salvation, no more than a man ever discerned an object (no 
matter how perfect soever his eye might have been) without the instru- 
mentality of light." We need the teaching of the Spirit of God, not 
for the purpose of revealing to us new truth, not contained in the sacred 
Scriptures, but for the purpose of investing those truths, which are 

M Peter i. 12^ Acts xviii. ^, ^ Josh, i. 8; 1 Ps. 2. 



The Christian Minittry. 91 

already thl^t&» with new and sacred illumination ; and thus giving ns a 
spiritual discernment of them. * A man without this unction of the 
Holy One teaching him all things, may, through reading, hearing, 
study, and conversation with those who know the truth, acquire an 
acquaintance with the theory of Christianity ; but his knowledge wUl 
differ as widely from that of the man who is taught of God^ as the 
kDowledge which a blind man acquires of colours by hearing others 
talk of them^ differs from that which is acquired through the medium 
of vision. His knowledge will amount to nothing more than mere 
opinion, and can never produce those gracious impressions and feelings 
which result from that supernatural evidence of things not seen, by 
which the tmth becomes vital. ^ Knowledge will modify and direct 
your zeal. It will preserve you from, and enable you to attack, the 
prevailing errors of the day ; and it will qualify you to touch with 
dexcerity and skill the various strings of that wondrous instrument, the 
human heart. You must approve yourselves as the ministers of God, — 

(4.) <' By long-suffering." This temper of mind is the effect of the 
united exercise of various other graces ; particularly of patience, meek<^ 
ness, and fortitude. Thus we are enabled to bear with the weakness, 
failings, and prejudices of our brethren in the church ; and also to 
endure the opposition, malice, and contradiction of wicked men with- 
out resentment, or ill-will, or slackening in our efforts to do them 
good. You must commend yourselves as the ministers of God,— 

(5.) ** By kindness.'* By the kindness of tender compassion for 
souls. Such compassion as David felt when he said, " Rivers of tears 
ran down mine eyes, because men keep not thy law." Such as Jere- 
miah feh when he said, <' O that my head were waters, and mine eyes 
a fountain of tears, that I might weep day and night for the slain of 
the daughter of my people." Such compassion as the Redeemer felt, 
when he wept over Jerusalem ; and, as the Apostle to the Gentiles felt, 
when he invoked heaven to witness his sorrow and anguish of heart for 
his brethren, his kinsmen according to the flesh. "^ If there be any- 
thing in the universe calculated to awaken compassion, surely it b the 
fact, that there are myriads of our fellow-men bearing the impress of 
immortality — redeemed by the precious blood of Calvary— hastening 
with all the speed of time to everlasting perdition. O for that yearn- 
ing pity which cries — 

'' The love of Christ doth me constrain 
To seek the wandering souls of xpen. 
With cries, entreaties, tears to save. 
And snatch them from the gaping grave." 

"By kindness." By the kindness of sympathy with the suffering and 
afflicted, whether in body, mind, or estate, as well as with the pros- 
perous^and happy — sympathy, which rejoices with those that do rejoice, 
and weeps with those that weep— sympathy, which, like that of the 
Saviour, is touched with the feeling of our infirmities ; shews pity for 
the afflicted, and finds its way to the abodes of suffering and of woe. 
The sick and dying have special claims upon the attention of their 

• Eph. i, 18 ; 2 Cor. iv. 6. ^1 Cor. ii. 14. 

c Ps. czix. 136; Jer. iz. 1 ; Luke six. 41 ; Rom. ix. 1—3. 



98 The Christian Ministry. 

pastors ; : and we know who it is that will say in that day, '< I was sick 
and ye visited me." ' «' By kindness." By the kindness of brotherly 
affection for the saints, taking special complacency and delight in them. 
By the kindness of condescension to inferiors — manifesting a loving 
regard for the poor, the illiterate, and the young. Endeavouring by 
kind words, and kind looks, and kind actions, to engage their affections 
and win their hearts to truth and Christ. *' By kindness ''—the kind- 
ness of forgiving charity to enemies and persecutors — the kindness 
which returns good for evil, blessing for cursing — and, like that of the 
dying Redeemer, and the martyred Stephen, cries, " Father forgive 
them, for they know not what they do." ^ But if you, in all things, 
commend yourselves as the ministers of God, it must be— 

(6.) ** By the Holy Ghost.'' By the Holy Ghost guiding and di- 
recting you, opening your eyes to see wondrous things in his law, and 
leading you into all truth. By the Holy Ghost dwelling in you as in 
his temple, strengthening, and maturing, and perfecting all your graces 
— assisting you in all your duties— making you happy in your work- 
filling you with glory and with heaven— giving you a sweet experience 
and relish of the truth which you proclaim— touching your lips with 
hallowed fire, and causing you to triumph in Christ, and spread abroad 
the savour of his knowledge in every place. It is your privilege to be 
filled with the spirit, and to be constantly receiving fresh and enlarged 
communications of his influence. This will prevent the Gospel from 
freezing on your lips ; it will remove coldness, stiffness, formality, and 
death ; it will give fervour to your devotions, life and fire to your 
ministrations. How pitiable is the man who goes into the pulpit, and 
to the sacramental table, and to the bedside of the dying, without the 
Holy Ghost — attempting to communicate the light which he has never 
received, and the life which he has never felt. Ours is emphatically 
the dispensation of the Spirit— his presence makes hard things easy, 
and darkness light. Without him we can do nothing ; through him 
strengthening us we can do all things ; and oh ! what encouragement 
is this, that God will assuredly give his Holy Spirit in all the fulness of 
his influence to them that ask ! *' For if ye, being evil, know how to 
give good gifts unto your children, how much more shall your hea- 
venly Father give his Holy Spirit to them that ask him ?" " Hence 
those who have been most successful in the ministry, have been men 
mighty in prayer — such men as Wesley, Whitfield, Brainard, and 
Bramwell, who went from their knees to the pulpit, and from com- 
muning with God to converse with men. They had to meet with 
opposition, it is true, but by the power of the Holy Ghost they were 
enabled to bring glory to God, in all the circumstances through which 
they had to pass. " By honour and dishonour, by evil report and 
good report ; as deceivers and yet true : As unknown and yet well 
known ; as dying, and behold we live ; as chastened and not killed ; 
as sorrowful yet always rejoicing ; as poor yet making many rich ; as 
having nothing, and yet possessing all things." If the fulness of this 
spirit dwell in you, my brethren, he will enable you in all things to 
commend yourselves as the ministers of God,— 

• Rom. xii. 15; Heb. iv. 15; Matt. xxv. 36. »» Matt. v. 44. 

« 1 Cor. iii. 16; Luke xi. 13. 



The Christian Ministry. 93 

(7) '* By love unfeigned." Love which is without dissimulation— 
love which is not in word or in tongue, but in deed and tin truth. 
This love is the fruit of the Spirit, the effect of his indwelling : for 
the love of God is shed abroad in our hearts, by the Holy Ghost 
which is given * unto us. " Love unfeigned." This includes love to 
God : love which is not mere excitement and profession, but which 
operates with the power of a master principle — a flame kindled from 
heaven upon the altar of the heart, and kept continually burning— 
*' a stream gushing from, and fed by, the ocean of infinite love." 
" We love him because he first loved us." This is a love of gratitude 
for mercies received, leading us to enquire, What shall I render unto 
the Lord for all his benefits ? ^ A love of ardent desire, which sighs 
after closer communion, and cries, ** Whom have I in heaven but thee, 
and there is none upon earth that I desire beside thee." It is a love 
of profound esteem* inspiring deep reverence, adoring awe, and that 
admiration of the divine character which exclaims, *' Who is like unto 
thee, O Lord ; glorious in holiness, fearful in praises, doing wonders." 
It is a love of supreme delight ; rejoicing in the light of God's counte- 
nance, casting out slavish fear ; making haste, and delaying not, to 
keep God's commandments.' This love is alive in doing, and patient 
in sufferings the will of God. It is enjoined by the first and great 
commandment of the law ; it is the generic principle which gives being 
and lustre to all other virtues; and that which renders all that springs 
from it pleasing to God. In proportion as you live under its influence 
your eye will be single, and your whole body full of light. Unfeigned 
love to Gk>d is always productive of unfeigned love to his people ; for 
" he that loveth him that begat, will love him also that is begotten of 
him." If we do not love the visible image how can we love the 
unseen original : if we do not love the flock of Christ, we do not love 
the Saviour who bought them with his blood. And how radical must 
be his disqualification for a shepherd who has no love for the sheep. 
" Simon, son of Jonah, lovest thou me ? yea. Lord, thou knowest that 
I love thee. Then feed my sheep." * 

My brethren, if you love the Saviour you will love his flock ; and 
if you love the flock you will care for them, and lead them into 
the green 'pastures and beside the still waters ; and if any should 
wander from the fold, you will follow them into the wilderness, and 
when successful bring them back to the fold with rejoicing. *< Love 
uafeigned." Love not only to those who are of the household of faith, 
but also to the stranger and foreigner. Love not only to the flock 
within the fold, but to the lost sheep, whose feet are stumbling on the 
dark mountains. Love which seeks 

" To spend and to he spent for them, 
Who have not yet the Saviour known." 

This is a love which many waters cannot quench, and which the 
floods cannot drown. A love which is disinterested, generous, and 
expansive as the charity of Him who makes his sun to rise on the 

• Rom. xii. 9; 1 John iii. 18; Rom. v. 5. »» 1 John iv. 19; Ps. cxvi. 12, 
' Ps. Ixxiii. 25; Ex. xv. 11;' 1 John iv. 18: ** 1 John v. 1 ; iv, 20; John xxi. 15. 



94 • The ChfisHan MinUtry. 

evil and the good, and sends his rain on the just and the unjust. It is 
the principle which must dwell in you and abound ; it must constrain 
you ; as a resistless torrent it must bear you onward in the course of 
ministerial duty ; and when you stand up between the living and the 
dead it must give lustre to your eye, tone to your voice, and thrilling 
power to your appeals : that which comes from the heart will reach 
the heart. You must approve yourselves as the ministers of God, — 
(8) <• By the word of truth." That word of truth which is con- 
tained in the inspired Scriptures ; and which are << profitable for 
doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness, 
that the man of God may be perfect, thoroughly furnished unto all 
good works." We have already reminded you that this word must 
be the study of your lives : it must also be the rule of your actions, 
and jjour standard of appeal. The Bible— the Bible alone— is the 
religion of Protestants ; and it should be the religion of all. '< To 
the law and the testimony, if they speak not according to this word 
there is no light in them." By this standard you must exaniine all 
opinions, and all systems.* You are not only to study and to prac- 
tise, but you are also to preach the word of truth : and in doing this 
you must clearly explain, rightly divide, and affectionately enforce it. 
You must clearly explain it. As in the days of Ezra, when he read 
to the people out of the book of the law ; gave the sense, and caused 
the people to understand the meaning. And as in the case of the 
Ethiopian eunuch, who was reading, in his chariot, the prophecies of 
Isaiah, Philip said, " understandest thou what thou readest ? and he 
said, how can I except some one teach me ? and Philip began at the 
same Scripture, and preached unto him Jesus." And as in the case 
of the disciples, when Christ opened their understanding by expound- 
ing the prophecies relating to himself. ^ The word of truth must also 
be rightly divided, so as to give every one his portion of meat in due 
season. The same coat will not fit every person ; nor will the same 
food suit every stomach; nor will the same medicine cure every 
malady. « A word spoken in season how good is it." The feeble 
minded must be comforted, the unruly warned : babes must be fed 
with milk, strong men with meat. ^ In the ear of the careless sinner 
the law must speak in thunders — in the ear of the penitent the gospel 
must whisper peace. But, again, the word must be affectionately 
enforced, for what the point is to the arrow, that, the application is to 
the sermon. The truth must be brought home to the conscience : it 
must be fastened as a nail in a sure place. My brethren, you must 
study to excel in the art of persuasion, and the power of appeal. 
Never be satisfied till you have lodged the truth in the heart and 
conscience of the hearer. The truth of the gospel— the truth as it is 
in Jesus— is the grand instrument by which the Spirit works. ** Faith 
Cometh by hearing, and hearing by the word of God." If men are 
saved it is through the belief of the truth : it is this which enlightens, 
which regenerates, which sanctifies. It may reach men through 
various mediums — the pulpit, the press, pious conversation, or its 
pure radiance may be reflected upon them from the holy lives of 

• 2 Tim. ill. 16, 17: 1 Pet. iv. 11. »» Neh. viii.,1— 8; Acts viii. 30—35; 
Luke xxiv. 45, 46. * 1 Cor. ill. 2; 1 Thes. v. 14; 2 Tim. ii.,15. 



me CSrUtkm MinUhy. • 95 

eonsistetot Chrktiaiis; bat still it is the truth, in every case, which is 
the instrament of salvation. Light is not more adapted to the eye, or 
sound to the ear, or food to the palate, than the word of truth is to 
the understanding, the conscience, and the heart of man. Still the 
truth does not save by its own native, inherent, efficacy; but only as 
an instrument in the hand of the Holy Spirit ; and, therefore, you 
are to oooimend.ypurselves, as the ministers of God, — 

(9) ** By the pbwer of God." By the power of God resting upon 
you, 4nd displaying its own divinity by the frailty of the instruments 
which it employs, in accomplishing effects the most marvellous and 
graci<»iis. " For we have this treasure in earthen vessels, that the 
excdlency of the power may be of God, and not of us.'' * This is a 
power which is mighty to the pulling down of strong holds. It ren* 
ders the word '* quick and powerful, and sharper than any two-edged 
svord, piercing even to the dividing asunder of soul and spirit, and of 
the joints and marrow, and is a disceruer of the thoughts and intents of 
the heart." .This power can crown the feeblest instrumentality with 
success. It can make the blast of the ram's horn effectual in pros- 
trating walls which frown defiafice upon all assault Without this 
power our mightiest efforts are weakness itself. What will your 
sermons effect without this power ? They may be well arranged — 
they may be beautiful in composition — ^they may be rich in evangeli- 
c^ truth — they may be logical in argument— but they will be like 
the eyes of a corpse, from which the spirit has newly fled ; the 
organization remains complete, but the life and fire are gone. They 
wUi be like the beautiful orations which Demosthenes addressed to 
the raging sea, which, notwithstanding their eloquence, lefl it raging 
stiU. They will be like the retiring sunlight which this evening gilded 
tbe mouldering walls of Kirkstall Abbey with a thousand hues of 
brightness, but left it a ruin still. It is not learning, or zeal, or talent, 
or eloquence, which can change the human heart : with all these it will 
remain an awful ruin until the Gospel becomes " the power of God 
onto salvation.'* My brethren, prepare your sermons with as much 
care and diligence as if the salvation of souls depended entirely upon 
your own unaided efforts, and then deliver them in a prayerful and 
believing dependance upon the power of God ; always remembering 
that neither is Paul anything, neither is Apollos anything, but God 
that giveth the increase. In this great work you will meet with 
opposition, not only from earth but also from hell. You will have to 
*' wrestle not with flesh and blood, but with principalities and powers, 
and the rulers of the darkness of this world, and with spiritual 
wickedness in high places." How important then that you commend 
yourselves as the ministers of God — 

(10) " By the armour of righteousness on the right hand and on the 
left." Whilst your right hand wields the two edged sword of the 
spirit, your left hand must grasp the shield of faith, by which you shall 
be able to quench all the fiery darts of the wicked. Also, " by the 
armour of righteousness on the right hand and the left," the Apostle 
probably means the state of being completely armed. Elsewhere he 

*2Cor. iv.7. 



96 •The Christian Minttiry. 

says, '< Put on the whole armour of God, that ye may stand in the 
evil day/' 

<' Leave no unguarded place^ 

No weakness of the soul ; 
Take every virtue, every grace, 

And fortify the virhole.*' 

Some of the warriors of antiquity were represented, by poetic fiction, 
as having received their armour from the gods : invested with this 
brilliant armour they were supposed to be invulnerable. You must 
go into the field clothed with celestial armour — armour furnished by 
God himself— armour whose divine temper and heavenly brightness 
will carry terror into the camp of the enemy, secure the victory in 
every engagement, and bring you off the field exclaiming, '< I have 
fought a good fight." And now, that you may be stimulated to pur- 
sue the course of duty which we have placed before you, permit us to 
call your attention — 

III. To the Inspiring Motive mentioned in the text. *' That the 
ministry be not blamed." 

You should be deeply concerned for the honour of that ministry 
which you have received from the Lord Jesus, and afraid of anything 
which might throw a shade upon it. Consider how sacred its charac- 
ter—how great are its objects — and how important its results. 

Consider, First, The sacredness of its character. The ministry is 
not a human, but a divine institution — it derives its being and eflUcacy 
not from man, but from God. In every age of the church carnal 
reason has pronounced it to be *' weakness and folly," but in every 
age facts have proved it '^ the power of God, and the wisdom of God/' 
« For after that in the wisdom of God the world by wisdom knew not 
God, it pleased God by the foolishness of preaching to save them that 
believe.'' In the preceding chapters the apostle speaks at length upon 
the attributes of this ministry. He calls it the ministry not of the 
letter but of the spirit ; not of condemnation and of death, but of 
grace and life ; not of inferior, but exceeding glory. It is designed 
to be among religious ordinances, and the means of grace, what the 
sun is to the solar system, that which gives light and heat to all the 
rest. When the ministry is luminous and full of glory, the other 
means and ordinances will become resplendent with its reflected light. 
Men expect, and consistency demands, that those who sustain this 
ministry should exhibit in their own character its sacred attributes — 
that they should be clothed with the spirituality, purity, light, life, and 
glory which they minister to others. The minister is a public man : 
all eyes are upon him : surrounded by so much light every defect will 
be clearly seen. It is a sage remark, that <' the angel standing in the 
sun is not more narrowly observed." But, again, consider. 

Secondly, The grandeur of its designs. " To open men's eyes, 
and turn them from darkness to light, and from the power of Satan 
unto God, that they may receive forgiveness of sins, and inheritance 
among them whid^are sanctified b^ faith which is in Christ." The 
conversion of sin^s is one great object of the ministry. Another is 
'' the perfecting of the saints, and the edifying of the body of Christ, 
until we all come in the unity of the faith, and of the knowledge of 



The Christian Ministry. 97 

the Son of God, unto a perfect man» unto the measure of the stature 
of the fulness of Christ." It is instituted for the instruction of every 
man, and the warning of every man, with the view of presenting every 
man perfect in Christ Jesus. In a word, it is for the purpose of 
bringing a rebel world into a state of reconciliation and peace with 
God, that we may all be finally and for ever happy with him in heaven. 
^' Now, then, we are ambassadors for Christ, as though God did 
beseech you by us, we pray you, in Christ's stead, be ye reconciled 
unto God. For he hath made him to be sin for us who knew no sin, 
that we might be made the righteousness of God in him." The 
vocation of others has to do principally with earth and time, yours 
with heaven and eternity — to stand between the living and the dead— 
to be the mouth of God to the people, and the mouth of the people 
to God ; and, as a late writer remarks, '< to occupy the first place in 
a congregation of Christian men— to be entrusted with the oversight 
of their individual and collective spiritual interests— to be looked up 
to as their instructor in the truths of the Bible, their adviser in ques- 
tions of duty, their leader in every good, virtuous, and holy enter- 
prise — to be confided in as their friend and director in the hour of 
difficulty, adversity, and danger— to be appealed to as the arbiter of 
their differences, and composer of their quarrels— to be a privileged 
partaker in almost every occasion amongst them of domestic happi- 
ness, a welcome sympathiser in every occasion of domestic grief — to 
be in many instances the first human being to whom the soul stricken 
with a sense of sin unfolds its anxiety, and presents its entreaty for 
counsel — to be the last in many cases to whom the departing spirit 
reveals its feelings, and the tongue that is soon to be silent for ever 
tells its thrilling tale of triumph or dread— to be all this is surely 
enough for ambition, if it be not more than enough for responsibility." 
Occupying such a station how necessary it is that you should both 
gain and deserve the confidence of the people, that they should be 
able to look up to you without suspicion, and that, as the ambassador 
of Christ, you should truly represent your master, not only in the 
official statements of his will, but also in spirit and temper, in life and 
conversation. You should be careful not to bring blame upon 
the ministry. 

Thirdly, Because of the importance of its results. These results 
have reference to others and yourselves. They have reference to 
others. You cannot avoid making impressions upon others. If 
you are happy in God others will perceive and feel it ; if you are 
lukewarm and insipid your temper will be infectious. Your public 
labours will partake more or less of the character of your own hearts, 
and accordingly will either chill or freeze, or diffuse a genial warmth 
through the churches in which you minister.. A faithful minister not 
only saves souls directly by his own labours, but also indirectly, by 
stimulating others to exertion ; and a single conversion may be a seed 
which contains within its germ millions of conversions. Those whom 
you bring to God Mill be the means of bring ing^tgi^ers to God, and 
they of others, and so on till time shall end. ThWeach of you may 
be the centre of an influence which shall go forth in ever widening 
circles^ until it reaches the extremities of the earth. Should a single 

1 



98 The Christian Ministry. 

soul be lost through your neglect, that may involve, by a train of con- 
sequences, the perdition of millions of souls. This, my brethren, is 
awful, but not more awful than true. An American writer remarks, 
that << when the theological student is in course of preparation for the 
ministry, he is contemplating the employment of forming characters 
for eternity. The first sermon he preaches is the beginning of the 
work of making impressions on souls. When he is ordained as the 
pastor of a locsd church, and a flock is committed to him to keep, he 
has under his hands a collection of his fellow men, in forming whose 
characters for the joyful or fearful estates of eternity, he is to have 
more concern than any other being on earth. On the day of his 
ordination it is as though a book were spread open before him, and 
each soul is as a leaf in that book, upon which he will be employed in 
inscribing, as with a pen of iron, and the point of a diamond, charac- 
ters not to be effaced while eternity lasts, and God lives, to reward 
his fidelity or punish his unfaithfulness. This book he and others 
will read somewhat in this life with hope and joy, or with fear and 
sorrow, according to that which is written therein ; and in the last 
day this book of his spiritual authorship will be open in the sight of 
God, of angels, and of men, both saved and lost, in sight of heaven 
and hell, to be read to all eternity." Think, my brethren, upon the 
importance of your vocation, as it respects its final efiects upon your- 
selves as well as others. Solemn will be the account you will have to 
give in the final day— keep that day continually before your eye. 
Many who have prophesied in the name of Christ will in that day be 
disowned by him. If you are faithful you will then receive a splendid 
recompense ; but the slothful servant will then be " bound hand and 
foot, and cast into outer darkness, there shall be weeping and gnashing 
of teeth." " They that be wise shall shine as the brightness of the 
firmament, and they that turn many to righteousness as the stars for 
ever and ever." But it would be awful to go from a Methodist pulpit 
to the bottomless pit. Would not the other damned spirits shun your 
society, and look upon themselves <' as fiends less foul?" The doom 
reserved for ministers is not the common darkness of the lost, but the 
blackness of darkness for ever. Yours, then, will not be an ordinary 
doom— you must either rise higher in heaven, or sink lower in hell, 
than other people. '* I charge you, therefore, before God, and the 
Lord Jesus, who shall judge the quick and the dead at his appearing 
and his kingdom, preach the word; be instant in season, out of 
season ; reprove, rebuke, exhort, with all longsufiering and doctrine. 
Watch in all things ; endure afflictions ; do the work of evangelists ; 
give full proof of your ministry; and when the Chief Shepherd shall 
appear, ye shall receive a crown of glory that fadeth not away." 



99 . 

REVIEWS AND LITERARY NOTICES. 

THE MOTHERS OF ENGLAND; their Influence atid Respond 
sUnUiy. By the Author of the *' Women of England.** Royal 12ino. 
390 pp. Fisher, Son, & Co. 

Maternal influence must be acknowledged, by every attentive 
observer, to operate more powerfully than any other in the formation 
of human character. During even the period of infancy, the mother^ 
while nursing her child, makes impi^essions which are likely to be, in 
future years, productive of important results, either for good or for evil. 
We confess that we regard those mothers as destitute either of proper 
maternal affection, or as ignorant of the duty and responsibility de- 
volving upon them of attending to the welfiire of their own offspring, 
who, without necessity, send their infants to be cherished in the bo- 
soms of others, and to receive from them their first, and probably, most 
influential mental impressions. Children usually spend their first seven 
years, principally, in the company of their mothers ; and it may be 
safely afflrmed, that during this period niore is done in the formation 
of their characters, than can ever be afterwards effected, in an equal 
period, by the mere influence of human instruction and example. It 
is also true, that in the subsequent periods of youth, up to maturity and 
afterwards, a mother's conduct continues to exert an influence in the 
formation of the characters of her children, which, as much or more 
than all the other circumstances influencing them, is likely to deter- 
mine the quality of their future conduct, and their consequent happi- 
ness or misery, both in time and eternity. 

Those persons who are acquainted with the writings of the Author 
of the ^* Women of England," must entertain a favourable opiniou as 
to her ability to offer suitable advice to mothers, on the moat benefi- 
cial methods of exercising maternal influence and authority. Her 
previous efforts for the improvement of female character have obtained 
for her a high degree of well-deserved celebrity, as a richly gifted 
writer. Her renown as the author of the works entitled <• The Women 
of England "— •< The Daughters of England "— «• The Wives of Eng- 
land '* — " Family Secrets," and other elegant and useful publications, 
will, however, be sustained and increased by the volume entitled '< The 
Mothers of England." 

We have read the work with much interest and pleasure. Seldom 
have we perused a work which has so fully commanded our approval. 
The following are the subjects discussed, in the twelve chapters into 
which the work is divided : — *< A Mother's First Thoughts **— *' Autho- 
rity, Influence, and Example"— "The Use of a Mind" — *< Elements 
of Character'^— <* Generosity and Affection *'— " Individual and Social 
Happiness " — <* Moral Courage and Worldly-mindedness " — " General 
Duties of a Mother*'—" Hints on Education" — « On the Training of 
Boys " — " On the Training of Girls "—and, '*0n Religious Influence." 

The following is an extract from the chapter on <* Authority, Ex- 
ample, and Influence:" — 

Although strictly speaking there can be no such thing as authority without 
influence, yet when we speak of authority simply as such, we m^eaa us^tkvxx^ 

1^ 



100 Reviews and Literary Notices, 

more than that there exists for the time-heing a power in one party ^ to 
enforce a command, and a willingness in the other to obey. There are Kind 
and gentle mothers who think that authority has little or nothing to do with 
the education of their children ; and there are on the other hand persons 
educated in the old schools, who consider authority as the only instrument 
they have to work with, in producing the effect which mental and moral 
discipline are desired to produce upon the young. It is common with 
individuals of the latter class to speak of ** breaking the natural will/' as if 
the will was an excrescence which had to be removed, or a branch which had 
to be lopped off, before any good could be expected to be done. Hence 
those horrible whippings of former times, those shuttings up in dark 
chambers, and those other varieties of mental and bodily punishment, all 
which had as about much efficacy in softening the natural temper, and subdu- 
ing the spirit of pride, as the sprinkling on of water has in the extinguishing 
of burning coals. Indeed, one can scarcely imagine anything more congenial 
to the formation of desperate and malignant resolutions, than to be forcibly 
snatched up, as some of us can remember to have been, thrust struggling 
into a dark and unoccupied room, and there locked up, and left, so that, 
scream as we would, and few under such circumstances would not do their 
best, the sound of our distress was beyond the reach of any human ear. 

Happily for the human race, however, these times are past, and the too 
severe application of direct and unsparing punishment is not the fashion 
of the present day. I say happily for the human race, because it is not 
possible for the most unbounded indulgence, as a system, to produce con- 
sequences so lamentable in their general effects, as a system of harshness 
and severity practised upon the tender and susceptible nature of youth. To 
those kind and gentle mothers who consider mere authority as too stern an 
instrument to work with in the training up of their children, we must then 
in justice grant, that theirs is the lesser evil of the two. 

Where this evil on the mother's part arises from excessive tenderness, 
and unwillingness to give pain, it will perhaps be a little startling to hear 
it asserted, that if she set herself to devise a plan for ensuring the future 
misery of her child, next in degree of efficacy, though widely different in 
nature, to that which has already been alluded to, she could not find one 
more effectual than that of neglecting to instil into its mind the necessity of 
implicit obedience. Once convinced of this necessity, which it easily may 
be, by never beine allowed to call in question the authority of those under 
whose care it is placed, the child grows up without the least idea that the 
rule of obedience is a hardship, or in fact without any idea of obedience 
at all ; for it submits habitually to rightful authority, just as we subinit 
every day to those circumstances over which we have no control. In this 
manner the habit of submitting the natural will is imperceptibly acquired, a 
world of fruitless and painful contention is avoided, and the child really 
enjoys the advantage of being constantly under the direction of wisdom, 
forethought, and experience, superior to its own. 

The maintenance of this unyielding authoritv on the part of the mother, 
requires, it would seem, some little Uct and skill ; for some who are the 
most imperative in their commands, are in reality the least obeyed. That 
hasty slaps, loud talking, and harsh words, have nothing whatever to do 
with the system of discipline here recommended, it is scarcely necessary to 
say ; neither that weakest and most fruitless sort of pleading, which consists 
of a perpetual repetition of " Now do," and " Now don't ;" and still less 
do threatenings and bribes enter into the scheme proposed ; but a steady and 
consistent method begun in early infancy, and never on any occasion what- 
ever departed from, of requiring obedience to the parent's wishes, simply as 
such, accompanied by a strict regard to clearness, consistency, and truth, in 
making those wishes known. 



Retnews and Literary Notices, 101 

To a child trained up in this manner, obedience is so easy, that it no more 
thinks of questioning the mother's right to direct its actions, than it quarrels 
with the nurse because she stretches out her arms to preyent its falling. Nor 
is there more severity in the exercise of such authority, than in the pro- 
tecting care which preserves an infant from corporeal harm. Ninety-nine 
out of every hundred of the whims and wishes of a child, would, if it were 
possible to gratify them, be productive of more pain than pleasure ; and thus 
it IS necessary, even for its happiness, that they should be subjected to the 
decision of another. Let the little hero, before he is able to 'walk, thrust 
away the hand of the nurse as he will, she suffers no symptoms of vexation 
on bis part to prevent her necessary assistance, because she knows, and 
in this sne judges for herself without consulting him, that the child would 
be more hurt by a fall, than by being the subject of mere momentary 
vexation. And the mother knows, or rather she ought to know, that upon the 
same principle her child would suffer more by discovering that he had the 
power to contradict and oppose his mother's wishes, than by being deprived 
of some little gratification of fancy or desire, which in all probability would 
please him only for a moment. 

By the habit of obedience too, when practised towards a judicious and 
consistent mother, the child soon learns, as if by a sort of instinct, what 
is the general nature of its mother's wishes, so that it will often combine 
the nleasure of anticipating them, with the duty of compliance. 

Ail weak persons unacquainted with the world, and disappointed in their 
own experience, are naturally miserable when unsupported, and left to 
themselves. What then must be the suffering of a child whose own will 
is its only law, and who has not learned what is right and wrong, nor even 
what is possible or impossible to be had,*or done ? We see its sufferings 
written on its anxious irritated countenance. We behold in its manner, 
alternately irresolute and determined, the caprice and waywardness by which 
it is disturbed. We hear the agony of its disappointment after each 
successive attempt to do what was impracticable, or what was fraught with 
danger and pain ; and we ask of the mother, in common kindness, to establish 
for her child a rule of safety and of peace, and to let that rule be — implicit 
obedience to her own authority. 

It is distressing, even to the casual observer, to mark, in the impatient, 
feverish, irritable character of such a child, the wretchedness which is pre- 
paring for it in after life ; and not in after life alone, for each day is fraught 
with suffering to the little being who is thus allowed to be a law unto itself, 
before it has the means of understanding what is right or safe, pleasant or 
possible, to possess. Yes, we can many of us feelingly attest what it was 
to spend a day^and happy for those with whom a day was all — in company 
with the child who was suffered to crush the hot patty into its mouth, to 
make tea for its mamma, and consequently to pour tne scalding water upon 
its breast, to climb the edge of the round table upon which soup had been 
placed, to bum its fingere by roasting its own apple at the fire, to eat more 
at every meal than it had power to digest, and to allow the cravings of a 
diseased appetite by having one hand perpetually supplied with sugar-candy, 
and the otner with sweet-cake ; to finish all, by sitting up late at night because 
it did not choose to go to bed. Nor need we add to this catalogue those 
offences of which the child takes no cognizance, such as gingerbread stuck ' 
upon the visitor's chair, and butter smeared upon her dress; nor those 
dreadful eruptions of passion and distress which take place whenever 
offences abound, so that the parents, or perhaps an irritated father, thinks 
it necessary to correct the child, as it is called. Neither is it necessary to 
dwell upon the multiplication of these evils where the family is numerous, 
and confusion is consequently worse confounded. I would only add, that 
to all thescy and more a hundredfold, the fond mother has subjected her 



102 Reviews <md Literary Notices. 

children, from failing to enforce the simple and pleasatit duty of implicit 
obedience, which would have made all things comparatively easy. Not that 
I am visionary enough to assert that wherever authority is consistently 
maintained there will be at all times, and on the Instant, a willing obedience, 
with an absence of wrong tempers, feverish ailments, and perverseness of 
disposition ; but I am confident in asserting, that the greatest kindness we 
can do to a helpless, ignorant, and inexperienced being, is to furnish it with 
a guide upon which it may safely and implicitly depend, and that this guide 
to a child ought to be the undisputed authority of its parents, or of those 
whom they may deem worthy of being deputed to act in tbeir stead. 

Then again it is prompt obedience that is required, for no other will 
answer the end of producing family concord, and individual satisfaction. A 
lingering, pleading, lengthened-out dispute, betwixt the mother and the 
ohfld, even when the mother gains the mastery in the end, is the very 
opposite in its results to what all rational parents would desire; and the 
little girl who keeps her nurse waiting for her a whole hour, because she 
intreats her mother every ten minutes that she may stay up a little longer, 
has to be carried off to bed at nine o'clock, with as mucn screaming and 
opposition as there would have been at eight, and with the additional injury 
to her health and temper, of having suffered the loss of her natural rest ; 
with the still worse addition of having discovered, that by pleading and 
coaxing she can overcome her mother's influence, and set aside her deter- 
mination to enforce what is right. 

Habit, which is said to be second nature with all, is almost more than that, 
with children. Thus the habit of resisting and disputing authority, by 
whatever means it may be done, lets in a tide of evil consequences not to hs 
arrested by any occasional resumpfion of the power which has been volun- 
tarily resigned.. The maintenance of authority is like the preservation of a 
string of beads— break but the <* silken cord on which they hang/' and the 
pearls are scattered in disorder, if not irretrievably lost. By suffering the 
rule of obedience to be set aside, an endless catalogue of evil tempers, 
vexations, disappointments, artifices, mean subterfuges, and even the worst 
of all bribery — the bribery of self-interested endearments — are allowed to 
take the place of that steady, calm, and undeviating submission, which costs 
no pain, and requires no sacrifice, simply because it is habitual. 

There is no spectacle in life more deplorable, and few more calculated to 
awaken feelings of contempt, than that of an undisciplined and pettish 
temper fretting against and resisting what is inevitable ; and yet all this folly 
as well as the suffering with which it is always associated, is necessarily con- 
sequent upon that error in the management of childhood, which allows of 
rightful authority being made the subject of resistance and dispute. On the 
other hand, we never contemplate human nature in a more noble or dignified 
position, than when, under the dispensation of Divine, and consequently indis- 
putable power, it yields a willing and prompt obedience. 

It may be paid that the obedience of a cnild to those who superintend its 
infant vears^ has nothing whatever to do with the submission of beings more 
rational and mature to laws which they acknowledge to be divine ; but I 
am fully persuaded that the habit of rebellion against human authority, 
•allowed, in early life, will render the habit of submission to a higher Power 
' of more difficult attainment in after years ; while, on the other hand, the 
sanie proportion of opposite results will follow from a prompt and undeviat- 
ing subjection of the weaker to the stronger, during those early stages of 
existence when it is impossible that the reasons for enforcing a parentis 
commands should be fully understood." 

The preceding remarks will commend themselves more forcibly to 
tiie judgment of sound thinking, judicious, mothers, than to those who 



Reviews and Literary Notices. 103 

are so foolishly fond of their children, as to be unable, or unwilling, to 
cross their inclinations when they know them to be wrong. The treat- 
ment of children which Mrs. Ellis inculcates is not, however, that of 
harshness or severity — but that of enlightened kindness, which is cal- 
culated to ensure the highest degree of enjoyment in childhood, youth, 
and manhood or womanhood. Mrs. Ellis has evidently been a care- 
ful observer of family affairs. In all things relating to the circum- 
stances and duties of her sex, she has taken comprehensive views, and 
exercised a sound judgment. If the mothers of England were pro- 
perly to exert their influence and authority, they would thereby save 
their children from many of the evils to which they are exposed, and to 
which otherwise they will become subject. The importance of the 
right exercise of maternal influence and authority can hardly be ex- 
aggerated ; and we know no work, of mere human production, more 
suitable for the instruction of mothers, in disciplining their own minds 
for their all-important maternal duties. Those who desire the rising 
generation to become possessed of all the enjoyment to which human 
nature can attain, and who wish all the best interests of civil and social 
society to be advanced to the highest degree of perfection, should re- 
commend to the attention of every mother this most excellent work. 



IMPETUS. An Address to the Members of the Wesleyan Methodist 
Association on Duty and Privilege. By a Local Pbeacheb, 12mo, 14pp. 
£. Peabson. 

The author of this pamphlet is a sincere and hearty friend to our Con- 
Dexion. His design is to remind the members of the Association of the 
advantages which they possess, and to excite them to zeal, activity, and 
liberality, in the diffusion of knowledge, and Christianity, by the agencies 
which they have the means of employing. The principles on which the 
Association is founded, and by which it is governed, he explains and 
commends. To those who have had to take a prominent part in conducting 
the proceedings of the Association he pays the tribute of respect and admi- 
ration. The ministers of the Wesleyan Methodist Association he honors as 
men of intelligence and talent, sincerely devoted to their calling, and worthy 
of the respect and support of those to whom they minister. The duties 
which he specially enjoins, are those of furnishing the means for extending 
our missionary operations both at home, and in foreign lands ; extending the 
benefits of education by establishing and supporting Sabbath and Day schools ; 
— aiding by our practice, and influence, in circulating the periodical pub- 
lications belonging to our Connexion, not only by taking copies of our 
Magazines for our personal benefit, but also by taking duplicate copies, to 
lend to those who cannot afford the small cost of their purchase, and by 
introducing the " Children's Magazine" as extensively as possible into our 
Sabbath schools; — cultivating the spirit of Christian brotherhood towards 
other sections of the Church of Christ ; and by rendering aid to all those 
institutions which are designed to ameliorate the civil, moral, and spiritual 
condition of mankind. The copy before us is " a rough proof," sent in haste in 
order that we might notice it in this month's Magazine ; as such it contains, as 
is usual, a number of inaccuracies, which the author will no doubt .have 



104 Reviews and Literary Notices, 

corrected before putting it to press. We recommend this pamphlet to the 
notice of our readers, and hope that it may be the means of causing many 
to prize more highly the privileges they possess ; and to be more enterpris- 
ing, liberal, and assiduous in promoting the prosperity of our Connexion. 

THE MORNING OF LIFE ; a Contribution towards the advancement 
of Youthful Piety, By a Couktbt Pastor. Imperial 32mo. 187 pp, 
J. Snow. 

These Lectures it appears were recently delivered by their author to the 
youth of his congregation, and they having been made, under the Divine 
blessing, useful to several persons who heard them, he has been induced to 
publish them in compliance with the request of highly respected friends. 
The Lectures are on the following important topics — ** Young Men invited 
to serious consideration" — *' Young Men guarded against infidelity*'-^ 
•* Young Men directed to just views of religion" — " Young Men aided in the 
choice of pleasures** — ** The claims of religion urged on the immediate 
attention of Young Men*' — "Pious Young Men considered in relation to the 
times in which we live.** To these is added •* An Address to youthful 
members of the female sex.** Also a Sermon on <*The accomplishment of 
pious purposes Divinely prevented.** And, ''Hints on the duties of 
Christian Electors.** 

The author of this neat little volume is a young minister. His appeals to 
youth manifest that he knows how to sympathize with them in the dangers to 
>vhich they are exposed, by the temptations assailing them. He addresses 
them with the affection of a brother, and the earnest pathos of a christian. 
The sentiments advanced are in accordance with the Word of God ; and the 
work proves that its author is possessed of considerable talent. It is very 
suitable as a present to young persons. Believing it to be well adapted for 
usefulness we wish it an extensive circulation. 

MOMENTS OF THOUGHT, on Subjects Spiritual, Experimental, 
and Practical, By Samuel Alexander Bradshaw. Royal IBmo. 138 
pp. G. Virtue. 

This little volume contains a number of excellent brief dissertations on 
texts of Scripture ; and many aphoristic sentences and short paragraphs ; a 
number of which contain rich gems of thought. From some of the ex- 
pressions employed we discern, that the author has embraced what is, now, 
usually designated, moderate, or modern, Calvinism. There are, therefore, 
a few passages in the work, to which we cannot fully subscribe ; these, how- 
ever, do not materially detract from the general excellence of the work. 
The author is undoubtedly possessed of extensive information, and much intel- 
lectual power. The following quotation will enable our readers to judge of 
the character of the work : — 

*' They shall be mine, saith the Lord of Hosts, in that day when I make 
vpmyjeweUy Mai. iii. 17. — Thus saith God the Lord, in comfort of his 
tried ones that think upon his name. These words were originally spoken to 
the church, while in suffering circumstances, the Israel of God being 
depressed bv the pride and wickedness of those in power. Perhaps it is easy 
enough to tnink and speak well of God, when all things are prosperous and 
go glibly on ; but it may indeed be judged not so, when in professing God*8 
name trouble stares full in the face. Without doubt, on this hand the Lord 
has many butterfly professors of his name, who, when tried a little, shed 
their coats and become grubs of the earth. But not so of his true Israel; 
trial will never metamorphose the true believer, unless it be in the way of 
making the wings of faith to grow to the full, and the profession of love to 
become more brilliant and beautiful, like as the eagle that renews its youth : 
in this sense, trial may produce some change in the believer. But how 



Reviews and TMerary Notices. 105 

/glorious this feature! Herein trial performs a goodly part for the soul; 
that which is every way well pleasing to God, On this account it is that 
the Lord's people are most precious in his sight : he values tliem of sterling 
worth ; he calls them his jewels. Now, then, God will always have an eye 
to his afflicted ones ; he will not pass them over as forgot. No ; they are 
his choice possession, the jewels which are to compose his crown. God is 
one that hath his diamonds, his emeralds, his ametnysts, and all other pre- 
cious stones, and by-and-by he will put all these in such array as will astonish 
every beholder. It may now seem that his saints are anything but these ; 
but the truth is, the court-day has yet to come. Till then the saints may be 
in comparative meanness and obscurity ; but for all that they are equally 
precious to God : and further, some may be in so sufiPering a condition, that 
carnal reason combined with the influence of Satan may tempt these them- 
selves to question the validity of this matter. But let it be asked, is not 
the diamond a diamond, and the ruby a ruby, though under the chiselling 
hand of the lapidary? Doubtless they are; and their being under the 
shaping and polishing hand of the lapidist is proof most positive as to what 
they are. Men do not think it worth their while to spend labour upon what 
is of worthless account. So here, the very afflictions of the righteous arc 
a testimony in favour of their being the chosen portion of God ; and by 
these it is that God works up his people to a fitness for himself, against the 
day of his glory. Now, may not the saints find content in this ? may they 
not, in spite of all their troubles, find joy in the Lord, and boast themselves 
in the Most High ? ^ Surely they may ; and what should hinder this ? 
Being of God's treasures, they are too precious to be lost. People do not 
cast gold and silver, and all precious things in the street ; nor do they so 
despise these as to trample them into the earth. Then fear not. ye tempted 
disciples of the Lord ; for neither will God despise ye, who are his people ; 
this would be to contemn his treasure, and to reject that* .whereof alone he 
has to boast and array himself before an assembled world." 

THE HERALD OF PEACE. January, 1844. 8vo. 48 pp. T. Ward 
and Son. 

This is a Quarterly Publication issued by the Society for Promotion of 
Permanent and Universal Peace. All Christians must roost heartily desire, 
that the efforts of this Society may be crowned with speedy and complete 
success. The information contained in this number is interesting and cheering. 
Our readers will be much pleased with the following account which it gives 
of the — 

Presentation of the Address to Governments to Louis Philippe, 
King of the French. 

** The address from the Convention was intrusted, for the King of the 
French, to the Marquis de la Rochefoucauld Liancourt, of Paris, and to 
Messrs. George C. Beckwith, Araasa Walker, John R. Willis, and Dr. 
Thomas Cock, of the United States. In the absence of the Marquis, his 
place was supplied by the Rev. Wm. Toase, an Englishman long resident 
in Paris, and a member of the Peace Committee of the Society of Christian 
Morals. 

** Through the politeness of M. Guizot, the Prime Minister," says one 
of the deputation, " we obtained leave of audience with his Majesty, on the 
20th of July, at his palace of Neuilly, some five miles from the Tuileries. 
Our reception was all we* could desire, and much more than we had 
ventured to expect. The King welcomed us not only with the courtesy 
so characteristic of him, but with a frank, warm, easy, cordiality, that 
made us at once feel ourselves at home in his presence. After answer- 
ing his inquiries about the different parts of America froia which most of 



106 Seviews and Literary NoHoes, 

us had come, and where he said he had travelled so long ago as 1795 — 6, 
we introduced the object of our Mission by presenting the Address of 
the Convention, and requesting his favourable consideration of its con- 
tents. 

**<! receive the address,' his Miyesty replied, 'with great pleasure. It 
is a subject in which we all have a deep interest ; and I am sure I have 
iilways done what I could to preserve peace. When a young man, travels 
,llng in America, I used, when called upon for a toast or sentiment, always 
to give— a general peace,* Wben assured, that his influence in preserv- 
ing peace was fully appreciated in America, his Majesty alluded with 
regret to the danger of war in 1835 between the two countries, but added, 
' How happily we settled the matter in the end without war, and honour- 
ably to both nations/ We told him we wished to supersede all war by 
introducing arbitration as a substitute; and he readily expressed his 
approbation of the principle, and referred to the case of England and 
America, of the United States and Mexico, and several others, in illus- 
tration of its general efficacy. ' Still,' added the King, * the bad passions 
of men, which have so often hurried nations into war, may frustrate our 
best efforts at conciliation. Nor is this all ; for we find one of our greatest 
dangers in the very means we employ for the preservation of peace. You 
know we must have our armies to keep peace ; but unfortunately they are 
themselves the instruments of war, and sometimes occasion the very evil 
they are intended to prevent. Yet, continued his Majesty, 'I think the 
time is coming when we shall get rid of war entirelv in all civilized countries. 
They are beginning to learn more wisdom ; and, thank God, war now costs 
too much for nations to afford it. Napoleon began his great wars with thirty- 
five millions in the treasury ; but that was only a drop to the ocean in com- 
parison with what those wars eventually cost* 

'' After a conversation in this strain for some fifteen minutes, we took leave 
of his Majesty with a renewed assurance, that he would give the subject ^ of 
the address a serious and favourable consideration. Of the ultimate result 
we cannot of course predict ; but none of us could have hoped for a better 
reception of our object, or doubt the sincerity of Louis Philippe's interest in 
the general question of peace." 

THE CHRISTIAN MOTHER'S MAGAZINE. Edited by Mrs. 
Milner, Author of ** The Life of DeanMilner,'* ''The Christian Mother ;' 
{fc. S-c." 8vo. 64 pp. Whitaker & Co , No II. Feb. 1844. 

Judging from the number of this periodical now before us and also from 
the known ability of its gifted Editor, it will be a well conducted and useful 
publication. It however partakes more of the general character of a 
religious Magazine, than, from its title, we should have anticipated. 

THE CULTIVATION OF THE INTELLECT ; A Lecture delivered 
at the Mechanics' Institution, Halifax. By P. J. Wbight. I2mo. 40 pp. 
SiMPKiN AND Marshall. 

It cannot be expected, that within the limit of a duodecimo pamphlet of 
40 pages, there can be found a complete treatise on intellectual cultivation. 
A considerable amount of valuable information, and instruction has, however, 
been compressed into this eloquent Lecture. We cordially recommend it to 
the notice of our readers, especially to those who have not yet passed the 
meridian of life. Although their opportunities for mental improvement may 
be verv limited, yet if their minds are sufiiciently impressed with the advan- 
tages they may derive, from diligently availing themselves of even the limited 
means of improvement within their grasp, they will be led to make exertions 
for self improvement which will confer upon them rich intellectual enjoy- 



On PuUie Warship. 107 

ments, and qualify them to become companions of the intelligent, and 
iostractors of the ignorant. 

The following have been received, and will be noticed next 
month :«- 

DERRY. By Charlotte Elizabeth. J. Nisbet and Co. 

SACRED BIOGRAPHY. By J. Smith, M. A., G. Gallic, Glas- 
gow, and J. Snow, London. 

THE PULPIT CYCLOPAEDIA; and Christian Minister's Com- 
panion. Vol. I. Houlston and Stoneman. 



ON PUBLIC WORSHIP.— No. IIL 

(For the Wesleyan Methodist Association Magazine, J 

PREACHING. 

There is no mode of addressing masses of people, which has been found 
more effectiye for the purposes for which, in different ages of the world, it has 
been employed, than mat of preaching. It is a lamentable fact, however, that 
those purposes have not always been benevolent, or conducive to the happiness 
of mankind. Preaching has not ever been confined to the Gospel as its sub- 
ject, and the salvation of mankind as its object. It has, alas ! but too fre- 
quently been worldly, and political, in its designs ; — dark, malignant, bloody. 
The Gospel of Jesus Christ, publishing salvation to a ruined world has, not- 
withstanding, long and often been its theme, and myriads have been blest by 
its sound. 

The first preacher of whom we have any account in the sacred writings 
appears to be Noah, who probably for the space of 120 years at least — during 
which period under the Divine direction he was employed building an ark — 
preached righteousness to his countrymen ; but with how little success may 
be inferred from the fact, that when the floods descended not a single con- 
vert to his doctrines, or a believer in his message, appeared beyond the pale of 
his own family. 

Preaching, according to our modern notions, does not appear to have been 
much, if at all, practised in the patriarchal ages, or even under the Mosaic 
dispensation. During the latter period, the law, it is true, was read on the 
Sabbath-day, and, sometimes, ** a word of exhortation ** was added ; but it was 
not until the blessings of the Grospel were promulgated, that preaching, in its 
power and efiectiveness, was fully known and understood. The first century 
of the Christian era, unquestionably, witnessed more extensive and glorious 
results from the preaching of the cross of Christ, than have since been efiected 
by the same instrumentality during any similar period. By the cutting and 
irresistible sermon of Peter on the day of pentecost, three thousand persons 
were pricked to the heart ; by the preaching of the disciples, after the perse- 
cution which commenced at Jerusalem, who ** went everywhere '* proclaiming 
the glad tidings of salvation ; by the labours of the Apostle Paul, who, at 
Athens, at Rome, and elsewhere, faithfully and effectively preached the same 
truths, '' with signs following ;" and also by the preaching of the other apostles, 
and their immediate followers, who in the order of providence visited alfnost 
every country in the known world, multitudes were ** turned from darkness to 
light, and from the power of Satan to God." The most extraordinary moral 
effects ever produced on the theatre of the universe, or contemplated by the 
human mind, followed the simple, earnest^ and faithful preaching of the Gos- 
pel of the blessed God. 



108 On Public Worship. 

At various periods of the christian church different modes of preaching hare 
obtained, as the tastes and inclinations of the ministry, their love and pursuit 
of knowledge, and the power and influence of true religion upon their own 
hearts, and those of the people at large, have led. Upon the whole, however, 
it may, I believe, be safely affirmed — notwithstanding the early manifestation 
of the existence of Antichrist, (the assumption of the authority of Christ in his 
church), which the apostle even in his day declared to be actually latent, and 
which was then kept back from exerting its baneful influence by the power 
of God — that until the exercise of authority in the hierarchy, by Constantine, 
preaching was generally, if not altogether, used for purposes consistent with 
the object of the salvation of souls. It is true, that immediately preceding that 
important event, during the third century, a considerable change in the mode 
of preaching took place. Moshcim, in his Ecclesiastical History, says, that, 
** tne discourses or sermons addressed to the people at that time were very dif- 
ferent from those of the earlier times of the church, and degenerated much 
from the ancient simplicity. For not to say anything of Origen, who intro- 
duced long sermons, and the first who explained the Scriptures in his dis- 
courses, several bishops who had received their education in the schools of the 
Rhetoricians, were exactly scrupulous in adapting their public exhortations 
and discourses to the rules of Grecian eloquence. And this method gained 
such credit as to be soon almost universally followed." These remarks, how- 
ever, apply more to the manner than to the subject-matter of preaching, and 
the practice referred to might have co-existed with a desire to preach nothing 
but the Gospel of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ. However, no sooner 
did the Roman Emperor profess subjection to the cross of Christ, and take the 
church under his patronage and protection, than a new scene opened up to the 
ministers of that Church, which eventually led to an entire change in preach- 
ing, more indeed in the matter and subjects of discourse, than the manner; 
and ultimately issued in the rejection of the saving truths of the Gospel, and 
the substitution of the most absurd and wicked dogmas. 

Without dwelling upon the different forms which preaching assumed through 
successive ages of the church, we mav come to times somewhat nearer our 
own, and just glance at the worldly objects for the accomplishment of which 
preaching was but too successfully employed. During the eleventh and twelfth 
centuries, the Christian world, so called, was roused into action by the preach- 
ing of monks and others, in favour of a crusade against the Saracens, wlio were 
then in possession of Jerusalem, with the view of recovering the Holy City, 
and establishing in it — such as it then was — the Christian religion. Few 
preachers have ever lived who were possessed of more spirit-stirring eloquence, 
or who produced more extraordinary effects upon an auditory, than '' Peter 
the Hermit,*' when he travelled almost the lengtn and breadth of Christendom, 
with a letter in his hand, ** which he declared to have been written in heaven" 
exhorting to arms against the followers of Mahomed. So effectual was the 
preaching of Peter, that eight hundred thousand persons, the scum, as well as 
the flower of Europe, were inflamed by a passion which nothing but death 
could extinguish, '* to wrest the cross of Christ out of the hands of the Infi- 
dels.*' Nor was the success of another preacher much, if at all inferior, in the 
following centurv, when calling potentates and people to a second crusade. 
** Bernard, the famous abbot of Ulairval, preached the cross, that is the cru- 
sade, in France and Germany, with great ardour and success ;" insomuch that 
another army was raised for a similar purpose, and all ranks and classes, from 
the monarch to the peasant, vied in zeal and determination to vindicate the 
honour of the Saviour, as was foolishly imagined, by slaughtering his ene- 
mies. It is worthy of remark in passing, that scarcely had two centuries 
passed over, when the *' Knights Templars,** as the leaders of this crusade and 
their descendants were called, became in turn suspected of being the enemies 
of the cross ; and, by the command of Pope Clement the Fifth, were, through- 



On Pubiie Worship. 109 

oot EDrope, seiied, imprisoDed, tortured, and many of them put to death, as 
gutltj of the moat heinous and abominable heresies ! But preaching, the great 
Ajeet of which has been so to inflame the passions of men as to lead to the 

shedding of human blood, has not always had reference — as its victims to 

those who denied the name of Christ, and were infidels by profession. Alas ! 
the church of Rome has long had within its pale, men who have held human 
life as of much less ralue than the dogmas of their church, and who would 
much sooner sacrifice it at the shrine of that church's errors, than take a single 
step to correct and reform their errors. Men who, in the character of mini- 
sters of the €rospel of peace, have delighted in war, in shedding the blood of 
those of their fellow creatures, who in professing faith in the same Saviour, 
have dared to do so in terms and modes accordant with the New Testament| 
but at variance with the creed of the dominant church. The wars which have 
been waged for the extirpation of what has been designated heresy, against 

the Albigensesy Yaudois, Waldenses, Hugonots, and other religious bo^es, 

and against those minor European states, which from time to time exposed the 
eomiptions of Rome, and refused subjection to her Anti-christian assumptions 
—were all heralded, and accelerated by the fanatical and wicked preaching of 
monks, and other orders of the clergy; who saw in the new and unsophisti- 
cated doctrine of salvation by faith in Christ, a power and influence which 
would level with the dust the monstrous system which ages of darkness and 
ignorance had reared. With a seal therefore worthy of a better cause, these 
men went almost " everywhere" preaching, and urging the duty of hating, 
persecuting, and putting to the death, better and holier men than themselves ; 
inflaming 3ie minds of the ignorant, exciting the worst passions of human na- 
ture, and setting every man*8 hand against his brother, until entire regions 
became desolated, myriads of Christ's faithful followers were slain, and various 
portions of Christendom saturated with the blood of his saints. 

In modem times, it has been bur happiness to witness, as the result of the 
preaching of the cross of Christ, far difierent triumphs than those we have now 
ocen contemplating. The simple announcement of the truths uf the Gospel 

has, in later and better days, produced more peaceful and blessed effects 

saving, instead of destroying, men's lives ; and teaching universal brotherhood 
and benevolence among mankind. Surely it is a desecration of so high 
and holy a calling, for a minister of Christ to preach upon any other subject 
than ''Christ crucified,*' the Saviour of sinners; and all those great and 
glorious truths connected with, and arising out of, this foundation doctrine. 
Preachers of the Gospel have an inexhaustible theme in the message given 
them to carry to perishing men, and in pointing them to *' the Lamb of God 
which taketh away the sin of the world,*' without trifling upon the bubbles of 
the day, preaching the politics of the world, or, much less, exciting man against 
his fellow man to hatred, and the indulgence and exercise of the evil passions 
of depraved human nature. 

To preach acceptably, and with success, is no doubt the sincere and anxious 
desire of every faithful minister of the New Testament ; and if the glorious 
efiects designed to be produced by the Gospel are laboured for, prayed for, 
and expected, such genuine successors of apostolic zeal and fidelity cannot, and 
will not, labour in vain. Ministers of the Gospel, whose great business is the 
salvation of souls, ought to be anxious to avoid whatever may appear to mili- 
tate against success. There are several styles or modes of preaching, which 
are evidently calculated to do anything but profit an auditory ; two or three of 
which I will just advert to. There is what may, perhaps, be designated the 
" curious ** style, which is shown sometimes in the selection of texts designed 
to excite the pleasantry of the bearers, rather than instruct the mind and 
awaken the conscience. Such it is to be feared was the object of a preacher 
who chose for his text ** Apes and peacoclcs ;*** selecting the words from the 
history recording the articles brought by Solomon*s ships from Tharshish : 



no On Public Worship. 

such also was that of the pulpit courtier, who on preaching before King James, 
ihe/irst of his name on the English throne, and the sixth on that of Scotland, 
abruptly announced for a text, '* James the first and sixth.** This kind of 
preaching f s also exhibited by the selection of texts of a highly figurative char- 
acter, and by an attempt on the part of the speaker, to spiritualize every such 
figure, and to find their counterpart in the moral nature, or religious experi- 
ence of the Christian. Such attempts sometimes furnish amusement to an 
auditory, but they rarely minister to the mental, moral, or spiritual wants of 
the hearers. 

A kind of preaching has arisen in modem times, especially among younger 
ministers, which may, perhaps, most appropriately be denominated '< Essay 
preaching ;" the object of which is to exhibit the topics brought under discus- 
sion in a mode better adapted for the press, than for the more familiar style of 
oral delivery. But dry, formal, ultra systematic preaching ; the discussion of 
a subject in an orthodox and scholastically approved manner — however inge- 
nious and skilful, making more impression upon the lettered part of an audi- 
ence than upon the congregation generally, and most of all upon the head, and 
not upon the heart and conscience — is not that description of preaching which 
in apostolic times was so signally owned in the conversion of souls ; nor is it 
likely to be characterised by such effects in the present day. It is a lamentable 
thing when a congregation is found preferring pulpit discourses, upon mere 
moral and philosophical subjects, to the announcement of the great truths of 
revelation ; but such a case, as that, would ofier no ground of justification to a 
minister for pursuing such a course. A circumstance, shewing the actual oc- 
currence of such a case, however, came under the notice of the writer a few 

years ago. The Rev. Dr. removed from his pastoral charge in a large 

manufacturing town in the country, to a metropolitan chapel. A few months 
afterwards, the writer had business engagements with one of the country 
hearers of the reverend gentleman, which required their attendance, and de- 
tained them both in London, for two or three weeks, and during that time the 
latter attended the preaching of his former teacher. This gentleman, mixing 
with some of the new hearers of the Doctor, naturally enquired how his mi- 
nistry was approved among them ; and the answer given— I blush to record it 

— was, that tney had been disappointed in Dr. ; that they found hini 

too religious for their congregation, and his pulpit discourses made up too 
much of what was called practical religion, instead of what was much more in 
accordance with their tastes and wishes — and what they had previously been 
accustomed /o— philosophical dissertations. It will no doubt abate somewhat 
of the surprise of the reader, to be informed that this was an unitarian con- 
gregation ; but, notwithstanding this fact, the entire occurrence has always 
appeared to the writer to be strongly illustrative of the natural efiect of a course 
of preaching which had ever been addressed to the intellect, but seldom to the 
hearts and affections of the hearers. 

The best models of preaching which a minister of Christ can select, not- 
withstanding all the learned works which have been published on this subject; 
are to be found in the New Testament. Clear and simple statements of Di- 
vine truth, conveyed in language not to be misunderstood ; with powerful 
appeals to the consciences, backed by the influence and energy of tne Holy 
Ghost, appear to have constituted the glory of apostolical preaching : and the 
apostolic models are the unerring guides to pulpit success. No preacher, 
therefore, need be at a loss for direction in this important matter, nere such 
examples universally followed, it would sweep away the race who are constantly 
diving, as they suppose, into hidden mysteries ; and who profess to expound 
with almost mathematical precision and certainty, those <' secret thmgs *' 
which belong only to God I 

It cannot be denied, that the pulpit in different ages of the church has been 
adorned by most varied, and the highest order of talent, and with eloquence 



On PuUic Wtyrslup. HI 

seldom if ever surpassed. But the preaching which has been rendered most 
successful in its ultimate, and highest, object, has not always — perhaps not 
often — exhibited these qualities in such full perfection. There are exceptions ; 
and it is well known that many whose preaching has been remarkably owned 
of Grod, in the spread of divine truth, have possessed gifts of rare de- 
scription. There is, however, a. species of talent, an eloquence in preaching, 
which all ministers of Christ may possess and exhibit, and without which no 
man ever preached the Gospel successfuUy, — and that is, earnestness. 
This quality, perhaps more than any other, singly, is descriptive of primitive 
preaching ; it is that which distinguished the discourses of the religious re- 
formers, Luther and Knox — which characterized the ministry of Whitfield and 
Wesley ; and which, to the end of time, must remain inseparable from that 
preaching of the Gospel, which will be most instrumental in saving souls. O I 
to bear a man discoursing upon subjects involving the present and everlasting 
interests of his hearers, upon whose countenance, or in whose voice and lan- 
guage no anxiety for the successful issue of his labours is manifested, is in- 
deed enough to cause angels to weep ; and strange, passing strange would it 
be, were any good to result to his hearers. 

It is all very well— nay, it is right, and proper, and absolutely requisite—in 
preaching, clearly to state the nature of the subject ; to illustrate it by Scrip* 
ture and reason, and every legitimate mode of argumentation, so that the con- 
gregation may distinctly understand it ; — but to do this in such a way as to 
leave an impression upon the auditory that nothing remains to be done ; that 
the subject is not of such a nature as to involve their dearest and best interests, 
and does not require their immediate attention, were to act the part of a 
traitor both to Grod and man. No minister therefore should ever close a ser- 
mon without forcibly, and in the most solemn and earnest manner, bringing 
home to the consciences and hearts of his hearers, the important truths which 
have been under consideration. If any evidence of the propriety and neces- 
sity of such a course were needed, let us look round a congregation of any or- 
dinary extent, and of whom shall we, in great part, find it composed? Of 
persons who, it may be, have occupied the same seats, and have been almost 
regularly found in them for years, to whom discourses have again and again 
b^n addressed without effect, until their hearts are, if possible, harder than 
the nether mill-stone ; who have heard sermon after sermon, until they are 
almost as well acquainted with the theory of salvation as the occupant of the 
pulpit himself: — of persons who are wedded to the world, and are seeking 
their " portion in this life ;" who, while the preacher is dwelling upon subjects 
of faith, and holiness, and a needful preparation for another world, are occupy- 
ing the samc^ moments — in the house of God — with calculations of pecuniary 
profit and advantage ; or with the chances of some new enterprize, wnich is to 
bring wealth rapidly, and in abundance :— of those who are literally lovers of 
worldly pleasure ; who make their god of it, and worship it ; and who have not 
the least leisure for any thing but what makes its appeal to the sensual part of 
their nature, and is productive of present gratification. Nor ought we to for- 
get in this category, that in our congregations there are also many who profess 
the name of Christ, members of his church, the associates of his people, but 
whose lives and practices reflect no honour upon their profession ; who are 
comparatively dead whilst they live. How then, permit me to ask, are such 
cases to be reached ? In what way is the sinner to be made sensible of his 
state and condition, and to be rescued from the misery, and perdition, to which 
he is hastening with the rapidity of time's flight ? If so happv a consumma- 
tion can be enected — if they are not already so given up to their idols as to 
render their case utterly hopeless — their recovery is not surely to be effected 
by a mode of preaching, whose soft dulcet notes would seem to indicate a fear 
of giving offence to the pride^ or shocking the feelings, of the hearers, by re- 
ferring to the awful condition in which they are placed, and the punishment 



11^ Geology of the Bible. 

that awaits them. Oh, no ! If there is one situation more than another in 
which a man can be placed, in which he is called upon by every consideration 
to annihilate self and do violence to his own feelings, it is that of the minister 
of the Gospel, who, standing as it were on the brink of eternity, sees the value 
of the soul, and the danger to which it is exposed ; he surely ought to act the 
part of an honest man, and be earnest, and zealous, and faithful, in the dis- 
charge of the solemn duties of his office. 

Who, then, in the ministerial office, is jealous for the honour of the Lord of 
Hosts ? Let him who has love for perishing souls, which has its source in the 
love which the dying Saviour exhibited for perishing man ^ who prefers 
Zion*8 prosperity to his chief joy, and would infinitely desire the salvation of 
souls before the approval of listening auditories, or the accumulation of wealth 
—let him, as a preacher of the Gospel, on every occasion when addressing im- 
mortal beings, on the concerns of eternity, remember, that whatever qualifica- 
tion he may lack, or possess, by far the most important of all, both to himself 
and his hearers, is fidelity in declaring the counsel, and the truth of God : and 
if he would stand acquitted at the last day, and be clear from the blood of 
souls, he must preach with an earnestness which will not fail to carry convic- 
tion to his hearers, that he himself believes in, and is deeply anxious that they 
should share, the blessings of the Gospel. 



GEOLOGY OF THE BIBLE. No. I.* 

(For the Wesley an Methodist Association Magazine,) 
" In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth,**— Gen i. 2. 

The fact here asserted involves a truth to which philosophy, unaided by 
diyine revelation, could not reach ; for whilst among the vulgar, in ancient 
times, tradition asserted that the world was created by a God, ^^'quicunque 
fuit ille deorum " — whichever of the gods he was — Ovid,) the wisdom of the 
learned could only rise to the conclusion, that all existences, without excep- 
tion, must be essentially eternal. 

The assertion of Moses, that this giving existence to what had no being 
before, was in the beginning^ has been supposed by some learned commenta- 
tors to imply, that it only refers to the commencement of time— all before 
being pure eternity. Thus, Dr. Adam Clarke notes, " In the beginning : 
before the creative acts mentioned in this chapter, all was eternity. Time 
signifies duration measured by the revolutions of the heavenly bodies ; 
but prior to the creation of these bodies, there could be no measurement of 
duration, consequently no time ; therefore, in the beginning must necessarily 
mean, the commencement of time which followed, or rather was produced 
by God's creative acts, as an efiPect follows or is produced by a cause." 
It is a question, however, whether, on such a supposition, the Hebrew word 
would have been what it is ; and the translators of highest repute, who may 
be supposed to have best understood the force of the original terms, have 
rendered it by an expression far more significant than anything, the simple 
commencement of existence, would seem to imply. The Septuagint trans- 
lators are recommended to us not only by their learning, by living in an 
age when the Hebrew was a familiar language, and by the authority of the 
Sanhedrim which approved of their work — but on this subject they have 
the stamp of divine authority ; the word they employ having been adopted 

* Our much esteemed correspondent, the writer of this article, has, at our request, 
consented to supply us with a series of papers on this interesting 8ubject.->£o. 



Geologvo/tieBiM$., IIS 

bj Su John at the commeDoement of hisgoepel, where he has asserted the 
eternity of the Diyine Logos or Word. The greek term ** archee " signifies 
not only a beginning, but the act or state of presiding, governing, assuming 
dominion, carryii^ out imperial power, or the exertion of supremacy ; and 
hence the Vulgate chooses to render it by the word Principio, rather than 
by any one that would present an inferior meaning. It was a first or chief 
exercise of divine sovereignty external to himself: as we may conclude from 
some expressions in the ^>acred Records, which may well be placed by the 
side of the text above quoted. Thus, in Proverbs viii. 24, we are told that 
** the Lord possessed wisdom in the beginning of hii way :** an expression to 
which Mican seems to have especial reference, when he sneaks of his goingi 
forth haying been of old — the going forth in one case, oeing equivalent to, 
the beginning of the other. This first recorded act of creative power is 
judsed to express the fact of calling into existence the essential substance 
of uie things created : '* the substance of the heavens, and the substance (^ 
the earth,*' says Dr. Adam Clarke,— quoting also several eminent com- 
mentators. And it may even be supposed to have produced, in one period 
or dispensation, all that shall ever exist— at least, of material things ; tnough 
it by no means follows that this material was soon moulded into a regukur 
form, there being reason to suppose that all the matter then created has 
not even yet been definitely arranged ; for the masses discovered by astro- 
nomers in illimitable space, and commonly denominated nebule, have more 
the appearance of matter awaiting the mandate of Deity, than of any final 
arrangement of substance. At last, however, in God*s good time, the Word 
spoke — the Spirit brooded — and the world which we inhabit received a form, 
which we will endeavour to represent to the mind of the reader. 

'* Let there be a Firmament,'* or expansion ; which, however, was not 
alone an empty space, but a structure of thin air — yet capable of sus- 
taining water in some way or form unknown to us ; for though rivers existed 
in this primeval time, there was no rain : the ground being watered by 
a mist only. Gen. ii. 6, 7. 

But in studying the historical account of creation given us in the Bible, 
our chief interest is directed to the structure of the earth ; of the first con- 
dition of which we have some interesting though brief accounts : which if 
not sufficient to satisfy curiosity, are yet able to afibrd instruction. 

There were rivers and seas, (Gen. i. 7, 9; ii. 10,) the seas not being like 
our inland lakes of the present day, but of continuous structure (Gen. i. 9) ; 
in distribution, perhaps, not much unlike the present arrangement. But 
the structure of the earUi appears to have been exceedingly unuke what now 
appears in the formation of our globe : not only the high hills, (which then 
existed. Gen. vii. 19, 20; and, perhaps. Psalm civ. 6; though the expres- 
sion, ** the waters stood above the mountains,'' may rather refer to the flood 
of Noah), but also the general structure or form of the globe itself, being 
founded upon or over the seas; and firmly, perhaps, by way of arch, 
established upon the floods; of which, that we do not erroneouuy interpret 
the words as expressing a structure verj difierent from what is now apparent, 
is shown by what St. Peter remarks m his ars^ment against Infidels, who 
would object against the threatenings of revelation — that past experience 
showed an invariable process of* nature, and that the laws being unchange- 
able, the same must continue for ever ;— <* the heavens were of old, and the 
earth standing out of the water, and in the water: whereby the world that 
then toaSf being overflowed with water, perished, 2 Peter iii. 5 ; but the 
present structure both of sky and land is clearly distinguished in v. 7. 

It is a received doctrine among geologists, that metaJlic dust and sand are 
the product of decomposing rocks, that for ages must have existed and been 
exposed to the action of the elements. But the Bible informs us difierently ; 
for at the earliest period of this globe's existence, Gen. ii; 11, ^1d 9nd 

' " • ■ ■«; ■ 



114 On th» SwUnHan 'rf Education. 

saad, probably mingled ti^^peHier, were to be found on the shores of the 
rHrer; the sand itself being constituted of the most precious stones, which 
theory supposes to have a necessary existence only in a native matrix, 
though it must be confessed that the theory is scarcely supported by eren 
modem observation-— very fiew diamonds having ever been found so situated. 
In the criminatory reproach against the grandeur and consequent pride of 
Tyre, by the prophet Ezekiel, that enterprizing citv is supposed, in the 
ciourse of the extensive travels of its merchants, to nave visited the garden 
of Eden, and thence to have collected every known kind of valuable stone : 
the sardius, topaz, diamond, bervl, onyx, jasper, sapphire, emerald, car- 
toicle, and gold — the only metal then used for ornament, and exclusively 
so, the circulating coin or money being confined to silver. That this origind 
deposit of gold, also, even at the first creation, was simply mixed with sand, 
Bs it is very extensively found at present in countries where there are no 
neighbouring rocks to furnish it by their decomposition, is rendered probable 
from the manner in which Moses and £zekiel mention it ; and still further 
from the book of Job, xxviii. 6, where it seems to be supposed that it could 
scarcely be found in any other situation. Neither ougnt this to appear 
strange to us ; for it is no more contrary to what we should expect in nature, 
to find the metals existing originally separate from a matrix — though some- 
times united to one — than that we should find air or water, and the latter 
perhaps charged with Salt, though a chemist will pronounce each of them 
to be a product of a combination of simple elements. The sacred narrative 
gives us to understand, that even when it first came forth from the hand 
of its Maker, the world had received a structure calculated for the residence 
and happiness of its inhabitants : and though he might foresee and provide 
to bring about changeS| no change was requisite to ensure its perfection. 
Foiperro: 

To be continued. 



RESOLUTIONS OF THE CONNEXIONAL COMMITTEE, 
ON THE EXTENSION OF EDUCATION. 

The Connexional Committee, at a meeting held in Baillie Street 
Chapel, Rochdale, on the 16th of February, 1844, took into con- 
sideration the. resolutions of the previous Annual Assembly, on the 
<' Extension, of Sabbath and Day Schools ;" and also the noble efforts 
now making by the Established Church, and by Dissenters, for the 
extension of Education. It was felt to be cause of deep regret, that 
under the present circumstances of the Connexion, arising from the 
great number of Chapels which within the last seven years have 
been erected by our societies, and the consequent expenses which 
Lave been incurred^ and the other extraordinary charges arising 
out of the peculiar circumstances in which we, as a recently formed 
connexion, have been placed, that it could not be expected we should 
be able to emulate the proceedings of those other sections of the 
Church, who are putting forth their denominational strength for the 
extension of education. It was, however, impressively felt by the 
Committee, that something might, and ought to, be done, by our 
Connexion, in aid of this most important movement. Resolutions 
were therefore adopted — relating to the advancement of the interests 
01 our Sabbath schools, and the manifestation of our hearty good will 
towards the extension of education by Day schools, supported by 
voluntary contributions, and conducted on liberal and scriptural prin- 



On the Extenshn of EducaHofu 115 

ciples. It is most earnestly hoped, that all oar preachers, and other 
members of our Connexion, will regard it as their imperative duty to 
give the measures recommended by the Committee, their due atten- 
tion, /iroj9t/»^, liberal, and most hsahtt support. 

It may be proper to add, for the information of some of our 
readers, that " The British and Foreign School Society" affords 
instrttctiOD, to qualify suitable persons desirous of becoming teac hers 
of Day schools ; requiring only a trifling consideration for board and 
lodging. Provides, and supplies, upon moderate terms, such 
books, and other school materials, as are best, adapted to fecilitate 
the communication of a sound, comprehensive, and scriptural educa- 
tion. It also aids in the formation of new Day schools by grants 
of school materials. This society is based upon the most liberal, and 
scriptural principles. Assistance is equally afforded to, persons, and, 
schools, conducted by committees of all denominations. Many mem- 
bers of our connexion have been trained in its Normal School, which is 
in the Borough Road, London. 

RESOLUTIONS. 

Resolved 1st. That this Committee rejoices in the efforts now making by 
▼arioos sections of the Church of Christ, in this kingdom, for the extension of 
the benefits of Education, by the establishment of additional Day, and Sabbath, 
schools. 

2nd. That this Committee earnestly recommends the respective circuit, 
quarterly, and leaden' meetings, to take into consideration the best means, 
to be adopted, for the purpose of rendering the Sabbath, and Day,> schools, 
connected with their several societies, as effective as possible ; and, also, for 
establishing aS many additional Sabbath and Day schools, as the Yiwats of 
their difierent neighbonrhoods may require, and their means may enable them 
to support. 

3rd. That the Committee has great pleasure in learning, that, io several 
of our larger drcnits, anangements have been made to bring their schools 
into closer connection with the Church — by declaring their itinerant preachers 
entitled to take an efficient part in the mana,gement of the schools ; giving, 
them authority, on account of their ministerial ielation to our societies, to act 
on the school committees, and^to visit the schools, for the purposes of affording 
them [their counsel and countenance. That this Committee regards 6u(£ 
arrangements as eminently calculated to promote both the welfare of our. 
schools, and the interests of the cause of religion. It would, therefore, most 
affectionately urge upon all the committees and conductors of our schools, 
who have not yet adopted such me^ures, the immediate consideration of— the 
best means for bringing their schools into the closest union with our section of 
the Church of Christ; as recommended by the Annual Assembly of 1840, 
and recorded in the *' Minutes " of that year, 

4tii. That it be recommended to our respective circuit quarterly meetings 
to consider the propriety of taking immediate measures for raising private 
subscriptions, and making public' collections in our chapels, in aid of the 
British and Foreign School Society ; the amounts so received to be forwarded 
to the Rev. R. l^kett, 6, Argyle Square, London, on or before Midsummer 
day next ; that the gross amount may be paid to the Treasurer of that society, 
as a contribution from the Wesleyan Methodist Association; and as an 
expression ofgratitudeforthe defeat of the Factories* Education Bill, of 1843. 

5th,, That copies of the preceding resolutions be forwarded to all our circuits, 
and inserted in our Magazine; and that adl our friends, and the itinerant 
preachers especially, be requested to use their best exertions to obtain contri- 
butions in aid of the preceoing object. 



116 

EXCELLENCY OF RELIGION. 

Thb adaptation of religion to the varied wants and circumstances of man 
in his pilgrimage to the grave, is far from heing the least powerful of the 
many arffuments in proof of its Divine origin : and not only so, hut this ^cu« 
iarity of religion, must ever be regarded as one of its most pleasing and inter- 
estinff features. 

Religion, is alike adapted to the vivacity of childhood, — the buoyancy of 
youth, — the thouehtfulness of maturity, and the feebleness of age. It is 
alike adapted to me wants of the poor, and the cravings of the rich :•— the 
ignorance of the unlettered, and the wisdom of the wise. Religion, in the 
principles it instils, and the character it brings out, might be clearly and 
forcibly shewn to be exactly fitted to the constitution of man, and the wants 
of society ; but it is upon religion, in the htmes it imparts, and the prospects 
it unfoliu, that we would now for a moment dwell. 

And in no way does religion discover its peculiar .adaptation, or, (if the 
expression may be allowed, J its sympathv with man, as it does in speaking 
home to his heart, words of comfort and consolation in his yearning after 
'* immortality and eternal life." Religion finds man full of fear, and anxious 
foreboding, as to his destiny beyond the tomb ; but placinff the cross before him 
as the object of faith and the ground of hope, it bids him look up and 
rejoice through all the changing scenes of life, [with |" a joy unspeakable 
and full of glory.*' Thus reliffion has not only the "promise of the life that 
now is,'' but of that also "which is to come." It directs the mind to the 
contemplation of thinss which are unseen and eternal;— it calls off the 
attention, and weans the affections from the vanities of life^ and tells us to 
commune with the grand and solemn realities of futurity ; — it opens up the 
scenes of the sanctuary on high, and bids us stand and listen to the 
symphonies of those who worship there, and ponder their amazing bliss ; — it 
unveils the splendours of the beatific vision, as throughout eternity it shall 
be seen in that land which is now **a very far off," where the " King in his 
beauty" is seen and the song of the seraphim heard. 

And these scenes of future glory are not sketched out and presented to the 
view of the believer merely to delight his fancy, and beguile the wearlsomeness 
of the way. No, they are set before him that he may cherish, with all the 
warmth of his sanctified affections, the hope of hereafter seeing them, not as 
now " through a glass darkly," but, " face to face ; " — and of enjoying them, 
not as now through the medium of faith, but with all the mystic capabilities 
of a body fashioned like unto the Saviour's fflorious body. A believer's hopel 
O, who can estimate its preciousness ? Who can tell its sweetness ? He 
has a hopCf **a good hope through grace," a hope, which has for its 
foundation '* Oaths, and promises, and blood," that through life however rude 
be its storms, complicated its triab, or, severe its duties. Divine strength 
proportioned thereto shall be given him ; and that when his earthly course is 
run, and he nears the shores of eternity, and catches the distant sound of the 
rushing of Jordan's billows, he shall be calm and tranquil, find that there is 
** light in the valley," and *' pass through death triumphant home ; " and oh, 
to what a home ! the home of the happy, the home of the holy ! the 
gathering place of all those who have " washed their robes and made them 
white in the blood of the Lamb." 

Reader, have you such hopel if you have— /irc to God, and purify 
yourselves, "even as He is pure." If you have no/, and yet desire to have 
it, go to the ** cross,** cast your guilty soul beneath the shade of ''dying 
love," offer to God the sacrifices of a broken heart and a contrite spirit ; 
believe the " record " He hath given of his Son ; grasp the truth, the truth as 
it is in Jesus, and yon shall have hope, in all its sustaining power, 
and unimagined sweetness^ radiant with perennial light, and immortal bloom. 
Darlington. 



117 



''GRACE PARLING/'-LOSS OF THE "PEGASUS." 

Scripiure Elucidation. 

Mr. FiiBtohbr has compared the defects in the English version of the 
Mcred Scriptores to fireckles in an otherwise beautiful face. His words are, 
*' A beaatifal face may have some freckles ! Our translation is good, but it 
has its blemishes." Every one familiar with Biblical research is, however, 
aware that to a right understanding of the Sacred Writings, there are other 
reqaisites besides a correct translation. In a multitude of instances, no 
rendering, Uiough faultless as the light, can convey the sense of the original 
widioat an acquaintance with the customs and controversies, preiudices and 
historical foots of the countries where those records were penned. Calmet, 
Harmer, and a host of eastern travellers have cultivated and contributed to 
this department of Scripture elucidation. Yet there is reason to know that 
ordinary readers and hearers are scarcely satisfied with such modes of 
ezplaimng the sacred Scriptures. In dealing with an antagonist they cannot 
very comfortably wield the weapons of defence thus supplied. They seem 
like David in Saul's armour. And, after all, they do not see quite clearly 
why there should be ambiguity, uncertainty, or difficulty in the exposition of 
Divine tnith. They would decidedly prefer to be able to understand the 
Bible in the ' vulgar tongue,' without obligation to extrinsic helps. 

Bishop Butler wrote **0n the Analogy of Religion to the Constitution and 
Course ci Nature," but no one has pointed out the analogies and parallels 
arising out of modem language, and every day occurrences, in apt illustration 
of Scripture difficulties. Here is a field of inquiry hitherto unexplored; a 
wide field, and capable of being turned to immense account. There is 
scarcely an instance of Biblical perplexity or obscurity that has not its 
counterpart and parallel at our very doors. One exemplification it is the object 
of this paper to adduce ; and, for the sake of clearness, it may be well to go 
briefly over all the facts involved in the cases to which we refer. 

1. The late Grace Darling^ Heroine of the Fern Islands, resided with 
her father, who, at the period to be referred to, was keeper of a liehthouse on 
one of Uiose dreary and desolate isles in the German Ocean, off the coast of 
Northumberland and Durham. The Forfarshire steamer, on her passage 
from Hall for Dundee, encountered a heavy gale, and, having become 
unmanageable in consequence of the boiler leaking so as to extinguish the 
fires, she was driven upon the rocks called the Great Harkars, in the vicinity 
of the lighthouse, about three o'clock, on Friday morning, Sept. 7, 1838. 
The vessel parted in two, the stem, cabin, and quarter-deck bemg carried 
away into the raging sea. Twenty-four out of twenty-five cabin passengers, 
including several ladies, the captain and his wife, and ten of the crew, 
instantly met a watery grave. The one remaining cabin passenger and eight 
of the crew escaped, as by miracle, in the boat, were picked up by a sloop, 
and conveyed into South Shields. The fore-part of the vessel remained fast 
on the rocks, five steerage passengers and four of the crew clinging upon it. 
Their doleful cries were heard by the Darlings. As soon as daylight appeared 
their dreadful situation was discovered, but such was the violence of tne sea 
that Mr. Darling, though a practised mariner, refused to venture out, until his 
daughter, Grace, not only urged her father to make the effort, but also offered 
to Uike an oar herself. She took the oar— the wreck was reached — and, 
to the heroic daring of this young woman, nine persons were indebted for the 
preservation of their lives. This humane and intrepid exploit immortalised the 
name of Grace Darling. Multitudes in steam-boats crowded to the spot to 
see her. Subscriptions amounting to £700, and presents in great variety 



118 Grcme Darling — Lots tf the Pegasus. 

and to an inconceivable extent were pressed upon her. The Duke and 
Duchess of Northumberland had her. and her father, over^ to the castle and 
presented her with a gold watch. The Humane Sodietj Voted her ' thanks. 
Artists were sent to take her portrait. She has been sung at the opera, and 
represented at the theatre. She was offered XdO a night to appear at the 
Adelphi in a scene of the shipwreck, merely to sit in a boat. Admiration 
ai^d applause ran throu^ the kingdom ; and from Russia there were com- 
missions for persons to see her, and send, accounts of her^ and, pieces of the 
rock oh which she lived. 

2. The " Pegasus" This unfortunate steamer, on her way from Leitb 
to Hull, went down, having struck on a hidden rock near the Fern Islands, 
soon after midnight, on the I9th, or rather 20th, of July, 1843. Forty-nine 
persons were vicdms to this deplorable disaster; and among them Uie Bev; 
John Morrel Mackenzie, Professor of Biblical Criticism and Church History 
in the Glasgow Theological Academy. Only two passengers and four of the 
crew, out of fifty-five persons on boud, succeeded m makine their escape. 

8. It is a frequent custom at sea to throw a bottle overboard, containing 
memoranda of the ship's course, or other important information. The chance 
is, that the bottle may be picked up somewhere and its contents made known. 

4. It appears firom a continental newspaper, the Journal dea Debats^ that 
a bottle wafr found in November last, on the coast of Holland, containing a 
slip of paper, on which was written, — ** Pegasus steamer, to Fern islahls, 
night of Wednesday, July 19, 1843. In great distress ; struck upon hic|den 
rocks. On board, fifty-five persons; vessel must go down, ana no" Grace 
Darling t ^ But the butch JoumaHst was totally at a loss ii^hat to make of 
the words " Grace Darling'^ He could not translate them ; so he wrote,' 
or rendered theitn *salut,* which signifies safety! by which it ifead— tessel 
must go down and no safety 1 1 Of course, he might have been fardiier firom 
the maik, but it was no translation. 

Now it is evident— 

1. That the translator was at fault through ignorance of the case of ^' QrneA 
Darling and the Forfarshire.'' 

2. That however the words had been rendered, they could not have been 
understood without a knowledge of the historic fact 

8. That no one, whether native or foreigner, could comprehend or appr^* 
ciate the touching allusion without an acquaintance with the historic fact 

4. That this is a specimen of, and a narallel to, obscurities that must occur 
in the rendering and reading of all languages, whether sacred or profane. 
Allusions give force and beauty to language, whether oral or writteii, but 
from the nature of the case, they must always be mysterious and inexplicable 
just so far as the sources happen not to be known whence they are derived* 
The leading facts or principles may be clear enough nothwithstanding. The 
Editor of the Journal des JDebats understood that the ' Pegasus ' was sink- 
ing when the slip was written which he attempted to translate. There could 
be no mistake about that. So, the unlearned reader of the Bible will be at 
no loss to descry all the essential truths and doctrines of the Word of Ood, 
ihough numberless passages will be, to him, comparatively unintelligible. 
'' The wayfaring man, though a fool, shall not err." 

R. Chjsstbb. 



119 



RELIGIOUS INTELLIGENCE. 



APPLEBY. 

To THB £OITOR| 

Dear Sir, — I am happy to inform 
TOB^ that since I last wrote to ^ou, God 
has answered the prayeni of bis people 
in this circuit, for a revival of his 
work; as you will perceive by a report 
vUdi I enclose, from one of our 
eoantry places. In addition to what 
hsa been doing in that village, the 
Spirit of God has, to some extent, 
bem poured out at Appleby, and five 
bive recently united with us in church 
fellowship. At Murton, a village 
three miles distant from Appleby, we 
have had a blessed work — ten have 
abandoned the ranks of the enemy, 
and cast in their lot among us : seve- 
ral of them are young persons. Also 
in other places in the circuit we have 
had some good doing: we are hoping 
to see greater thmgs than these. 
Please insert this, and the report from 
Warcop. 

I am, dear Sir, 
Yours truly, 

W. Cave. 

Ffh. 1844. 

For some short time back our cause 
at Wazcop has been in trying circum- 
stances^ principally for want of a con- 
venient place of worship. A few 
months since brother R. Fawcett (our 
respected class leader,) and myself, 
agreed to hold a prayer meeting once 
a week, for the purpose of invoking 
the blessing of Almighty God. For 
some weeks we did not see any 
prospect of much good, but at all 
our meetings we felt the unction of 
the Holy One to rest upon us. We 
then thought of commencing a system 
of holding travelling prayer meetings, 
at those houses where they desired our 
services. We had not continued many 
weeks before three persons begun to 
meet in class, and soon afterwards 
obtained redemption in the blood of 
Christ, the remission of their sins; 
and in the course of five weeks we 
have witnessed, at least, twenty-four 
persons converted to God — most of 



whom are young men, and nearly all 
have begun to meet in class ; some, 
however, have joined other societies. 
We have commenced preaching at 
Sandford, a village about a mile 
distant, and formed a class. We hope 
this is but the beginning of good days. 
Many more are labouring under the 
burden of sin, and seeking salvation; 
oh, that they may be speedily de- 
livered. We are now using all our 
efforts to get a suitable piece of ground 
for the erection of a chapel : as soon 
as we have accomplished this we have 
determined to commence building. 
May the Lord prosper the work of 
our hands. May we all labour more 
than ever in the cause of God — get 
more of the spirit of prayer — and 
resolve to use our talents for the 
advancement of his glory, and the good 
of souls. 

L. Atkinson. 

HULL. 

The Anniversary of the formation of 
the Association in this circuit was 
observed on the 21st and 22nd of 
January. Sermons were preached on 
Sunday, 21st, in the forenoon and 
evening, by the Rev. John Harley, 
of Darlington ; and on Monday, 22nd, 
a tea meeting was held in the spacious 
school room, which was filled to over- 
flowing. The provisions for the tea 
were furnished gratuitously by a num- 
ber of ladies connected with the so- 
ciety and congregation, so that the 
whole of the proceeds will be appro- 
priated to the funds of the society. 
The meeting was highly interesting, 
and the friends, who were present, 
seemed much gratified while they lis- 
tened to the addresses of Mr. Alder- 
man Cookroan, the Chairman ; the 
Rev. J; W. Gilchrist, Rev. E. Cherry, 
of South Street Chapel, Messrs; Bee- 
ton, Cook, Wright, and others. These 
services have exercised a salutary in- 
fluence on the state of the circuit, and 
have materially lightened the pecuni- 
ary burden under which we laboured. 

Fc6.21,1844. J. W. 



120 



Poetry. 



OBITUARY. 



Died, at West Bradford, in the Cli- 
theroe circuit, Sept. dO, 1843, Susanah 
Thomber, in the 49th year of her age. 
Her mother died soon after she was 
born, and, when in her seventeenth year, 
her father departed this life. At an 
early age she went to service, and suf- 
fered much from unkind treatment. 
About her twenty-fourth year she was 
drawn into sinful company, and yielded 
to temptations. She became dejected 
and melancholy, and fierce temptations 
raging in her soul, she resolved to end 
her miserable existence by self-murder, 
and twice went to the water in order to 
commit the horrid deed. But God, who 
is rich in mercy, restrained her from self- 
destruction, and the consequent loss of 
her soul. On her second visit to the 
water, the thought struck her, that she 
had relatives at West Bradford, who 
might treat her kindly ; this led to her 
coming to this place, where she was 
gladly received by her relations. Su- 
sanah now found herself in the bosom 
of a pious family, and became a regular 
hearer of the Methodist preachers. Her 
mind became enlightened, and she felt 
that she was a sinner in the sight of 
God. She joined the society, sought 
the Lord with tears, and was led by the 
Holy Spirit to believe on the Lord Jesus 
Christ to the saving of her soul. Her 
converaion to God was sound, clear^ and 
scriptural. She received her first ticket 
from the Rev. William Tranter, March, 
1821 ; and from that period to her last 
illness remained a consistent, active, 
ornamental, and useful member of the 
church. In the year 1835, when Sister 
Thomber, with most of the society at 
West Bradford, became connected with 
the Wesley an Methodist Association. 
Her cousin, Thomas Place, who is a 
Leader and Local Preacher in the same 
society, states, that for the last twenty- 
four years, during which time she lived 
with him as housekeeper, he cannot re- 
collect an angry or unkind expression 
ever escaped her lips ; and that, when- 
ever he became remiss in any duty, she 
was ever ready, earnestly and affection- 
ately, to entreat him not to be weary in 
well-doing. Sister Thomber was highly 
esteemed by the members of the church, 
and had a good report from them that 
are without. Her honesty, industry, 



frugality, cleanliness, keeping at home 
and minding her own business, were ap- 
parent to all in the village. Her adorn- 
mg was the ornament of a meek and 
c[uiet spirit, which, in the sight of God, 
is of great price. The odour of her 
good name will long perfume the moral 
atmosphere of Bradford. During the 
last eight months, from acute pain dart- 
ing up the back of her head, she was 
apprehensive that she might die sud- 
denly. The Sabbath before her sick- 
ness, she said to her cousin, ** Thomas, 
I fear my Lord may come at a time 
when lam not looking for him." Tues- 
day night, Sept. 24, being my appoint- 
ment to preach at Bradford, I went 
there, although the rain was falling in 
torrents, and the road dreary and dan- 
gerous. Calling at the house where she 
resided, I found her just preparing to 
attend preaching. She was very cheer- 
ful, expressed her agreeable surprise 
that I had come, and talked sweetly of 
the comforts of religion, and the many 
blessings experienced in the public 
worship of Almighty God. She went 
to the chapel, and, during the first 
prayer, she was seized with paralysis. 
On our arising from prayer, it was dis- 
covered that she could not rise; and, 
when she was raised, it was apparent 
that her speech, and the use of one side, 
were quite gone. She was then borne 
to her chamber, and medical skill was 
immediately procured ; but it was the 
stroke of death. She lay as in a sleep 
until the Sunday following, when 
consciousness returned. Her cousin 
then said to her, ** Susanah, we know 
you cannot speak, but if you feel that 
you have complete victory over death, 
raise the arm not paralyzed." She im- 
mediately raised her arm, and three dif- 
ferent times during the day gave to her 
sorrowing friends the signal of complete 
victory through the Blood of the Lamb. 
About two o'clock the next morning 
her emancipated spirit escaped from this 
region of sorrow, and entered the abode 
of eternal day. 

Her friends desired me to improve 
her death, /'rom Matt. xxiv. 44, which 
I did, to an attentive and crowded 
congregation, convened in the Wesleyan 
chapel, kindly lent for the occasion. 
Joseph Townseiid, 



TrCJOKHM, FAINTER,. lUd LlonC^ FlfM BimC. 



No. 17. 

WESLEYAN METHODIST ASSOCIATION 
MARCH, 1844. 

YEARLY COLLECTION AND MISSIONARY FUND. 

Among other excellent practices brought into use by that indefati- 
gable minister, and self-denying servant of Jesus Christ, the Rev. John 
Wesley, is that of a yearly collection in the classes, at the time of 
the renewing of the quarterly tickets in the month of March. The 
proceeds of this collection being, designed to be, appropriated to the 
ail-important purpose of diffusing the Gospel of Jesus Christ. 

When the Wesleyan Methodist Association was formed, it was 
agreed, by its assembled representatives, to adopt this custom ; and 
many of our circuits have regularly and cheerfully made this collec- 
tion. In some cases, however, it has been either, altogether, or to a consi- 
derable extent, omitted. The consequence is, that our *' yearly collec- 
tion" has not yet reached such an amount as it has been reasonable to 
expect. We would most earnestly and affectionately urge upon all 
onr preachers, and other officers, and the members of our society, the 
importance of rendering their best aid in support of this collection. 
As the appropriation of this fund is absolutely under the direction of 
the annually, and hee\y, chosen representatives of th^ respective socie- 
ties, there is the best possible guarantee for its proper application. A 
uamber of our circuits, in this kingdom, are unable to raise, sufficient 
funds for the maintenance of the ministers appointed to labour therein ; 
and, after defraying the unavoidable connexional expenses, the pro- 
ceeds of this fund are applied to meet those deficiencies. Those per- 
sons who have properly consulted the annually printed accounts, pub- 
ibhed in the '* Minutes,** of the expenses incurred for connexional 
purposes, must have felt surprised and gratified that so small an amount 
has been sufficient for this purpose ; thereby leaving so large a pro- 
portion of the fund for the maintenance of the messengers of the 
churches, employed in proclaiming the gospel of Christ. 

It is, however, a painful fact, that notwithstanding the exercise of 
(he strictest economy, the funds of the connexion appropriable to the 
extension'Qf religion, are not yet equal to the amount which, from the 
number ^ our members, might be fairly expected would be raised. It 
is a mosl important question, how can the funds be duly augmented ? 
One most important means would be, that of augmenting the amounts 
given at the *' yearly collection in the classes." Would it be extrava- 
gant to.say, that if all our members of society duly felt the importance 
of soppoirting this collection, that the average contributions would be 
one shilliiig for each member? If this could be realized, the present 
debt would be discharged, and a fresh impetus be given to the progress 
of the Association. To effect this, however, it must be borne in mind, 



122 HAMBURGH. 1844. 

that all who can afford to give must contribute ; and in order to make 
up for those who, although they may have a hearty good will, yet are 
80 very poor as not to have the means of contributing, it is requisite 
that those on whom God has bestowed more abundantly the power 
to contribute, should give proportionate to their means. A rich man's 
pound is a smaller gift than a poor man's shilling. Let then the yearly 
collection be mentioned by the leaders to their classes ; and let it be 
also explained, and recommended by the preachers, especially at the 
quarterly visitation ; and if in any case the March visitation has passed 
by without attention having been given to this importtmt matter, still 
let it be brought under the notice of each class : let the subject be so 
brought before our members, that they may give, not grudgingly, but 
cheerfully, feeling it to be a duty and a pleasure to aiford their help. 

Another means of increasing our funds for Missionary operations, at 
home and abroad, is that of working more efficiently the Missionary 
societies in our respective circuits. The committees ought to meet 
regularly, to devise and carry out the best methods of augmenting the 
funds ; the collectors ought to be encouraged and stimulated to perse- 
vering activity and zeal in the good work in which they are engaged ; 
they ought also to be supplied with a sufficient number of our quar- 
terly " Missionary Notices," the expense of which should be charged 
to the funds of the society. It is also important, that especial atten- 
tion should be paid to making the best possible arrangements for the 
Missionary Sermons, and the holding of Missionary Meetings ; and so 
as to avoid unnecessary expenses. In too many instances the practice 
has been to put them oif until nearly the close of the connexional year; 
and then oftentimes the meetings have been held, and the sermons 
preached at times, and under circumstances, which were unfavourable 
to their success. In the year 1840, the *< Annual Assembly ** strongly 
urged " upon all our circuits and societies the importance of holding 
their annual Missionary meetings, and of making the annual collections 
in all their preaching places, at an early period of the connexional year." 

To support and extend the '* Association," and thereby to dissemi- 
nate the influence of our holy religion, in connection with those advan- 
tages which are peculiar to the Methodist societies, but freed from 
those *'laws and usages" which endow one class of officers in the 
church with undue authority, must be regarded as a most important 
part of our duty. Let us therefore resolve to be faithful to our pro- 
fessed principles and to the cause of God. There is the most urgent 
want of increased zeal and liberality. The days of our stewardship 
will soon be numbered. May God in his infinite mercy give us grace, 
that as his stewards we may be found faithful. 

HAMBURGH. 

To THE Editor,— Dear Sir, 

1 HAVE merely to report the rcaliza- they have decided to be on the Lord's 

tion of my hopes as expressed in my side, renouncing the pomps and vanities 

last communication. God has been of this wicked world, and connecting 

graciously pleased so to work upon the themselves with his people. As these 

hearts of three other individuals as that are young persons— the lambs of the 



1844. 



CARRICKFfiRGUS, IRELAND. 



123 



flock — they will require rauch cnre and 
instruction, which, however, I am sure 
the church will be mindful to bestow. 
We might add more to our numbers, 
if our rule on the worldly amusement 
of dancing were not in the way ; but 
we are determined to maintain our 
regulations inviolate, and lo admit to 
membership such persons only as are 
prepared fally to submit to our dis- 
cipline. 
On the morning of New Year's day. 



the Members assembled together for 
the purpose of renewing their tickets; 
the season was indeed one of gracious 
and hallowing influence, a time of 
solemn dedication, not soon to be for- 
gotten. Again we beg an interest in 
the prayers of our brethren, that the 
word of the Lord may have free course 
and be glorified amongst us. 

W. H. Walker. 
Fdf. 16, 1844. 



CARRICKFERGUS, IRELAND. 



To the Editor — Dear Sir — In reporting 
the condition and prospects of our cause 
in Ireland, I beg to say that, although 
we as a church have many difficul- 
ties, yet we have much to encourage 
us. 1 received the appointment to 
Carrickfergus with fear and trembling, 
yet with a confident hope, that God 
would be my strength and counsellor ; 
and hitherto I have experienced the 
falfilment of the promise, '*Lo, I am 
with you always." 

Il will not perhaps be altogether 
uninteresting to give a short account 
of my voyage to this place, and of my 
labours since I arrived here. The night 
previous to my departure from Bir- 
mingham, we held a special service at 
Bath Street chapel; I delivered a 
farewell address, and was greatly en- 
couraged to find, both by the attend- 
ance and by what was said, that I 
lived in the afifections of the people. 

Wednesday, Nov. 1st. 1843.— This 
day I was called to leave my native 
home and dearest earthly friends, to 
sojourn among, to me, an unknown 
people. Praise God I am willing to 
do this, as I believe it to be the will 
of God. Left home with many hearty 
good wishes and much fervent prayer. 
Came safely to Liverpool ; found the 
Athlone would sail at six, p. m. This 
was my first venture to cross the briny 
deep, but my faith in God was strong and 
fear fled. Got a quick and pleasant sail . 
One more pleasant could not be. The 
night was fine. The moon with her 
borrowed flight seemed to be sus- 
pended as the lamp of heaven to light 
us on our way. The sea was cdm 
—the gentle waves passed the vessel 
almost without a murmur. The com- 

rmy on board was agreeable. It is true 
sometimes sent a thought homeward, 
and sighed when I thought of the con- 
dition of some I had left behind, and 
sent a prayer to heaven for them. 



But, in fact, the pleasant V03rage, 
together with the delightful thoughts of 
my noble enterprise, and the smile I 
saw on my heavenly Father's face, 
made it one of the happiest nights 
I ever lived. 

Thursday, 2nd. — This morning a 
little before nine o'clock, with some 
difficulty, owing to dense fog that had 
risen, we sailed into port at Belfast, 
where in good health and spirits I set 
my feet upon the green sod, and was 
well entertained by a member of the 
Conference body. After offering 
prayer and praise I proceeded to Car- 
rickfergus, the scene of my labours — 
met with a kind reception on my ar- 
rival, and in the evening commenced 
my work by attending a prayer meet- 
ing; which was well attended. Fer- 
vent prayer was offered, and great atten- 
tion paid while I remarked upon the 
parable of the Prodigal Son. The peo- 
ple were not a little pleased at seeing 
their new minister. After the prayer 
meeting I met a class. The Lord was 
in the midst, and we were constrained 
to say, '' Master, it is good to be here." 
Closea the week with much satisfac- 
tion after having visited many of the 
families connected with our church 
and congregation. I was greatly 
pleased with their simplicity and kind- 
ness; when entering their dwellings 
the general salute was, *you are wel- 
come to Carrick, Sir.' I found in 
many instances deep piety connected 
with extreme poverty. They are the 
most grateful people I ever met with ; 
for although their poverty is such, as 
I did not think existed, in Ireland, till 
I saw it, yet they deem it a mercy that 
they possess anything in the world. 

Sunday, 6th.— My first Sabbath in 
Carrickfergus. It was a happy day. 
Preached in the forenoon wiu great 
liberty, from 2 Cor. iy. 5. Took this 
opportunity of laying before the peo- 



124 



CARRICKFER0U9, IRELAND. 



1844. 



pie my intentions as a minister of 
Christ sent among tbem. Great at- 
tention prevailed, and I was told that 
the congregation was larger than usual. 
In the afternoon I visited the school ; 
only a few children, but great order 
and a good supply of teachers. Gave 
an address to the teachers and children. 
Evening service — God was with us — 
had a much larger company than in the 
forenoon ; the most profound attention 
was given while the Word of life was 
proclaimed, and nearly the whole con- 
gregation remained at the prayer meet- 
ing, after the preaching ; I believe 
good was done. Lord, take all the 
praise. During the week I preached 
two or three times, and held one 
prayer meeting, in dwelling houses. 
Was highly delighted and greatly pro- 
fited when preaching to a company of 
fishermen, they seemed eagerly to take 
in the word of " the common salva- 
tion.** In visiting the classes 1 was 
pained to find one or two of them 
badly attended; but find it is prin- 
ripally owing to poverty, and were it 
not for the poverty that prevails, ours 
would be a flourishing society. How- 
ever, I believe, the few we have joined 
in church fellowship, are sincerely 
running the Christian race. 

Sunday, 12th. — Was greatly en- 
couraged to find the congregation 
larger than on the previous Sabbath. 
God met with us in his temple, and 
we closed the day greatly blessed and 
profited. During the week found my 
way to several families, and was grieved 
to find, although they mostly attend 
some place of worship, many of them 
are strangers to experimentid religion. 
On the Friday of this week we held 
a church meeting, and was gratified to 
find, that the members of our church 
dwell together in unity and love. O 
that the Lord may send us prosperity ! 

Sunday, 19th.— The congregation 
still improves, and the greatest atten- 
tion prevails while the will of God is 
made known. His word shall not 
return unto him void. Great encour. 
agement in holding our meetings in 
the dwelling houses during the week ; 
this mode well suits both the desires 
and circumstances of many of the 
people, and many of them come on 
these occasions, who, through extreme 
poverty, cannot appear with us on the 
Sabbath day. This week I made many 
interesting, and I hope, useful visits. 
The Lord of hosts is with us, the God 
of Jacob is our refuge. 



Sunday, 26th.— A high day. " The 
Lord himself came near and fed bis 
saints to day." In addition to the morn- 
ing and evening services, in the after- 
noon, we held a love feast, when many 
of ^our members testified clearly that 
the religion of Christ is no cunningly 
devised fable. A native of Sweden 
was present, who spoke sweetly of the 
love of God in Christ. The friends 
said, ' it was the best love feast they 
had witnessed for a long season.' God 
is truly good to Israel. The heavenly 
fire seemed to have caught every heart, 
every soul seemed to burn with love. 
We believe these to be the beginning 
of good days. 

Sunday, Dec. drd.— God still fulfils 
his promise of ** Wheresoever two or 
three are gathered together, there am I 
in the midst." In my visits this week 
met with a case that stands forth as a 
striking proof of the supporting power 
of the Christian religion. A poor 
woman, old and helpless, the subject 
of painful bodily affliction, and sunk 
into the lowest depths of poverty and 
want, living in a wretched hovel unfit 
for a human being to dwell in, having 
no friends, but the friends of Jesus. 
Yet, notwithstanding all this, she talks 
as sweetly of the goodness of God, 
as though she lived in a palace and was 
blessed with all that this world calls 
good. She is a member of our church, 
although it would be greatly to her 
advantage in a temporal point of view 
to ^o to church, she promptly refuses, 
saying, she gets more good to her poor 
soul with us, and with us she will stay. 
Previous to our mission, she under- 
stood not the saving plan of the gospel. 
This is one out of many proofs that 
our labours are not in vain in the 
Lord. 

Sunday, 10th. — The congregation 
was larger than ever — to God be the 
praise— there seems to be a more 
among the people. In the evening 
preached upon the state and danger of 
the lukewarm, Rev. iii. 15, 16. Many 
took the alarm, and I found during the 
week they were setting out afresh for 
heaven. Visited an aged pilgrim, sink- 
ing beneath the infirmities of old age, 
but living in the beams of the Sun of 
righteousness, and ripening for eternal 
gJory. 

Sunday, 17th. — A memorable day. 
Went to my duties with much fear and 
trembling ; but the Lord honoured my 
weak endeavours. Was greatly aided 
while delivering the Word in the morn- 



1844. 



CARRICKFJEROnS, IRRLAXD. 



1-25 



ing, and in tbe eTening the Word was 
ooiiTeyed with power. After preachitig 
bdd a penitent prayer meeting, when 
one soul wwb set at libertr* Haste 
happy day, wben we shall bare "no 
TiteA to say to our neighbour, know ye 
the Lord ; but all sudl know him, 
from the least to the greatest." 

Monday, 18th.— Met with one of the 
poor souls wbo last niefat was at the 
penitent form, and such was her ear- 
nestness for salTation, that she had 
been weeping and praying and refused 
to eeaae, until her peace was made 
with Ood. Praise God, I prored to be 
the messenger of peace to her soul, 
for whUe we sweetly conversed of the 
willingness of Ood through Christ to 
aare the Tilest offender, and earnestly 
prayed to the pardoning Ood on her 
bdudfj she believed with her heart 
onto righteousness, and with her mouth 
made confession unto salvation, and 
has ever since walked in the light of 
God's countenance. 

Sunday 24tb. — Was, of all, the most 
encouraging Sabbath 1 have spent in 
Carric^i|^. The congregation has 
so greatly improved, that we had double 
the number of the first Sabbath day ; 
and, while in acts of devotion, God 
made himself known to us, as afore- 
time. What shall we render to him for 
all his benefits? 

Monday 25th.— Was a day of great 
joy among our people. At an early 
hour they rose to salute the happy 
morning. After singing sweetly through 
the town to our chapel ; at six a. m. 
we held Divine service ; the place was 
quite filled in every pait, and the most 
profound attention was given while I 
proclaimed the glad tidings of the 
Saviour's birUi; and all seemed to 
retire with hearts full of joy at the pro- 
clamation of the Gospel. The Lord 
has given the word, and he gives it 
success : to him be all the glory. 

Wednesdav, 27th. — Was the day on 
which we hdd our Annual Missionary 
tea party. I am desired by the Mem- 
bers of our Society, to say, that it was 
decidedly the best and most encourag- 
ing they have ever held. There were 
persons present of every denomination 
of professing Christians in the town. 
It was truly delightful to be present. 
About 200 persons sat down to tea, 
and were all well supplied. After tea, 
we opened the business of the evening 
with singing and prayer ; the Rev. 
James White, minister of the Presby- 
terian church, was called to the cbair. 



I read a Report of our Missions ; after 
which the meeting was interested with 
addresses from the Rev. P. Madox; 
Primitive Methodbt minister, of Bel- 
fast ; the Rev. J. N. Porter, of Car- 
rickfergus, and several other {^ntle- 
men. A deep interest was excited in 
the cause of Christian Missions. The 
social feeling of the meeting was 
augmented ij the valuable services 
of Mr. Mare, singing master, of this 
town, who, with his son and a number 
of his pupils, introduced some appro- 
priate and select pieces of sacred music. 
Upon the whole, 1 feel much encou- 
raged in my work, but still acknow- 
ledge that whatever good is done in the 
earth the Lord doeth it. I am weak- 
ness, and less than nothing, and vanity. 
God shall have all the praise. 

Although there are so many tokens 
of ^ood, yet in the discharge of my 
duties I am led to cry, *' Who is suffi- 
cient for these things ? " 1 feel deeply 
my situation, as a shepherd of an inter- 
esting little flock which has the pro- 
mise of increase, if proper care be taken 
and faithful labour bestowed. 

As a church, we have trials ; we are 
poor, and manv of the Members are 
tried with painful anxiety lest the Mis- 
sion fund should fail, and they should 
be left destitute of a minister. From 
what I know of their condition, I should 
feel deeply to see our Missionary with- 
drawn from Ireland. I can testify that 
what little they do for the cause of 
God, stands as a grand proof that they 
are under the influence of Christian 
and heaven derived principles, for they 
are so sorely oppressed that many of 
them can but just drag out a miserable 
existence. Both the temporal and 
spiritual condition of Ireland call loudly 
for the sympathies of the Christian 
people of England — yea, even Protes- 
tant Ireland, the condition of which 
is superior to many other parts of the 
island, requires their sympathy. If 
more faithful, zealous, self-denying, 
messengers of Christ could be sent 
forth, I know of no place where they 
could be better bestowed than in Ire- 
land. The general spiritual condition 
of the people is as wretched as their 
temporal state, for it is a truth equally 
painful as true, that although more 
than two-thirds of the inhabitants of 
this town profess to belong to the 
Christie church, very few either ex- 
perience or understand real religion. 
This then, is the true and painful state 
of things. I feel bound to express 



126 



LYNN — TAVISTOCK, 



1844. 



my thanks to God, and to the Com- 
mittee as his servants, for my appoint- 
ment to Carrickfergus ; I know of no 
ijuer field for the labours of those who 



love to diffuse a knowledge of the sim- 
ple and saving truths of Christianity. 
M. W. Bbadncy. 
Dec. 29, 1843. 



LYNN. 



To THE Editor,— Deae Sir, 
When reading the Religious Intelli- 
gence in your Magazine for this month, 
I was powerfullv impressed with the 
goodness of God as manifested to our 
Churches; I thought, surely, if these 
things give so much pleasure, and are 
80 profitable and instructive, it might 
not be deemed offensive if some notice 
of the dealings of God with his people 
in the Lynn circuit were forwarded to 
you for the information of our friends. 
It is well known to you, Sir, and to 
other of our friends in the Connexion, 
that our Society at Lynn is but of little 
note, — we lay very distant from any 
other portion of the Association, and 
consequently, cannot derive much ad- 
vantage from any of them. We are a 
poor people, and but few in number; 
therefore, it may truly be said of us, "By 
whom shall Jacob arise, for he is 
small ? " We have had difficulties to 
encounter of no ordinary kind — we 
have bad fightings without, and fears 
within— we have been assailed by ene- 
mies without, and have been forsaken 
by friends from witliin. Yea, we have 
been in perils by the heathen, and in 
perils among false brethren ; we have 
been driven from the sanctuary of our 
God, and obliged to seek refuge from 
the benevolence of other churches. 
We have also been left as sheep with- 
out a shepherd : nevertheless, '* God 
who comfortetn those that are cast 
down, comforted us," not by the com- 
ing of Titus, but by the coming of our 
beloved pastor, the Rev. Thos. New- 
ton, and here I would respectfully 
tender the thanks of the whole of the 
Lynn Society to the Connexional Com- 
mittee, for the appointment of Mr. 
Newton to labour among us. We 
would also express our feelings of un- 
feigned gratitude to the *' Head of the 
Church,*' who qualifies bis ministering 



servants, and appoints^ them their 
stations of labour in various parts of 
his vineyard. 

Since Mr. Newton came to this cir- 
cuit, God has abundantly owned and 
blessed his labours; he has proved 
himself to be a workman that needeth 
not be ashamed; he possesses a real 
Missionary spirit, and endeavours to 
seek the wandering souls of men, and 
to bring sinners to the fold of God, and 
to the cross of Christ. Instant in sea- 
son, and out of season, he is doing the 
work of an evangelist, and giving full 
proof of his ministry. Blessed be God, 
ne is not labouring in vain, nor spend- 
ing his strength for nought. God is 
giving him seals to his ministry, and 
souls for his hire. Our oongregations 
are increased nearly fourfold; deep mnd 
solemn attention is paid to the preach- 
ing of the Gospel ; our prayer-meet- 
ings are well attended; believers are 
quickened to be diligent in discharging 
their duty. There is a spirit of inquiry 
among the people. At the renewing of 
the tickets m December last, seventeen 
persons were admitted, either as full 
memb€r8 or on trial. Mr. Newton has 
formed a branch Missionary Society, 
and the collectors, as far as I can ascer- 
tain, are very successful. Our Sab- 
bath School is greatly improved ; 
teachers have come forward, and the 
numl>er of scholars is doubled. Blessed 
be God, we have peace in our little 
church ; our Members live together in 
love ; discord is banished — strife is for- 
gotten ; contenion is not heard — all is 
calm within. Our preacher is respected 
and beloved by all the other churches ; 
and they seem anxious to obtain his 
assistance, when occasion require. 
God grant that we may see greater 
things than these. 

J, Jessop. 



TAVISTOCK. 



To THE Editor,— Dear Sir, 

If it be true, "that all the tears 
which ever were shed, or ever will be 
shed,— all the groans that ever were 
uttered, or ever will be uttered — 



all the anguish that ever was felt, or 
ever will be f^lt, by all the inhabitants 
of the world, through all the ages of 
time, do not make up an equal amount 



1844. 



LOUTH. 



127 



of misery, to that which is inehided 
in the loss of one immortal soul ; *' 
surely, then, *'to shadow forth the 
horror of such an event, it would not 
suffice for the sun to reil his face, and 
the moon its brightness ; or to cover 
the ocean with mourning, or the heaven 
with sackcloth. Nor were all nature 
to become animated and vocal, would 
it be possible for her to utter a groan 
too deep, or a cry too piercing, to fur- 
nish an adequate idea of the magnitude 
and extent of such a catastrophe.*' 
Such sentiments as these are not exag- 
gerated. They perfectly harmonize 
with Scripture. The God-man wept 
over the dismal spectacle of lost souls. 
** There is joy in the presence of the 
angels of God, over one sinner that 
repenteth.'* The salvation of one im- 
mortal soul is an event which is cele- 
brated in the realms of glory — an event 
which causes the thrill of joy to rush 
into the hearts of those pure intelli- 
gences before the throne of God. If 
such be the feelings of angels, who 
only in a faint degree resemble their 
great Creator; is it not an event 
viewed with infinite delight by the 
great God ? O yes I it is, for it was 
his infinite love to immortal souls, that 
conceived the great plan of redemption. 



One immortal soul is of infinite worth. 
Then, to have to record the conversion 
of one soul, calls for the most devout 
thanksgivings. Thanks be to God, we 
have still to record the steady progress 
of the work of God at Tavistock. For 
the last five months, the work of con- 
version has been constantly going on. 
Scarcely has a week passed away with- 
out some soul finding mercy. Five 
months sgo we had twenty-four Mem- 
bers in Society, and now we number 
about sixty; '* What hath God 
wrought." It is God's good pleasure 
to save. We have had no noise, nor 
scarcely any of that outward excite- 
ment which frequently attends the 
work of God. But there has been, 
and still is, deep seriousness, and dili- 
gent attention to the means of grace. 
Many are now under conviction, and 
our prospects here, in many respects, 
are cheering. In the Devonport part 
of our circuit, we have not much pro- 
gress to report. Nevertheless, we 
have here added a few ; and certainly 
the influence of the good Spirit of God 
has been more powerfully felt in our 
meetings. My prayer is, that this may 
be the commencement of brighter days. 
Ira Miller. 
Feb. 1844. 



LOUTH. 



To THE Editor,— Dear Sir, 

When I arrived here, in November 
last, our church was in a most languish- 
ing condition, owing in a great measure 
to their being left upwards of three 
months without a preacher. Most of 
the Members had deserted their classes, 
and the congregations had dwindled 
away so as to have become very small ; 
hut, by the blessing of God upon our 
efforts, many of the old members have 
returned, and by the addition of new 
ones, we are making up, and hope to 
increase our number, '* for the people 
have a mind to work.*' In Decemoer 
last, we held our Missionary anniver- 
sary. The preparatory sermons were 
preached in Walker-gate chapel, on the 
17th instant'; in the morning, by the Rev. 
J. J. Barker, (Independent) ; in the af- 
ternoon and evening, by the Rev. J. 
Wright, (Primitive Methodist) ; and, 
on the., same day, in Bethel chapel, Al- 
ford, by the writer. On Monday the 
18th, we held our Public Meeting : Mr. 
William Brett was called to preside : 
the Meeting was addressed by the Rev. 



J. Blackburn, J, Wright, (Primitive 
Methodists), T. Vasey, (Association 
Missionary), and Mr. J. West, T Local 
Preacher). On the 2 1st, we held the 
Public Meeting of the Alford branch, 
which was well attended ; and, on the 
22nd, concluded our Anniversary ser- 
vices with a Missionary Tea Meeting, 
in Walker-gate chapel. The attend- 
ance far exceeded our expectations, and 
the most delightful feeling pervaded the 
assembly. The Rev. J. J. Barker kindly 
presided. Interesting addresses were 
delivered by several friends, and our 
collections have exceeded those of last 
year. We feel greatly indebted to the 
ministers and members of other deno- 
minations for their catholicity of spirit, 
and the very efficient help they afforded 
us. A most gracious influence attended 
all the services, for which we praise 
God. Our congregations are steadily 
increasing, and we trust we are regain- 
ing public confidence and support. We 
have been holding special prayer Meet- 
ings for imploring an out-pouring of the 



128 



WORCESTER. 



1844. 



Holy Spirit, and are happy to state that 
the Lord is quickening his people, and 
p^iving us some evidences of his favour, 
m the restoration of backsliders, and 
the conviction and conversion ot sin- 



ners. 'We have seen the little cloud, 
and we are eamestl v expecting the Lord 
will shortly pour all the Spirit of his 
love. T. Vasev. 

February, 1844. 



WORCESTER. 



To THE Eorroa,— Dear Sir, 

As the time is arrived for laying he- 
fore you an account of m^ labours, I 
forward to you the following extracts 
from my note-book : — 

Jan. 28. Preached at Worcester twice, 
and led my class. After the evening 
service we held a prayer meeting : the 
Lord was present to bless his people. 

29. This evening attended a prayer 
meeting. 

30. Went to Droitwich ; had a good 
congregation ; many appeared to be 
under serious impressions. We con- 
tinued in prayer for some time, when 
some of the members resolved to seek 
a deeper work of grace, that they might 
be more spiritual and useful. 

31. Returned to Worcester, and 
preached. God was with me to sup- 
port and comfort my soul. 

Feb. 1. Preached at Whittington to 
a small company ; but we experienced 
the fulfilment of that promise, ^' Where 
two or three are gathered together there 
am 1. 

2. Prayer meeting at Worcester: a 
small number present. 

4. Preached at Worcester twice. At 
the class held our monthly prayer meet- 
ing. At the conclusion of this service, 
visited a dying man, who, before his 
affliction, went astray; but in his dis- 
tress be called upon the Lord, and was 
heard. While with him, in company 
with some of our friends, he received 
such a manifestation of God's mercy, 
that he appeared to forget his pain, and 
praised God. " Now," he said, ** I 
know that in Gilead there is balm and 
a Physician, for he has cured my soul." 

5. Preached at Wichenford; had a 
good time ; at the conclusion, two friends 
prayed. Arrived home a quarter past 
eleven— my body was fatigued, but my 
mind was encouraged. 

6. Went to Droitwich, and preached. 
Had a small company, owing to a tee- 
total meeting being held at the same 
hour. Arrived at home about half- past 
ten. 



7. Preached at Worcester. 

8. Preached at Whittington. Had a 
small but attentive congregation. 

9. Visited some of the friends : was 
directed to the house of a poor man 
who was on the point of death, and whom 
it was thought was deceiving himself. 
All I could get from him was, that "he 
hoped God would save him as well as 
others— Christ was able to save him." 
Talked and prayed with him for some 
time. In the evening attended a prayer 
meeting. 

1 1 . Preached at Worcester twice, and 
led my class , concluded the day's ser- 
vices with prayer. At the close of the 
day felt much encouraged, because God 
had supported and blessed my soul. 

12. Employed this morning in visit- 
ing the sick, and those that were absent 
yesterday from the means of grace. 
Evening, attended the prayer meeting : 
a larger number present than usual. 
Praise God for this. 

13. Preached at Droitwich to a good 
congregation. We continued in prayer 
until about nine o'clock. Only one left 
before the whole was concluded, and 
that one was compelled to leave. 

14; Preached at Worcester ; had li- 
berty while engaged in this service; 
there appeared to be a good feeling ; the 
congregation was very attentive. 

15. Went to Whittington ; had only 
eight, besides the inhabitants of the 
house, to preach to. 

16. Not being very well to-day, did 
not attend any place for public worship. 
Visited two families. 

18. Preached at Worcester, and led 
my class. This was a refreshing day. 
God's people were led to rejoice. 

We nave not had the prosperity that 
we desire; yet we are thankful for what 
we have had. As to the past we have 
reason to be thankful, and we will take 
courage. 

I am, your's, &c., 

Thomas Sneix. 



T. C. JOHNS, FlilNTER, Red I.ion Court, Fleet Slmt. 



THE 

WESLEYAN METHODIST ASSOCIATION 

MAGAZINE. 



APRIL, 1844. 



MEMOIR OF THE LATE MRS. ELIZABETH RODGERS, 

OF JAMAICA. 

By John H, Rodgers, 
(Jamaica Wesleyan Methodist Association Missionary.) 

The subject of the following brief biographical notice was bom at 
Kmgston, Jamaica, on the 27th of August, 1786. Her mother was 
an AMcan, and was brought to the Island of Jamaica during the 
horrible reign of the slave trade ; but she happily soon obtained her 
liberty, and became a wealthy and respectable member of the com- 
munity. Her father was a Scotchman, a respectable merchant at 
Kingston, under whose tutelage she was provided with a liberal 
education.' 

At a very early period of her life, when exposed to the follies of youth 
and the dissipations of society, and when the cause of true religion in 
this Island had but comparatively few followers, she determined on 
casting in her lot with the people of God. Her conversion to God 
occurred under the ministry of the Rev. — . Bradnock, one of the 
preachers sent to Jamaica by the Wesleyan Conference. She became 
a member of his class in the year 1796. She suffered much persecu- 
tion from her family on account of joining the Wesleyan Methodists ; 
but her religious resolutions were invincible, and she was afterwards 
made the means of leading her mother, brother, and sisters to seek an 
acquaintance with God ; and to her great joy, they became members of 
the Methodist Society. Her mother died in London the 30th of April, 
1836, and one of her sisters died in London about six years ago. 
The other branches of the family are still living witnesses for Christ ; 
glorifying him with their bodies and spirits. 

During the early period of her Christian career, she had to combat 
many unexpected difficulties, arising out of the severe and long-con- 
tinued persecution which the Wesleyan Methodists, in this Island, had 
to endure. This disgraceful persecution consisted of many iniquitous 
proceedings. The motives of the Missionaries were impugned by the 
civil authorities. Their chapels were peremptorily ordered to be closed, 
«nd their ministers were imprisoned in unhealthy jails. So riotous 
were the impious white inhabitants that those who worshipped God 



ISO Memoir of the late Mrs. Elizabeth Eodgera. 

could not meet without endangering the lives of both preachers and 
hearers ; being oftentimes, on such occasions, assailed with large stones. 
The civil authorities refused them protection. By the acts of both 
the House of Assembly, and the Corporation t)f Kingston, preach- 
ing to the Negroes, or people of colour, was prohibited on pain of incar- 
ceration in jail, and other heavy penalties. But happily, the diffusion 
of Divine truth was not to be retarded by human enactments and 
hostilities ; for, subsequently, the enemies of the Missionaries were com- 
pelled to submit to the growing influence of the peaceable and renovat- 
ing tendency of the Gospel of our Lord* Jesus Christ. Having to 
endure this " great fight of affliction," those members of Society who 
were resolved ** earnestly to contend for the faith," had to resort to 
private houses that they might worship God ; not daring to be heard 
praying or singing in any part of the city ! Notwithstanding all these 
difficulties, the subject of this memoir and others were diligent in the 
use of all the means of grace. *' They chose rather to suffer affliction 
with the people of God, than to enjoy the pleasures of sin for a 
season." 

The attachment of Mrs. Rodgers to the doctrines of the Wesleyan 
Methodists was formed in early life. She was often heard to say that 
such was her love for the Wesleyans, that she would not give up her 
communion with them for any earthly consideration whatever. The 
doctrines of the Trinity, the Personality and Deity of the Holy Spirit, 
the Humanity and Divinity of Christ, Justification through faith in His 
atoning blood, the Witness of the Spirit, Entire Sanctification, and 
Christian Perseverance, were truths which she heartily believed, taught, 
and defended. Her adherence to these doctrines was much confirmed 
by her marriage to Mr. Henry Rodgers, a talented and respectable 
mechanic, who held various important offices in the Conference Society ; 
and spent his time and talents in its support and defence ; but who, 
like many others, had to suffer many things from the miscriptural and 
dogmatical conduct of its agents. 

Her zeal in the prosperity of the cause of God was ardent and 
persevering. She frequently mourned over those who were far from 
God. She directed their attention to him who is set forth as the pro- 
pitiation for the sins of the world. To comfort the afflicted — to console 
the destitute— and to afford cheering consolations to the dying, were 
duties in which she took a very lively interest. 

Connected with these particulars in the history of the deceased, we 
may mention that humility always characterised her deportment. She 
ever desired to lay low at the foot of the cross. The office of class 
leader was, on many occasions, tendered to her, but she repeatedly, 
from a sense of incompetency, declined the office : although those by 
whom she was well known were satisfied of her ability for the work. 
However, after the death of her leader, sister Henrietta Richards, 
(with whom she left the Conference Connexion, to join the Associa- 
tion), at the unanimous request of the other members of her class, she, 
after much prayer, consented to take charge of that class, and faithfully 
discharged the duties of the office of leader to the time of her death. 

By her removal from earth to heaven many have lost a much valued 
friend ; the elder branches of her family have lost a truly affectionate 



Memoir of the late Mrs. Elizabeth Badgers. 131 

and much valued sister, and ber children have to monrn the loss of a 
wise, pious, and most endeared parent. She paid particular attention 
to the intellectual, moral, and religious education of her children. She 
regarded Sabbath schools as a great blessing to the rising generation ; 
hence, her children, if not prevented by sickness, were always in attend- 
ance at the Sabbath school. Her parental exertions for the spiritual 
welfare of her children were crowned with the Divine blessing. To her 
great comfort, she lived to witness, among other pleasing fruits of her 
pious labours, the public reception of one of her sons as an itinerant 
preacher into fiill connexion in the Jamaica Wesleyan Methodist 
Association. 

Her sickness was of a lingering and painful character, but it was 
endured with exemplary Christian fortitude and resignation to the will 
of God. She was never heard to murmur during the whole of her 
iUness, but submitted calmly to the will of her heavenly Father, know- 
ing tbat her afflictions were fatherly chastisements, tokens of her 
Maker's love,— that they were intended to work within her "the 
peaceable fruits of righteousness," and ultimately to work out for her 
'* a far more exceeding and eternal weight of glory." Her children 
rested much on her mind, but she at length committed the keeping 
of their souls to God in well-doing as unto a faithful Creator. During 
the last stage of the decline of her life, she spoke interestingly and 
satis^Bictorily to all who enquired after the hope that was in her. Her 
confidence in the redeeming blood of Christ was strong. She trium- 
phantly adverted to its efficacy in reference to her own salvation, and 
rejoiced greatly at the fact, that death was not to her *' an eternal 
sleep," but the gate-way into the mansions of the redeemed. Happy 
in the prospect of her dissolution, she incessantly acknowledged her 
unwortMness and the all-availing efficacy of the blood of Christ to 
sectire her salvation. To a religious acquaintance who was conversing 
with her on this topic, she replied : — 

'/ 1 nothing have, I nothing am, 
My treasure's the bleeding Lamb, 
Both now and evermore.** 

On the Sabbath before she expired, many of her Conference friends 
came to pay her their parting respects. On one occasion several of 
the members of the Conference society, and members of the Association 
met at her bed-side, and severally and unitedly engaged in singing and 
prayer ; while they were supplicating the Divine blessing, the presence 
of God was powerfully felt. The place was filled with the Spirit of 
^ory and of God. Every heart glowed with a sense of the joy which 
the Christian religion imparts to the faithful dying Christian : but 
such joy is only a prelude to higher raptures at the right hand of God. 
After the Sabbath, she remained calm and thoughtful, waiting until 
her change should come. A short time before her death, she spoke 
of the unspeakable happiness she felt in relation to eternal things, and 
testified that she had victory through the blood of the Redeemer, 
exclaiming. Glory to God. She desired much to see the writer of this 
before her death ; but the distance prevented his arrival at Kingston ui 

M 2 



132. Memoir of the late Mr. John JoUffls. 

time. Expecting his arrival, at every step she heard in the hall she 
raised her dying head to see if her wishes were to he satisfied. But 
before he arrived. — 

<' Angels beckoned her away, 
And Jesus bade her come.'' 

From this period she was unable to converse, but remained com- 
posed, until, without a struggle or a groan, she fell asleep in Jesus, 
on Thursday, the 18th of October, 1843, in the fifty-seventh year of 
her age, forty- seven of which she uninterruptedly spent as a member 
of the Wesleyan Methodist Society. Her remains were numerously 
and respectably followed to the tomb by her family and Christian friends 
of various denominations. On Sunday, the 19th of November, her 
death was improved by the Rev. Mr. Baxter, in Church Street Chapel, 
who, according to announcement, took for his text^ Acts xxvi. 8, 
"Why should it be thought a thing incredible with you, that God 
shoidd raise the dead ? " The chapel was crowded with attentive 
hearers. The sermon was deeply affecting and highly interesting. 



MEMOIR OF THE LATE MR. JOHN JOLIFFE, 
Bt/ Mr. W. R. Brown. 

Thb subject of the following brief notice resided at Milford, in the 
parish of Tremayne, in the county of Cornwall, and he has left upon 
record the following particulars concerning his parentage and early 
history. His statement is as follows : — 

•* 1 was bom, in the parish of Tremayne, on the Tuesday before 
Midsummer day, 1773. My parents attended the Established church, 
but, nevertheless, were strangers to vital godliness. My mother was 
awakened to a sense of her danger by the death of her sister. She was 
led by this to think of death, and to enquire — * Am I fit to die ?' This 
enquiry ended in a conviction that she was a sinner, and as such, unfit 
for death. In this distressed state she knew not what to do. She 
had heard that the Methodists had a place of worship in a neighbour- 
ing parish, but her prejudices prevented her, at that time, from going 
to hear them. She at length resolved to go to the parson of the parish. 
To him, therefore, she went, and made known her case. He told her, 
' that she was nervous, and that the best thing she could do was to 
go home and put a plaster on her back ! ' She tried to convince him 
that she was not nervous, and that the plaster would be of no use to 
her. But this was to no purpose. She could get no better advice from 
him. She then left him, with her mind more distressed than when she 
went. When the Sabbath came, she knew not what to do. To go to 
church was of no use, and she did not like to go and hear the 
Methodists. She, however, left her house, not knowing where to go. 



Memoir of the Jate Mr. John JoUffe. 133 

But she fdt an impression on her mind urging her to go to Tregare, 
and hear the Methodists. To this impression she at length yielded. 
As soon as she entered the chapel, it seemed like a new world to her. 
The preacher's text was * Come with U8» and we will do thee good/ 
She replied in her heart, ' 1 am come already, and here I mean to 
stay.' On that occasion, however, though somewhat comforted, she 
was not set at liberty. Sometime after this, it was impressed on her 
mind that if she went to Camelford (a distance of nine miles), to hear 
Mr. Thursby preach his farewell sermon, she should find rest unto her 
soul. She accordmgly went, and found the pearl of great price, and 
was led to praise God, and say, ' Thou hast brought me to the ban- 
queting house, and thy banner over me is love.' My dear mother was 
the first Methodist in the parish, and, consequently, had much opposi- 
tion and persecution to contend with. Even those of her own house- 
hold turned against her. But she persevered, and so bright was her 
example, and so zealous was she in reproving sin, and exhorting sinners 
to flee from the wrath to come, that very soon, through her instru- 
mentality, under the blessing of God, a society of upwards of twenty 
members was formed, five of whom were her own children. This was, 
to her, a cause of unspeakable joy. She continued a member of the 
Methodist Society for upwards of forty years. So holy and consistent 
was her life, that she could say to those around, ' which of you con- 
viuceth me of sin ? * She died as she lived— triumphing in her 
Saviour's love, and giving those who witnessed her end to see that she 
had not followed a cunningly devised fable. She died in the eighty- 
eighth year of her age.* 

" I was brought to God in a way I know not. I was in the habit of 
attending the means of grace, especially the preaching of the Word. 
But it all seemed to no purpose. Being requested to take the preachers 
into my house I consented. But this did not make me a Christian. 
I was soon convincwL that giving a cup of cold water to a disciple was 
not enough to secure my own salvation. Sometime after this I was at 
the Methodist chapel at Tregare, and heard the preacher say that 'a 
profession of religion was not enough to save us from the wrath to come, 
and unless we had the assurance of our acceptance with God we were 
in imminent danger of God's wrath and indignation.' On hearing 
this, I at once began to examine myself, and seeing myself as I never 
saw before, I resolved* by God*s help, no longer to remain in this dan- 
gerous state. I at once began to wrestle and agonize with God in 
prayer for the salvation of my soul. I did not seek long before he was 
pleased to relieve me of my load of sin ; the words of the apostle John 
came with power to my mind, ' We know that we have passed from 
death unto life, because we love the brethren.' What I then 
experienced is better felt than described. I was now, as it were, let 
into a new world ; now old things were passed away, and all things 
were become new. Since that time I have been the subject of many 
trials and bereavements— many severe bu£Fetings of soul. Satan, my 
great adversary, has followed me as a roaring lion, seeking to devour 
my poor soul, and to rob me of my God. But, praise God, I have 
hitherto been kept as in the hollow of his hand. But still I am an 
unprofitable servant. Of all the bereavements I have experienced, none 



184 Memoir of the late Mr. John JoUgi. 

eeems eo severe as the loss of my beloved wife, who died on May 28th, 
1822. But, heavy as the stroke was, I could not but rejoice to witness 
her glorious exit from this world of sorrow, to be for ever with the 
Lord. She died unspeakably happy in the love of God, experiencing 
and testifying that, * Death is swallowed up in victory.' In all my trials 
and privations I have ever proved God to be an unchangeable friend. 
Though I have had to pass through deep waters and through fierce 
fires, yet I have ever proved his promise good. The water has not been 
suffered to drown, nor the fire to bum me. The waves and storms of 
Kfe have almost gone over my head-* many mountains and valleys I 
have had to cross ; but the Lord has been with me amidst the whole, 
and has proved to me a constant friend-— one that has sticked closer 
than a brother. May I ever be kept in him." 

This closes his account of himself ; the following is furnished by his 
daughter, who was his constant attendant during his affliction and 
death .— 

" During my father's affliction, which was very long and heavy, I 
never heard a murmuring word escape his lips. His pain of body was 
very severe, and his weakness so great that he could not help himself 
in any possible way ; yet he bore all with patience and resignation to 
the will of God. He ever felt an assurance of his acceptance with God, 
and more especially as death drew near. Some time before he died, a 
friend went into his chamber to bid him farewell, and seemed to express 
some sorrow at parting from him ; he, however, at once endeavoured 
to comfort her by reminding her that we should meet again, and said— 

* There we shall see his face, 
And never, never siu.* 

Hie weakness of his body prevented his further utterance. One day, 
whilst he was lying alone, he cried out, 'Christ* in me the hope of 
glory.' Not long after this he was asked, on what his hopes were 
fixed? He rephed— 

' 'Tis all my hope and all my plea : 
For me the Saviour died.' 

He seemed at the last to live quite out of himself. His faith, and his 
all, seemed to be fixed on Christ alone. On one occasion, I heard him 
say, * I live, yet not I, but Christ liveth in me, and the life which I 
now live in the flesh, I live by faith in the Son of God.* On the morn- 
ing of the day on which he died, he said, * This is a faithful saying, and 
worthy of all acceptation, that Christ Jesus came into the worid to save 
sinners, of whom / am chief.* As he drew near the gates of death, I 
heard him say, in a soft and faltering voice, * I do ! I do ! * I then 
asked him if he loved Jesus ? to which he replied, * Yes ! yes ! ' Not 
long before he lost his voice he seemed longing to be gone. To those 
who waited around him, he said, * Let us soar away.* He appeared as 
though looking at some object which was presenting itself before him. 
In a very short time after he sweetly fell asleep in Jesus." 

It may be said of him, in conclusion, that he went up through much 



Atonement by Ae Death of Christ. 135 

tribulation. When he first set out in the way to heaven, Methodism was 
only in its'infancy, and consequently, he was exposed to such trials as 
the first Methodists had to endure. He had the finger of scorn 
pointed at hitn« He was spoken evil of, falsely, for Christ's sake. He 
bore the burden and heat of the day. He was a member of the 
Methodist societies for forty years. He was a member of the Con- 
ference Methodists until the formation of the Wesleyan Methodist 
Association, when he joined that body and continued a member thereof 
imtil his death, which took place on Thursday, August 30th, 1843, in 
the seventieth year of his age. 

A sermon was preached at his funeral, from Rev. vii. 13, to the end 
of the chapter, which passage of Scripture had been selected by himself 
bug before he died. On tiie Sunday after his funeral, a sermon was 
preached in the chapel, by Mr. Tucker, from Job xiv. 10, to a large 
and deeply affected congregation. 



ATONEMENT BY THE DEATH OF CHRIST. 

Extracted and slightly abridged from Allen's translation of Dr» 
Outranks Work on the Sacrifice of Christ, 

" We h^ve an altar, whereof they have no right to eat which serve the 
tabernacle. For the bodies of those beasts, whose blood is brought into the 
sanctuary by the high priest for sin, are burned without the camp. Where* 
fore Jesus also, that ne might sanctify the people with his own blood, 
suffered without the gate." — ITeb, xiii. 10—12. 

1. To Sanctify Ihe people^ here, signifies the same as to purify the 
people ; and to purify the people^ is to expiate the sins of the people. 
Since it appears ' therefore from this passage, and that with evidence 
too plain to be contradicted, that our sins were expiated by the 
blood or death of Christ, the only point for controversial discussion 
is, upon what principle, or in what manner, his death accomplished 
this. But this question will easily be determined, if we are disposed 
to follow the train of the argument. For as the apostle is here 
speaking of Christ as a piacular or an expiatory victim, and of the 
blood of Christ, as the blood of a piacular victim ; his death must 
be considered as expiating sins. It was by vicarious or substitu- 
tional punishment^ that all . piacular victims expiated the sins for 
which they were oflTered : — upon the same principle, therefore, and 
JQ the same manner, our sins were expiated by Christ. 

The illustration which has been given of this passage serves 
also to illustrate another text by the same apostle : " When he had by 
himself purged our sins, he sat down on the right hand of the 
majesty on high." Heb. i. 8. To which may be added the follow- 
ing from St. John : " JBut if we walk in the light, as he is in the 
light, we have fellowship one with another, and the blood of Jesus 
Cffirist* his Son- cleanseth us* from all sin." 1 John 1.7. l\i\.U%.^^ 



136 Atonement by the Death of CIirUtK 

passages the same property of expiating sins, which belongs to a 
piacular victim, is attributed to Christ and his blood. In the latter, 
this is clear from the mention of cleansing effected by his blood. 
In the former, Christ is introduced as having purged or expiated sins 
by himselff that is, by himself as sacrificed^ The manner in which 
piacular victims expiate sins is by vicarious punishment : — the same 
mode of expiation, therefore, is in these passages attributed , to 
Christ. 

2. We now come to those passages in which either the expiation 
of sins, or, what is precisely the same, the purification of the guilty^ 
effected by the death or blood of Christ, is denominated the redemp* 
Hon of them. Thus the apostle to the Hebrews : « And for this 
caqsQ he is the mediator of the New Testament, that, by means of 
death, for the redemption of the transgressions that were under 
the first promise of eternal inheritance." Heb. ix. 15. The 
redemption of transgressions by means of deaths is equivalent to 
the expiation of sins effected by the death of Christy as a victim : 
and it was by the vicarious punishment of the slain victim, as we 
have already shown, that all such expiation was made.— Observe also 
the language of St. Paul concerning Christ in two of his epistles: 
" In whom we have redemption through his blood, the forgiveness 
of sins." Ephes. i. 7 ; Coloss. i. 14. The original word does not 
denote any redemption whatever, but only such as consists in the 
expiation made by a piacular victim. This is evident from the 
mention of blood, and jorgiveness of sins ; of blood, as the blood 
pf a surety making expiation ; and of forgiveness of sins, as procured 
by the expiation of that surety. Nor can it be doubted that the 
apostle, when he mentioned these two things in such close connection, 
had in view both the expiation by the blood of piacular victims 
among the Jews, and the remission of sins procured by that expia- 
tion. The apostle to the Hebrews thus mentions them both : " And 
almost all things are by the law purged with blood ; and without 
shedding of blood is no remission." Heb. ix. 22. Since St. Paul, 
therefore, in the passages just quoted, speaks of the blood of Christ, 
as of the blood of a piacular victim, there is no doubt that he 
attributes to the death of Christ the same kind of efficacy which 
belongs to the death of such a victim. And this efficacy, as we 
have frequently observed, is of such a nature, that by the vicarious 
punishment of the slain victim it procures for the sinner the pardon 
of his sin. 

3. The meaning here assigned to the Greek word rendered 
redemption may be confirmed by the universal acceptation of the 
correspondent term among the Jewish writers. Baal Aruch speaks 
the sense of them all : •* In every place where any one says, Let 
me be his expiation, it is the same as if he had said. Let me be 
substituted in his place, that I may bear his iniquities: which is 
equivalent to saying, ' I, in order that he may obtain pardon, do take 
his sins upon myself.' " Hence we gain some illustration of the 
passages just quoted from St. Paul. For though Christ, indeed, was 
not substituted in our place, in such a manner as to bear the same 
kind of punishments from which we are delivered, yet the punish- 



AJUmment by the Dealh of ChrUU 137 

ment which he suffered does as truly expiate our sins and procure 
the pardon of them, as if they had been precisely of the same kind 
that we were ourselves liable to undergo. This is the very idea con- 
veyed by the apostle, when he says that " in Christ we have redemption 
through his blood, the forgiveness of sins ;" and he seems to suggest 
the same, when he speaks of *' them that believe being justified 
freely by his" (that is, God's) *< grace, through the redemption that 
is in Christ Jesus." Rom. iii. 22, 24. 

4. We next advert to the passages of Scripture in which Christ 
is said to be a ransom : a term which the Jewish writers are accus« 
tomed to apply to every piacular victim ; which they describe as the 
" substitute and ransom of the sinner," affirming the life of the animal 
to be ''sacrificed instead of his life," Christ declares, concerning him- 
self; «< The Son of Man came not to be ministered unto, but to minister, 
and to give his life a ransom for many." Matt. xx. 28 ; Mark, x. 45. 
No person doubts that Christ in these words declared the very same 
tliat had been predicted by Isaiah, when he said that the soul of the 
Messiah would be made a piacular victim, « an offering for sin ;" 
Isaiah liii. 10; which is also confirmed by the fact which I have 
stated, that the Jews are accustomed to call every piacular victim a 
ransom^ and to speak of the life of the victim as sacrificed instead 
of the life of the sinner himself. Since Christ, therefore, in the 
words just quoted, has spoken of his death, or his " life given for 
many," as of the life of a piacular victim given for sinners, he ought 
to be considered as having by such language attributed to his death the 
same kind of efficacy which belongs to a piacular victim. But that 
efficacy, as we have often stated, is displayed in remission of sins 
obtained by vicarious punishment. St. Paul says, <* There is one 
God, and one Mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus ; 
who gave himself a ransom for all." 1 Tim. ii. 5, 6. As far as 
relates to the subject now under discussion, these words contain 
the same sentiment as the words of Christ just quoted, in which 
he spoke of himself as about " to give his life a ransom for many ;" 
and they must, therefore, be considered as attributing to his death 
the same efficacy that is attributed to it by Christ himself : a propo- 
sition too self evident to admit of any controversy. The only differ- 
ence is, that Christ, contemplating those only who would really 
embrace the conditions of the new covenant, said he was about 
" to give his life a ransom for many ;" and the apostle, contemplating 
all those to whom that covenant is proposed, says that Christ " gave 
himself a ransom for ialL** 

5. Here we may cite another declaration of Christ: "For this 
is my blood of the New Testament or covenant, which is shed for 
many for the remission of sins :" Matt. xxvi. 28 ; in which he so 
plainly represents his blood as the blood of an expiatory sacrifice : 
and this is evident from many considerations. In the first plaee he 
calls his blood the " blood of the new covenant ;" a phrase which 
implied that the sacrifice he was soon to offer, which from this and 
other passages appears to have been of the piacular kind, would 
ratify the new covenant, just as other covenants had formerly been 
mtified b^ the blood of victims^ In the next place, he declares that. 



138 Atonement ly the Death of Christ, 

his blood was «shed for many fbr the remission of sins;" which 
could only be affirmed of the blood of a piacular victim. Further ; 
this declaration of Christ which we are now explaining, evidently 
contains the same sentiment as the other before quoted in which he 
said he was about << to give his life a ransom for many/' that is, as 
we have just before shown, as an expiatory sacrifice. For though 
in the passage now under consideration he has not introduced the 
term ransom, yet he has expressly mentioned the thing itself, that is, 
his blood, in which our ransom consists. He has also specified the 
object, for the sake of procuring which from God, that ransom was 
given ; namely, " remission of sins :" so that there can be no room 
to doubt, that the same sentiment is conveyed in both places. Since 
Christ therefore, in declaring his blood to be shed for many for the 
remission of sins, has spoken of his blood as the blood of a piacular 
victim ; he ought to be considered as having attributed to himself, in 
that character, the same design and efficacy which belongs to a 
piacular victim. But the design and efficacy belonging to a piacular 
victim is displayed in pardon of sins procured by vicarious punish- 
ment. 

6. The remarks which have been offered may explain the follow- 
ing passage ; " Christ hath redeemed us from the curse of the law, 
being made a curse for us." Gal. iii. id. For the same writer 
who in another place calls Christ a ransom, (1 Tim. ii. 6.) that is, 
a piacular victim, has also, by using the word redeemed, shown the 
efficacy of that ransom ; fully implying, in the passage last quoted, 
that all those sins for which indeed no pardon was proposed in the 
Mosaic covenant, are, by the life of Christ given as a ransom for us, 
(unless we exclude ourselves from the benefit,) expiated and remitted. 
Which is the same as is said by the apostle, to the Hebrews, where 
he states that Christ died " for the redemption of transgressions 
that were under the first covenant ;" Heb. ix. 15 ; a phrase by which 
he intended to indicate those sins, for which the Mosaic covenant 
promised no remission. 

The objection urged by some persons that between Christ and 
us there was only such a commutation as there is between a price and 
a thing bought, but that it belongs not to a price to sufier a vicarious 
punishment on account of the thing purchased, — has no force at all. 
For when the term price is applied to a piacular victim, it ought to be 
taken in such a sense as the design of offering such a victim requires. 
Wherefore we understand the commutation between us and Christ, 
who gave himself an expiatory sacrifice for our sins, to have been 
such as took place between every guilty person and his piacular 
victim : and this commutation was of that kind with which vicarious 
punishment was always connected. 

7. To the foregoing passages add the following of St. John ; 
" Herein is love, not that we loved God, but that he loved us, and 
sent his Son to be the propitiation for our sins." I John iv. 10. 
The original term here rendered propitiation, and its cognate verbs, 
in their native meaning, signify placating^ appeasing ; but they 
sometimes denote expiation, puri/icaiion, and pardon. The word 
is here used by St. John to designate an atonement or propitiatory 



Akmemmt by the Death of Christ. 139 

sacrifice. We admit that Christ is said to be "the propitiation 
for siDS," 1 John ii. 2, and "to make reconciliation for sins/' Heb. ii. 
17, in his character of high priest now pleading our cause with God 
in the heavenly sanctuary. But the text now under consideration 
fully implies the principle we are maintaining. For it is evident 
that the apostle here contemplated the death of Christ as furnishing 
tbe most striking manifestation of that infinite love of God, here 
mentioned, who " sent his Son to be the propitiation for our sins." 
It is equally clear also, that he here speaks of the death of Christ 
as of the death of a piacular victim. This is evident from the phrase 
itBelf, propitiation for sins ; an expression which attributes to Christ 
and to his death, that which is proper to such a victim^ namely, the 
expiation of sins : and expiation of sins, whenever it was effected 
by a piacular victim, was effected by vicarious punishment. So that 
ihe passage just quoted from St. John contains this sentiment — that 
God so loved us who were his enemies, that he sent his Son to expiate 
our sins by a vicarious punishment. 

8. Bat it is objected, that since God gave Christ to die for 
as, and could not be induced to this gift by the death of Christ, for 
it was impossible that Christ's death could be the procuring cause 
of his dying for us ; the benevolence of God towards us, wholly 
irrespective of Christ's death, was so great, that he must be con- 
sidered as forgiving us without any reason at all derived from that 
death. This objection proceeds upon the assumption, that for God 
to be benevolent toward us, is the same thing as to forgive our sins, 
and that fully and perfectly: which is very far from being true. 
For God shewed himself very benevolent towards the whole human 
race, when he sent his Son to lay down his life for them ; yet he 
did Hot by that act grant to all of them the remission of their sins ; 
unless, indeed, by this term you understand, not that full and perfect 
remission, of which we are now treating, and which is never bestowed 
upon any one who is not a subject of true faith and sincere piety, — 
but a less perfect remission, which obtains in all cases, in which God 
proceeds not to the utmost extent of justice in punishing the sins of 
men, and more especially whenever he bestows on a person con- 
tinuing in sin anything that tends to his salvation. This procedure 
exhibits a kind of pretermission or respite of sin, which the 
scripture, as some have expounded it, calls a ** remission " or 
^passing over," and ascribes to the forbearance of God." There 
are, however, several kinds of this less perfect pardon, which were 
procured by the death of Christ : but to set these things iu a 
clearer light, they require to be explained a little more at 
hrge. 

9. There is, then, as we have just stated, a twofold remission of 
sin : one less perfect ; the other more full and perfect, which is 
offered to all mankind on the conditions of faith and repentance, 
and is actually given to all who comply with those conditions. Of 
the less perfect remission there are several kinds : the first was that 
which was displayed in God's determination, that Christ should die 
for the whole human race ; which, though it could not possibly be 
procured by the death of Christ, was nevertheless a kind of preter- 



140 AJUmemerU hy the Death of Christ. 

miDsion or respite of our sios ; for if it had been the will of God 
to assert his just right of ioflicting condign punishment, he would 
not have appointed that Christ should die for us. And in this sense 
some persons suppose the apostle is to be understood, when he says» 
" that God was in Christ reconciling the world unto himself, not 
imputing their trespasses unto them ;" 1 Cor. v. 19 ; that is, not 
so far imputing them as to be unwilling that Christ should die for 
them. But there is another less perfect remission of sins, which 
was exercised, when, for the sake of mankind sunk in vices and sins, 
God conferred upon his apostles the gifts of the Holy Spirit, by which 
they were enabled to discover to us the way to eternal life. But these 
aids of divine inspiration, as we have already shown, were procured 
for them by the death of Christ; though in imparting these aids 
God may be considered as having contemplated, not so much the 
vicarious punishment which Christ endured in his death, as that 
perfect obedience by which he offered himself to die. And to this 
the apostle refers when he says ; " All have sinned, and come short 
of the glory of God ; being justified freely by his grace through 
the redemption that is in Christ Jesus." Rom. iii. 23, 24. <* Christ, 
by his obedience, principally in his death, and by hb prayers which 
attended it, obtained this from the Father, that he should not 
abandon and harden the human race, sunk under a load of sins, but 
should give them the way of obtaining righteousness by Christ. 
(Isa. liii. 4.) This very thing is called remitting or forgiving sins; 
(Luke xxiii. 34.) and also redeeming: (Luke i. 68.) that is deliver- 
ing from the necessity of dying in sins by discovering a way of 
escape from it. He soon after adds, that this way was made known 
by the apostles, to whom, as he had before remarked, God imparted 
the extraordinary aids of the Holy Spirit, on account of the prayers 
of Christ, and for the sake of his obedience, which was chiefly 
displayed in his death. But there is also a third sort of less perfect 
remission of sin, which God grants to particular individuals, when- 
ever, notwithstanding their demerits, he not only refrains from 
cutting off all opportunity for repentance, and closing up the way 
of salvation, but even imparts strength and assistance by which» 
unless they are wanting to themselves, they may attain eternal life. 
Such was the kind of pardon which St. Stephen implored for his 
murderers : " Lord, lay not this sin to their charge/' Acts vii. 60, 
Such also was the forgiveness which Christ prayed for, even during 
his crucifixion, on behalf of those who reviled him ; Father, forgive 
them: Luke xxiii. 34. which was not a petition for that perfect 
forgiveness which is granted only to him who forsakes his sins by 
true repentance : but for that less perfect remission of sins which 
we have last described. And that this species of remission was 
procured by the death of Christ, I think will not be doubted by any 
person who has attended to the observations we have already made. 
For there is no reason to conclude, that his death procured for the 
apostles those gifts of the Holy Spirit which tended to promote the 
salvation of others as well as their own, and that it had no share in 
procuring those other gifts by which any individual has experienced 
himself to he divinely assisted to repent and reform his life. Hence 



Atonement by Oe Death of Chritt. 141 

we conclude, that, whatever may have been the grace or benevolence 
of God towards men, irrespective of the death of Christ ; he is never* 
theless so far from granting a full and perfect remission of sins 
without any consideration of hb death, that he does not grant 
even the less perfect remission, but clearly on account of his 
death. 

10. But since Christ received his life and blood from God, it will 
be asked, what coald that satisfaction be which was procured by the 
oblation of his life and blood to God, but a kind of ludicrous trans* 
action, in which God gave to himself, and satisfied himself, from that 
which was his own ? But persons who argue in this manner deceive 
themselves with their own subtleties. For we do not maintain that 
the mere life or blood of Christ made satisfaction to God, but his 
life or blood shed with the most agonizing sufferings and in the most 
perfect obedience to God : that obedience and those sufferings were 
Christ's own, and with them he made satisfaction to God. It may 
also be observed, that they who will suffer the punishment of all 
their own sins in hell, will suffer that punishment in those bodies 
and souls which God himself has given them ; yet that there will 
not on this account be anything ludicrous in their torments. But 
what we have said may suffice on this point. 

11. We proceed to those passages in which Christ is said to have 
died, to have been giveuy or to have suffered for our sins, " Christ 
died for our sins." '* Christ gave himself for our sins, that he might 
deliver us from this present evil world," '* Christ hath once suffered 
for sins, the just for the unjust^ that he might bring us to God,** 

1 Cor. XV. 3 ; Gal. i. 4 ; 1 Pet. iii. 18. These declarations I think 
justify the conclusion, that our sins constituted what is termed the 
impulsive^ or procuring cause of Christ's death, and that the expia- 
tion of those sins was the final cause, or end of it. These two 
causes are so closely connected, that wherever one is expressed the 
other is always implied. There appears indeed to be this difference 
between uper and peri, the two Greek particles rendered for in the 
passages just quoted, that the former denotes, more expressly the 
final cause, and tacitly the impulsive cause ; the latter signifies, more 
expressly the impulsive cause, and tacitly the final cause : but both 
agree in this, that each of them shows our sins to have been the 
impelling or procuring cause of Christ's death, and their expiation 
the final cause or end of it. And I am the rather induced to form 
this conclusion, because the very same expressions are commonly used 
in reference to piacular sacrifices, (Heb. i. 5 ; vii. 27 : x. 18, 26 ; 
xiii. 11.) and, whenever they are so employed, are invariably signi- 
ficant of the expiation of sin. But in what manner or upon what 
principle our sins were expiated by Christ, as a piacular sacrifice, 
the very principle of such a sacrifice shows: for it was by vicarious 
punishment, that every piacular victim expiated the sin for which 
it was offered. 

Nor is it any objection to this reasoning, that Christ is said to have 
^ given himself for our sins, that he might deliver us :from this 
present evil world." Gal. i. 4. For when Christ expiated our sins 
by bis death, he designed also that we should by that expiation be 



142 AtxmemetU by the Death of ChriH. 

delivered and purified from the vices of the present world|: so that 
this passage, as well as another just cited from St. Peter, proposes 
two ends of the death of Christ : of these, the immediate one is the 
expiation of our sins ; the remote one is the end of this expiation 
itself which Christ's death accomplished. The former is contained in 
these words; " Christ gave himself for our sins;" the latter in those 
which follow ; '^ that he might deliver ns from this present evil world/' 
to which deliverance the expiation effected by Christ's voluntarily 
death most powerfully contributes. Hence arises the strongest hope 
of obtaining the pardon of our sins, if we are disposed to yield 
obedience to Christ ; and also, what may stimulate us to that obedi- 
ence, the highest love both towards Christ, and towards the Father who 
gave him. 2 Cor. v. 14, 15 ; John xiv. 23 ; 1 John v. 3 ; Col. i. 21, 
32. Hence it follows, that the two ends of our Lord's death, which 
we have just mentioned, are so far from being at variance, or incon- 
sistent with each other, that there is the greatest harmony between 
them : whereas the contrary would be the case, if these words, 
*^ Christ died for our sins," be understood to import, that Christ died 
to abolish our sins. For as the clause immediately following, <* that 
he might deliver us from this present evil world," contains this very 
sentiment, it will be found on due consideration, that the same must 
be attributed to both clauses : and with this interpretation the meaning 
of the apostle will be — Christ died to abolbh our sins, and that in 
order that he might abolish our sins : — a proposition which is equally 
frivolous and absurd. 

Nor can it be with any propriety maintained that the clause, Christ 
died for our sins, is merely a general declaration, that Christ died 
in order to do something relating to our sins, but that what that was 
is specified in the next clause, that he might deliver vs from this 
present evil world. This interpretation, we say, cannot with pro- 
priety be maintained : for if this were the true meaning, the words 
for our sins would be manifestly redundant, and it might have been 
better stated, that Christ died that he might deliver us from this 
present evil world, without the words^r our sins being introduced. 
On this supposition also the declaration of the apostle in another 
place, " that Christ died for our sins," without any explanation being 
added, would be obscure and unsatisfactory ; as it would convey no 
other idea than that Christ died in order to do something pertaining 
to our sins. But all these absurdities will be avoided if the declara- 
tion that Christ died for our sins be understood to import, that he 
died to atone for our sins. 

12. It remains for us to explain those phrases in which Christ 
is said to have died *« for us, for all, for the ungodly," and the like. 
It is evident indeed, and ought to be unreservedly admitted, that 
the expressions in themselves may signify the whole efficacy of the 
death of Christ, as well that by which our sins were destroyed, 
as that by which they are expiated. Hence, wherever they occur, 
they ought to be understood as the scope of each particular passage 
may require ; and whenever the scope of a passage will admit, it 
should be considered as attributing to the death of Christ that 
twofold efficacy of which we have spoken. This is the case with 



Atanmeni by the Death of Christ. 143 

that passage of the apostle in his epistle to the Romans: <* Destroy 
not him M^ith thy meat, for whom Christ died." Rom. xiv. 15. 
For who can doubt that all the energy of the death of Christ which 
relates to his salvation is here intended ? but that efficacy is displayed 
in destroying his sins as well as in atoning for them. But when the 
apostle Peter says, " Christ suffered for us, leaving us an example/' 
1 Pet. ii. 21, he contemplates not so much the atoning efficacy, as 
that patient submission to grievous injuries which was so eminently 
conspicuous in the death of Christ, and which he proposes to our 
imitation. When St. Paul says, (1 Tim. ii. 6.) that Christ "gave 
himself a ransom for all," he attributes to the Saviour's death that 
efficacy which, as we have already shown, belonged to it as a piacular 
sacrifice. The same sentiment is conveyed also by Christ himself 
when he declares his blood to be "shed for many for the remission 
of sins." Matt. xxvi. 28. He who fully understands these texts, 
will be at no loss to judge of others that are similar, on a due con- 
sideration of the scope of each particular passage. 

13. After these observations it seems proper to remark, [that it 
has been justly concluded by the Jews, that the piacular victims com- 
manded by the law of Moses, were substituted in the place of trans- 
gressors, so that they suffered the same kind of punishment, namely 
death, from which the transgressors themselves were delivered. 
This indeed cannot be truly and properly affirmed concerning Jesus 
Christ, as he did not endure those eternal punishments and that 
despair of salvation, from which we are delivered : yet nevertheless, 
the sufferings sustained by our Lord on account of our sins were 
designed as a vicarious punishment, and obtained the pardon of our 
sins on condition of our being disposed to yield obedience to God. 
For in vicarious punishment, if the person who has a right to inflict 
punishment is justly satisfied, it is of no importance whether the 
punishment be of the same kind as that from which the criminal is 
delivered, or of any other. 

But how it is that the death of Christ does not deliver us from 
eternal death, unless we obey the gospel, may easily be understood 
from the remarks we have already made respecting vicarious punish- 
ment. For, as we have stated before, the law which pronounces 
every offender deserving of punishment, denounces death, not upon 
Christ, but upon us. Hence it is that his death cannot of itself 
supersede that sentence ; can supersede it no further, or otherwise^ 
than according to the will of God. Now the will of God is that the 
death of Christ shall avail for pardon of sins and eternal life only to 
him who possesses true faith and sincere piety. And here lies the 
difference between vicarious punishment and that which is inflicted 
upon a trangressor in his own person : the punishment of the trans- 
gressor, provided it be equal to his guilt, which is determined by 
the penalty of the law, does of itself satisfy that penalty and 
discharge from any further obligation to punishment : but this is not 
effected by vicarious punishment, except through the favour of him 
who has the right to punish. Hence also it may be concluded, that 
the death of Christ, notwithstanding it was designed as a vicarious 
punishment, was in nt> respect opposed* to the' grace of Go<&. Y^t 



144 ResurrecHon of Christ 

it was owing to his grace, that Christ died for us, and that his death 
is available to procure for us remission of sins and eternal life. Nor, 
In this transactioui did Christ receive any injury from God, or God 
from Christ. For Christ laid down his life for us voluntarily, so that 
no injustice was done by the Father to the Son ; and he had a right 
to lay it down, so that no injustice was committed by the Son against 
the Father. 

. Nor will those who shall finally bear the punishment of their sins, 
have any reason to think themselves unjustly treated, or to complain 
that their sins are punished twice, first in Christ, and again in their 
own persons. For punishment is justly inflicted on every one who 
is not discharged from the obligation to punishment: and the 
obligation to punishment remains (John iii. 18.) on every adult 
person who does not comply with the conditions of the new covenaot* 
which are faith and obedience. Nor is the vicarious punishment 
exhibited in the death of Christ of such a nature, as, either of itself, 
or by the design of the Father or the Son, to discharge from the 
penalty of the law without a compliance with those conditions. For, 
being vicarious, it has not altogether the same operation as the 
punbhment of a trangressor in his own person ; but its efficacy is 
suspended on this condition which God has chosen as satisfactory 
to himself, and demonstrative of his perfect holiness and abhorrence 
of our sins. Though the operation of such a punishment, therefore, 
is in some respects different from the personal punishment of a trans* 
gressor, it tends nevertheless to the same end,— the production and 
establishment of reverence for the divine laws. 



THE RESURRECTION OF CHRIST. 

The Resurrection of Christ is an illustrious and fundamental 
article of our religion, and hence deserves frequent consideration and 
enforcement. 

1. The Resurrection of Christ was necessary. It was so, to fulfil 
the types of the Old Testament, particularly that of the prophet 
Jonah, who in his coming forth again out of the belly of the sea 
monster, where he had lain for the greater part of three days and 
nights, was a predictive sign or token of the coming forth of the 
Messiah from that grave, to which he was consigned by the counsel 
of God, not for his own disobedience, but the sins of those whom he 
represented. It was necessary also to verify his own declarations : 
To the Jews he had said, " Destroy this temple," meaning his body, 
" and in three days I will raise it up." " I have power to lay down 
my life, and I have power to take it again. This commandment have 
I received from my Father." In the mouth of any one besides, this 
would have seemed an idle boast ; but not in the mouth of Him who 
had already manifested himself to be capable of exercising a dominion 
over all nature, and of imparting life to the slumbering dust of 
others. 



The Resurrection of Christ. 145 

Prepared by these declarations, and these manifestations of power» 
for the literal accomplishment of his words, I see the dead body of 
Christ laid in the sepulchre, without consternation or dismay, and 
with the fall expectation of its speedy escape from the bonds of death. 
** O thou dear and sacred body," I am ready to say, ** corruption 
and death shall not be permitted to seize on thee; those chilling 
damps that gather round thee, shall not settle upon thee; those 
slomberiog energies shall soon be aroused ; those eyes, sealed in the 
darkness of death, shall be opened to behold the glories of heaven ; and 
that handf erewhile nailed to the cross, and in which I still see the 
print of the nails, shall grasp the sceptre of universal empire." I am 
not disappointed ; at the given moment his body begins to move ; the 
power of death over it is broken ; its bonds are loosed, and forth it 
comes,, a new, spiritual, and glorious body, like the sun, emerging with 
augmented light and splendour out of a dark cloud, under which it had 
been for a season obscured. The graves of earthly princes are the 
end of their glory, the termination of all their conquests ; the grave of 
Christ becomes the field of glory and of triumph, the scene of his most 
illustrious victory and divinest achievement. 

2. The Resurrection of Christ is established, as a fact, on the 
surest basis. Divine wisdom seems to have taken particular care 
to guard it against all reasonable grounds of suspicion and doubt. It 
could never be pretended that his resurrection was merely a recovery 
out of a deep stupor, or long trance, into which he had been thrown, 
and that he had not been really dead. This was prevented, by the 
testimony of the centurion to Pilate, respecting his death, and by the 
spear of the soldier, which pierced his body on the tree, and entered 
the cavity that contained his heart. In like manner, the tale that was 
invented, when his tomb was found empty, that his disciples had come 
secretly and stolen the body away, had been prevented from being 
credible, by the dispersion of the timid disciples at the time of his 
apprehension, by the vigilant Roman guard that was appointed to 
watch the sepulchre, as well as by the huge stone rolled down against 
the mouth of it, which was not to be removed by any weak and 
pusillanimous force. On which accounts, it does not appear that the 
tale gained the least credit, but on the other hand, the minds of men 
were left open to receive the evidence of the resurrection, by the 
impossibility of accounting satisfactorily for the absence of the body 
horn, the tomb, in any other way. 

The positive evidence in its favour, is various and combined. Hea- 
ven united with earth in this matter, and was not sparing of its 
witnesses. The spirits of the just descended, to animate their bodies 
that had been raised, and, appearing in tiie holy city, communicated 
the fact to many. Not only spirits of just men, but angels descended, 
to assure the weeping females at the sepulchre, that he was not there, 
but was risen. To the same females Jesus himself appeared, his spiri* 
iual body being rendered, for that purpose, palpable to their senses, 
and bearing on it the marks of his wounds in order to prove its iden- 
tity. For the space of forty days from that time, he appeared, at 
intervals, to the rest of the disciples; men, whose writings evince them 
tp be too sound of intellect to have been deceived, and of too honest 



14G The Resurrection of Christ. 

intention to impose upon others. The}' saw him, touched him, con- 
versed with him, and were convinced. They individually beheld him-, 
they beheld him altogether. He appeared, says the apostle, to five 
hundred of them at once ; the greater part of whom, he testifies^ were 
alive at the time he wrote these words. So clear were their asser- 
tions, so unvarying their testimony, so ready, in numerous instances, 
were they to seal it with their blood, that the most incredulous oppo* 
sers on the spot were convinced, and became his adorers. Jerusalem 
itself, in the first Christian churches that were forthwith formed there, 
furnishes us with thousands upon thousands of veritable, because eye- 
witnesses, in favour of the cheering fact, which the eariy Christians 
were accustomed to repeat to each other, on the morning of every 
Lord's-day, " Christ is risen." 

8. The Resurrection of Christ was the acknowledged work of a 
divine power. Fitly does the apostle say, " Gody who raised him up 
from the dead." What but a divine power is equal to such an effort ! 
It is God's right hand alone that getteth the victory over captivity it- 
self. It is with him alone to give or restore life. / kill and I make 
alive. This is his glory, and he will not give it to another. Satan 
has imitated many of the works of deity, but he has never made the 
least approach to a creation or a resurrection. The magicians of 
Pharaoh, when called upon for the production of a living insect, 
owned themselves to be foiled, and said, " This is the finger of God." 
But the resurrection of a dead body, to a new and spiritual life, is 
the work of the Divine arm. 

Yet in this work, Christ equally shared with the Father, to whom 
his resurrection is here attributed, and with the Holy Ghost, who is 
also represented, elsewhere, as the author of his resurrection ; and 
thus proved his possession of the Godhead in common with them. 
An angel may sound the trumpet, but it is the voice of the Son of 
God that will awake the dead, and call them out of their graves. * * 

Why should it be thought a thing incredible that God should raise 
the dead ? He has once done so ; and can an almighty arm grow 
weary, or infinite strength decay? He who called Lazarus out of 
the grave, can also call us, by our names, whose mere bidding shall 
enable us to arise, in sprte of all our bands. What then is the grave 
to a Christian, but a quiet dormitory for his mortal body, where he 
shall fall into a profound slumber, during which no uneasy dreams 
shall occur to annoy him, and out of which he shall awake at last as 
out of a refreshing sleep ! Foar not, O Christian ! to go down to 
the grave under the care of Christ. He who raised up himself will 
rais'j up thee. And not only so, but wlien thou art raised, this 
Divine Author and Finisiier of thy faith will fashion thy vile body 
like unto his own glorious body. Like the rod of Aaron, after thou 
hast Jain in the sanctuary of the grave for ages, thou shalt bud and 
blossom afresh. Like Job, after thou hast passed through the gloom, 
captivity, and desolation of death, thy latter end shall be better than 
thy beginning. Like the temple of the Jews, the glory of thy latter 
house shall exceed the glory of the former one ; and in that templb 
will ihc Lord give peace for evermore. 

Yo who have friends slnmberirg in the giavc, who sigh at the 



The Besurreeiion of Christ. 147 

thought of their dissolving remains, with what joy will you receive 
them again ? As in the spring all nature puts on her youthful attire, 
and dothea herself with renewed beauty after the decays of autumn 
and universal entombment of winter, so will you receive your former 
beloved associates after they have been made the subjects of the 
re-animating power of Christ. 

Let truths, then, so important as those which have passed before 
us, be regardefl by none of us as matter only of speculation. We 
have all a deep interest in them, and a close connexion with them. 
We shall all die ; we need no voice from heaven, to tell us that, but we 
shall all vise again; this is what the voice from heaven in the Scripture, 
reveals to us: and we shall rise to be dealt with very differently, 
according to the diiference of our conduct and character, A strict 
correspondence will be found between our present course and future 
condition. Our state in this world is entirely fixed by the sove- 
reignty of God, without regard to any thing antecedent ; but not so 
that to which we go. What we shall be there, will be entirely 
determined by what we have been here. '< Whatsoever a man 
soweth, that shall he also reap. He that soweth to his flesh, shall of 
the flesh reap corruption ; but he that soweth to the Spirit, shall of 
the Spirit reap life everlasting." Thus far the correspondence is 
asserted as to hind, but it is extended also to degree, " He which 
soweth sparingly shall reap also sparingly ; and he that soweth boun- 
tifully, shall reap also bountifully." No sin the unconverted man has 
committed, shall fail to inflict on him its due portion of punishment. 
Not one of them shall be forgotten, nor one of its aggravations, — 

** Now conscience wakes the bitter memory, 
Of what he was, what is, and what must be 
Worse ; of worse deed, worse suffering must ensue.'* 

On the other band, no grace of the Spirit exercised by a Christian, 
and DO degree in which it has been exercised shall fail, through the 
gracious appointment of heaven, to receive its distinct recompense. 
The universal church will inherit glory, but only diligent Christians, 
dose imitators of Christ, and believers zealous of good works, will 
inherit a high degree of glory. Such only will shine as stars with 
peculiar lustre for ever and ever. Is it so? — and how are we l^ing ? 
Are we living, in a measure, after the flesh, and walking as men ? 
What joys, what elevations, what crowns of glory, shall we miss in 
heaven I 

What a diflerent event will the resurrection be to the righteous and 
the wicked ? Here there might have been but little perceptible 
diff'erence between them. They might have belonged to the same 
family, dwelt in the same house, died in the same chamber, of the 
same disease, and been buried in the same grave ; but yet there was 
an essential and eternal distinction between them : the resurrection 
shall make this manifest. The sinner, startled with the sound of 
the last trumpet, shall feel, with returning life, a reviving conscious- 
ness of his character, and an anticipation of his doom. He shall see 
the believer at his side, hastening to meet his Lord, whose voice he 
has heard in the grave, and whose summons to meet him has been 
a summons to bliss and glory. But the rising unbeliever shall look 

15 ^ 



148 Reviews and Literary Notices, 

round on Iiis liidoous ilwelling, and prefer being dissolved again ; the 
idea of death again will be a thousand times more welcome than that 
of the Judge. Ah, what will be our state? How shall we quit our 
tomb ? What sounds of joy or terror will fall on our ears ? Will 
angels carry us to Jesus, or fiends be in waiting to drag us to his 
bar? 

To answer those questions we must ask another, What are we now ? 
What is our character— what our course ? If unconverted, how 
awful the approach of death 1 for that fixes our character for ever. 
No change takes place in character, between death and the resur- 
rection. All things belonging to that continue as they were, and 
shall appear exactly the same at the last day. How ought we to 
seek to be now what we wish to appear then ! Shall our attention 
never be turned to this point ? Are we always to be deaf to the 
warning, inviting, promising voice of Christ in the Scriptures ? 
Divine charmer I thou charmest wisely ; but we are deaf. Thoa 
speakest, warnest, cntreatest ; but we hear not thy voice. O come 
then, and breathe upon us with thine own holy influence ! Quicken 
us by thy grace; then shall we arise and follow thee. We shall 
leave the world to those who know thee not ; and seek in the retreat 
of the closet, and the bosom of the church, the peace which the world 
cannot give. Then, when thou comest to judgment, we shall hail thy 
arrival. Thou wilt not be dreaded by all our race. While the 
wicked would stay thy descent, and avoid every approach to thee, we 
shall look up with joy, shall beckon thee forward, and fly to thine 
arms. While they would say now, " Lord Jesus, put off" thy coming ! 
Defer a period, the approach of which we cannot bear, even in 
thought ;" we, were the achievement in our power, would turn all 
the years that are to intervene between this and the judgment into 
days, those days into hours, and those hours into moments. The 
purposes of God being accomplished, the skies should rend, the 
heaven open, and the Judge, with all his streaming myriads of atten- 
dants, descend. The spirits of the saints, enraptured, should stand 
by the side of the depositaries of their sleeping dust, see them 
break into life, clothed with their reanimated forms, and, running 
up with unwearied feet the hills of light, leaving the " weltering 
world on fire." 

Leifchild. 



REVIEWS AND LITERARY NOTICES. 

THE PULPIT CYCLOPAEDIA ; and Christian Minister's Com^ 
panion. By the Author of •* Sketches and Skeletons of Sermons,*' 
" Christians Daily Portion,'* " Sermons for Family Heading,** SfC. 
Sfc, Vol, 1. 344 pp, HouLSTON and Stoneman. 

Many of our brethren who are engaged, either statedly or occa- 
sionally, in preaching the Gospel of Christ, will be desirous of infor- 
mation respecting the plan and contents of this work. 

In the Preface the author states, " The Pulpit Cyclopaedia i^ 



Revlexos and Literary Notices. 149 

designed to assist the Christian preacher in his preparation for the 
public exercises of his ministry." Then immediately adds^" It has 
been judged by some that such works only tend to promote mental 
iudolence and a neglectful inattention of their own powers and capa- 
cities/' This remark is too comprehensive, and atfirnis more tlian its 
author intended. There are very few persons, if any, and certainly 
none worthy of notice who condemn the use of works adapted " to 
assist the Christian minister in his preparation for tiie public exercises 
of his ministry/' In this category we include all those books from 
which a minister may obtain the various knowledge requisite to a 
right understanding, clear, impressive, and faithful declaration of the 
whole counsel of God. 

The intention, however, of the author of the *' Pulpit Cyclopae- 
dia/' is only to refer to those persons who object to works designed 
to furnish such preparation for the pulpit, as is supposed, by the 
objectors, calculated to cause ministers to neglect the proper use of 
their own powers — so as to use crutches, when, by the use of proper 
means, they might not only do without such helps ; but also thereby 
acquire vigour, and ability for more effective service. Hence the 
author remarks, " But surely there is a legitimate use both of ser- 
mons, and skeletons of sermous, and it must be obvious that mere 
copyists, who depend entirely on the strength and tenacity of their 
memory, and their confidence in the exercise of that faculty, would 
prefer entire discourses, rather than skeletons, where both labour and 
tact are necessary to use them to advantage." 

We do not now intend to enter upon a formal examination of the 
advantages or disadvantages resulting from the use of skeletons of 
sermons. We must however, say, that we regard it, as perfectly dis- 
graceful and hypocritical, to learn another person's sermon and 
deliver it as though it were the production of him by whom it has 
only been committed to memory and pronounced. The man who can 
be guilty of such plagiarism must, we think, be sadly defective in his 
sense of moral honesty. A minister may with great advantage and 
propriety make considerable public use of the thoughts which he has 
either heard or read — but he ought first, carefully to examine and 
analyze them. Metaphorically speaking, he ought previously to melt 
them down and cast them into the mould of his own mind. 

Strongly as we are disposed to condemn the, parrot like, repetition 
of sermons, which the repeaters have obtained by commiting to 
memory other men's productions, we regard the proper use of skele- 
tons of sermons as a very different matter. To make good use of a 
skeleton, it must be well thought over, and the mind must be able 
to grasp the thoughts which it contains. They must be well under- 
stood, or they cannot be properly clothed with flesh ; this is done by 
the process of amplifying, proving, and illustrating ; and the heart of 
the speaker must also respond to the sentiments uttered, or, after 
all, the skeleton when clothed and expanded into a sermon will prob- 
ably be only as a body destitute of life. 

As a general rule, we are of opinion, it is decidedly preferable 
for a minister of the Gospel to think out for himself the plans 
of his discourses. Considerable assistance, in acquiring a facvUt^ v\\ 



130 Reviews and Literary Notices* 

dividing and arranging the several parts of a discourse, may be 
derived from carefully studying such models as are contained in the 
volume now before us. Those of our brethren who are engaged ie 
business, and who consequently, have not time for making all that 
preparation for the pulpit, which is required, or who may not jiave a 
talent for sketching plans of sermons, will certainly do well to avail 
themselves of such helps to thought and composition. Some persons 
would do much better to adopt such sketches, as this volume containa, 
than to rely on such as they may be able to make. This however 
is, in our judgment, an exception to the general rule. 

It appears to be intended to give in " The Pulpit Cyclopaedia a series 
of sketches of sermons comprising a complete body of divinity. The 
volume now before us contains seventy-eight sketches. The three 
first are introductory to the series. We have then two on the know- 
ledge of God, and the world's ignorance of God — two on the reason- 
ableness of religion, and on the use and abuse of reason— eleven on 
the necessity of Divine revelation, and other topics connected with 
the inspiration of the Scriptures, the nature and use of their contents, 
and the means of deriving benefits from them— thirteen on the 
existence and perfections of God— one on creation — one on angels— 
one on the immortality of the soul— two on the government and 
providence of God— seven on man, his original state, his fall, his 
subjection to the law, his helplessness, and God's compassion towards 
him— and thirty-three on the nature, person, offices, and work of 
Jesus Christ. These sketches occupy 246 pages of the book. The 
remainder of the volume contains twenty valuable extracts, on 
" Theological Study," from the works of celebrated men. 

We shall now lay before our readers one of the sketches of 
Sermons:— 

THE IMMEASURABLENESS OF CIlRISrS LOVE. 

** And to know the love of Christ, vohi(^ pataeth knowledge,''* Ephebians iii. 19. 

Our text is part of a prayer offered by Paul on behalf of the Ephesian 
church. Its richness, sublimity, and comprehensiveness, make it one of the 
most striking passages in the writings of that distinsaished apostle* ven 14 
to 19. You will at onco see that there is nothing in the subject to limit it to 
the Christians at Ephesus. Every minister of tne gospel would desire this 
on behalf of liis people, and every Christian should earnestly long for this 
on behalf of himself. " To know the love of Christ." Let us advert, 

I. To TUE SURPASSINO LOVE OP CHRIST. 

II. To TUAT KNOWLEDGE OP IT WE SHOULD BE ANXIOUS TO ATTAIN. " To 

know," &c. 

I. To THE SURPASSING LOVE OP CHRIST. Evcry thing connected with 
Christ is great and extraordinary. His twofold nature— his glorious person— 
his divine perfections— his wondrous offices — his peerless titles — his amazing 
work, and his eternal immutability. But the subject of the text is hii 
surpassing love. *'The love of Christ which passeth knowledge." That 
is, in all its greatness and comprehensiveness, &c. Like the sun we may 
enjoy its light and heat, yet all its maj^nificcncc, and glory, and power, has 
never been set forth ; or as the ocean which may be extensively known in the 
various shores by which it is surrounded, but which in its hidden depths and 
mysterious phenomena will remain a profound secret until the liist day. 
Now tb^ love of Christ in all its greatness and infinity is beyond the searching 



Reviews and Literary Notices, 151 

out of created minds, and none can ever know it to perfection. It surpasses 
all our thoughts and range of knowledge. 

1. In the eternity of^ its origin. When did it first move in the heart of the 
Son of God. The scriptures only record events as far hack as the creation of 
our world ; with that the love of Christ is evidently coeval. But there is one 
truly sublime passage which leads us back long ere God brought our world 
into being, Prov. viii. 23 — ^31. Here then we have the compassionate regards 
of Christ delighting his spirit in those depths of unmeasured duration which 
were antecedent to the existence of our earth. "It surpasseth." &c. 

2. Jn t/ie undeserving character of its objects. Let this be fully considered. 
Try it even with £nlte love. Can you conceive of an intellectual person, of 
pure and lofty morals, of a strong, righteous precision of judgment, com- 
passionating a creature of unmixed vileness, of self-procured misery, of 
deepest hate and malignity of spirit, and one who sought no elevation, 
desured no mercy, and cared for no deliverance. Yet the reality of this 
picture is tar more striking. Think of the high and lofty One, clad in purity, 
of infinite equity and truth, yet fixing his regards on a self-ruined and totally 
polluted creation. 

'' He saw ns miaed by the faU, 
Yet loved us notwithstanding all." 

Nothwithstanding there were countless reasons for not loving ns, &c. ** It 
surpasseth^" &c. 

3. In the immensity of its cost. Tlie love of God to us is free, gratuitous, 
hut what did it cost the Saviour ? His temporary abdication of the celestial 
throne — his descent from heaven — his advent into our world — his assumption 
of our nature— his deep humiliation and abasement in the flesli— his heart's 
deepest sorrows and heaviest griefs — his life— his blood-^-the precious blood 
of Jesus Christ. And with that the Inexplicable travail of his soul. The 
immolation of his spirit on the altar of eternal justice. The gift of his entire 
8eJ£L To be the ransom — the sacrifice ! ! Well may we exclaim, 

' 'Amazing love, how can it be, 
That thou, my Lord, should*st die for me.'* 

4. In tJie comprehensiveness of its extent. The apostle refers to the extent in 
four respects : — 

Its breadth, comprising in its range the whole world and every creature. 
"For Christ by the grace of God tasted death for every man." 

Its iengthj reaching from eternity to eternity. The stream took its rise in 
the ages of eternity, Sowed into pur world in the first promise, has increased 
in magnitude, it has rolled parallel with succeeding ages, and will lose itself 
in the ocean of that eternity before us. 

Its depth is to be measured only by the unknown depths of sin, and the 
itiU deeper misery from which it has redeemed us. . None too low for its 
embrace, even brands from the burning. 

Its height is that of the glories of the beatific vision. The celestial dignity 
and elevation of the glorified who have washed their robes and made them 
white, &c. Such then, briefly, is the surpassing love of Christ. Notice, 

II. To THAT KNOWLEDGE OF IT WE SHOULD BE ANXIOUS TO ATTAIN. "We 

should seek, 

1 . A grcuiious personal knowledge of it, A theoretical scriptural knowledge 
is very* ^I^pQrtant, ' but the apostle in one fragment of a sentence has 
exhibited that. which we should covet, '* He loved me, and gave himself 
for ^le.** Now no person in his natural state can experimentally say this. 
We can say it when the love of God is shed abroad it our hearts, &c. When 
we have tasted that the Lord is gi^acious. 

2. To know it in its influences on our own hearts. The love of Christ is a 
vehement principle — an exciting constraining principle. It cannot be inope- 
rative, " We love him," &c. And this love will breathe the atmosphere of 
peace, and be. followed by joy. ** Whom having not seen, ye love, though 
now ye see hini not, yet believing, ye rejoice," &c. 

2[. 3fb know it in the holff fruits qf our Uves, This love be^etaloNft. ksMi 



152 Reviews and Literary Notices, 

love to Clirist will tnist in Christ— honour Christ— obey Christ— deny the 
world and forsake sin for Christ— surrender all to Christ. 

*^ Love so amazing, sodivinet 
Demands my life, my soul, my all.'* 

4. To know it hij an increasing experimental knowledge. To know it more 
clearly— fully — sweetly, — to know it more in its sway over our hearts and 
souls. To the attainment of this knowledge, 

(1.) Greater regard to the scriptures is necessary. Here this love is 
detailed — here it is set forth —here are the counsels, purposes, promises, and 
ratifications of his love. This is the golden mine ; this the celestial atmos- 
phere, &c. 

(2.) Closer communion is necessary. Spiritual intimacy will invariably 
increase it. Distant from Christ and this knowledge cannot thrive. By 
speaking to Christ— by meditating on Christ— by setting him before us, we 
snail increase in the knowledge of Christ Jesus our Lord. 

(3.) More fervent prayer is necessary, " If any man lack," &c. Paul thus 
prayed for the Ephesians. God the Father honoured Christ most generally 
when Christ was in the act of prayer. So it was at his baptism. On the 
mount, and when he prayed, ** Glorify thy name," and the voice said, ** I 
have both glorified it, and 1 will glorify it again," John xiii. 28. 

(4.) Greater zeal for his glory is necessary. Those who honour Christ he 
will honour, and he has engaged that he will come unto them, and manifest 
himself unto them, &c. When the heart and life are fully devoted to Christy 
the soul shall be greatly enlarged in the knowledge and love of Jesus. 

APPLICATION. 

1 . 7%i8 knowledge of the love of Christ is essential. No salvation without it, 

2. The gospel reveals this knowledge. Oh read and listen to that revelation. 
Here the tree of knowledge grows. 

3. Ignorance of the love of Christ will he the souths eternal ruin. 

From what we have written, and from the preceding sketch, our 
readers may form, we trust, a sufficiently accurate judgment of the 
work itself. We only need add that it is a work which most, if not all 
ministers of the Gospel, may consult with advantage ; many of the 
sketches are admirable, and the extracts from Essays on <' Theologi- 
cal Study,'' are, we believe, as to originality, power, and beauty, 
equal to any that have ever been published. 

We are informed that the Essays to be published in the succeed- 
ing volume << will refer to the composition of sermons, pulpit elocu* 
tion, &c." 



DERRY; A Tale of the Bevolution. J?y Charlotte Elizabeth. Eighth 
Edition. 16mo. 371 pp. J. Nisbet and Co. 

Derby, generally called the city of Londonderry, is justly celebrated in the 
history of the revolution which dethroned James II, and placed WiHiam, Prince 
of Orange, on the throne of the United Kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland. 
The inhabitants of Derry being chiefly Protestants, declared themselves in favour 
of King William ; in consequence of which, King James resolved to lay siege to 
the city. The siege commenced under the direction of King James, in December, 
1688, and the place was vigorouslj defended until it was relieved in the month of 
August following. 

At the commencement of the siege, Lundy was the governor, and he was sus- 
pected of secret attachment to James. He refused to defend the city. There 
were 20,000 troops laying siege to the place, the garrison consisting only of 7S61 
men, and the city containing about dO,000 inhabitants. When the besieging 
army wae within three hundred yards of the Ferry-gate, a few apprentice 



Seffmos and LiUrary Koikes. 153 

boys, aiiiiiMted with entbusiastic ardour against tbe Papistical designs of King 
J«mes, raised the draw-bridge, locked the gates, and raised the cry of '' No sar* 
render." Their enthasiastic spirit spread amongst the garrison, and they resolved 
upon defending the place to the utmost extremity. Lundy, the governor, was 
deposed, and a dergyman, of the name of Walker, and a major Baker, were 
sppointed to govern and defend the place. 

Such was the enthusiastic heroism of the gamson and inhabitants of the city, 
that after repeated assaults, James retired from tbe siege, despairing of reducing 
the place, except by cutting off the communication of supplies, and thus starving 
tbe besieged. James left his army under the command of a foreigner, of the 
name of Rosen, a man who had acquired considerable experience in tbe art of war, 
and who was specially distinguished for ferocity of character. Enraged to mad- 
ness at the continued defence of the city, he collected together, out of the sur- 
rounding country, all the Protestants his men could find, and drove them under 
the walls of tbe city, there to perish— until, either from motives of humanity, or 
policy, James ordered them to have liberty to withdraw. 

Tbe sufferings and privations endured by the besieged are said to have equalled 
any which history records. At one time, when tbe besieged were reduced to a 
state of great distress, for want of food, their hopes were revived by the appear- 
ance in the river of a number of ships belonging to King William. Animation 
glowed in every countenance ; but their hopes were soon turned into bitter dis- 
appointment — the fleet, instead of approaching to relieve the city, sailed away. 
At length, when almost every thing which could possibly be converted into food 
had been consumed, three ships of war hove in sight. The sides of tbe Loch 
Foyle, or river, near the city, were lined with batteries, and a strong boom placed 
across to prevent the passage of the ships. At length one of the vessels sailing 
with velocity, approached the boom — the inhabitants of the city looked from the 
ramparts with intense interest — the vessel broke the boom — the besieged were 
overpowered with thrilling joy; but this was almost instantly changed into 
despair — tbe rebound given to the vessel sent it aground. The besiegers now 
attempted to take possession of the ship-— from which a broadside was immedi- 
ately fired — the recoil of the guns set the vessel afloat, and the attempt to suc- 
coor the besieged was successful. The siege was abandoned, after the loss of 
about 8000 of the besiegers. Tbe besieged lost 8000 men of tbe garrison, and 
a great number of the citizens died from want, disease, and various causes. 

Such are, in brief, the circumstances which Charlotte Elizabeth has comme- 
morated in the very interesting volume entitled ** Derry." The pen of so accom- 
plished a writer, could not fail to produce an instructive, and interesting work, 
when employed on such materials : and the work is every way worthy of its justly 
celebrated author. 

SACRED BIOGRAPHY; lUustraHve of Man's Three-fold State. The Pre- 
teniy Intermediate^ and Future, By J. Smith, M. A. 18mo. Super Royal. 400 
pp. Glasgow : G. Gallie ; London : J. Snow. 

ScRiFTiTRE biography records the history of the most distinguished members of 
the human family. Of persons in whose lives there were many remarkable occur- 
rences, which related not only to themselves and tbe age in which they lived, but 
which, in their consequences, extend through all succeeding penods of time. To 
examine their history, and educe the instruction and profit which it is calculated to 
impart, is a truly profitable employment. To be ignorant of their history, is dis- 
graceful to any youth who has had an opportunity of learning to read the holv 
Scriptures. Many works illustrative of Scripture biography have been published, 
of which tbe one now before us is not the least important. We have read it 
with much satisfaction. It may be read with much advantage, not only by youth, 
but also by those of riper years. Besides nineteen lectures on sacred biography, 
it contains an important lecture on *' the intermediate state of the- soul after 
death," and two others on the " resurrection of the body," and on the "sameness 
of character in time and eteniity." 

THE YOUNG COMPOSER ; or, Progressive Exercises in English Compo- 
sition, Bp James Cobnwell, Joint Author of Allen and ComweU's School Gram- 
moTf and Grammar for Beginners^ Part 1. Royal 18mo. 128 pp. Simfkin, 
MAB8BAI&, AND CO. 



154 The Royal Minister, Sfc. 

Those persons who have acquired a general acquaintance with English gram- 
mar, and who are desirous of improving in the important art of composition, upon 
studying this book, will find that it is a work from which may be derived much 
valuable assistance, in giving ideas and words their proper and most effective ar<> 
rangement. The former works of which Mr. Cornwell was joint author with the 
late Dr. Allen, have obtained extensive circulation. I'he sixth edition of the 
School Grammar has already been published. 



BOOKS RECEIVED. 

REPORT of the British and Foreign Anti-Slaveri/ Society, Published and sold 
by the Society, and by Waed and Co. 

THE UNION MAGAZINE, for Sunday School Teachers. March, 1844. 
12mo. 24 pp. Sunday School Union. 



ROYAL MINISTER AND CHRISTIAN LIBERALITY. 

Mb. Editor, 
In the course of mv reading I met with the following interesting aod 
affecting account of a king of England, of happy memory, who loved his 
people and his God. As the custom of the times then was, he used occa- 
sionally to take the exercise of hunting. Being out one day for this purpose, 
the chase lay through the skirts of W— Forest, the stag had been liard 
run, and to escape the dogs, had crossed the river in a deep part ;] ftie dogB> 
however, could not be brought to follow ; it became necessary, to come up 
with the stag, to make a circuitous route, along the banks of the river, througn 
some thick and troublesome underwood. The roughness of the ground, the 
long grass and frequent thickets, gave opportunity for the sportsmen to 
separate, each one endeavouring to make the best and speediest route he 
could. Before they had reached the end of the forest, the king's horte 
manifested signs of fatigue and weariness ; so much so, that his majesty 
resolved upon yielding the pleasure of the chase to those of compassion for 
his horse. With this view, he turned into the first avenue in the forest, and 
determined to ride gently on to the oaks, there to wait for some of his 
attendants. His majesty had proceeded only a few yards, when instead of 
the cry of the hounds, he fancied that he heard the cry of human distress. 
As he rode forward, he heard it more distinctly ; ^* O my mother ! my 
mother I " The curiosity and kiD<lne88 of the king led him instanUy to the 
spot ; it was a little green spot on one side of the forest, whore was spread 
on the grass, under a branching oak, a little pallet, half covered with a kind 
of tent, a basket or two, with some packs, lay on the ground. At a- few 
paces distant from the tent, near to the foot of the tree, he observed a little 
swarthy-featured girl, about eight ^ears of age, on her knees praying, while 
her little black eyes ran down with tears. Distress of any kind was ever 
relieved by his majesty, for he bad a heart which melted at human woe, nor 
was it unaffected on this occasion ; and now he inquired, *^ What my child, is 
the cause of your weeping — for what do you pray ? '* The little creature at 
first started, then rose from her knees, and pointing to the tent, said, *' O Sir, 
my dying mother 1 " His majesty, dismounting and fastening his horse to 
the branches of the oak, said, ** What, my child, tell me all about it ? " The 
little creature now led the king to the tent ; there lay, partlv covered, a 
middle-aged female gipsy, in the last stages of a decline, and in the last 
moments of life. She turned her dying eyes expressly to the royal visitor, 



T!m Royal Minister, S^c. 155 

then looked np to heaven ; but not a word did she utter ; the orphans of 
Bpeeeh had ceased their office, ''the silver cord was loosed^ the wheel broken 
at the cistern." The little girl again wept aloud, then stooping, wiped the 
dying sweat from her mother's face. 

The king, much affected, asked the little girl of her name, and of her 
family, and how long her mother had been ill. Just at that moment anothei 
gipsy girl, much older, came out of breath to the spot. She had been at 
the town of W— — ; she had brought some medicine for her dying 
mother. Observing a stranger, she modestly courtesied, kneeled down by 
her side, kissed her pallid lips, and burst into tears. '^ What, my dear child," 
said his majesty, ** can be done for you ? *' ** O Sir I " she replied, ** my dying 
mother wanted a religious person to teach her, and to prajr with her before 
she died. I ran all the way before it was light this mornmg to W , 

and asked for a minister ; but no one could I get to come with me to pray 
for my dear mother." The dying woman seemed sensible of what her 
daughter was saying, and her countenance was much agitated. The air was 

again rent with the cries of the distressed daughters. ——The 

king, full of kindness, instantly endeavoured to comfort them ; he said, '' I am 
a minister, and God has sent me to instruct and comfort your mother.'* He 
then set himself down on a pack by the side of the pallet, and, taking the 
hand of the dying gipsy in his, discoursed on the demerit of sin, and the 
nature of redemption ; he then pointed her to Christ, the all-sufficient 
Saviour. While the king was doing this, the poor .creature seemed to gather 
consolation and hope : she looked up — she smiled ; but it was her last smile, 
*~it was the glimmering of expiring nature. As the expression of peace, 
however, remained strong on her countenance, it was not till some little time 
had elapsed that they perceived the struggling spirit had left mortality. 

It was at this moment that some of his majesty's attendants, who had 
missed him at the chase, and who had been riding through the forest in 
search of him, rode up, and found the king comforting the afflicted gipsies. 
It was an affecting sight, worthy of everlasting record in the annals of kings. 
His majesty now rose up, put some gold into the hands of the afflicted girls, 
promising them his protection, and bid them look to heaven. He then wiped 
the tears from his eyes and mounted his horse. His attendants, greatly 

aiTected, stood in silent admiration. Lord L , was now going to speak, 

when his majesty, turning to the gipsies, and pointing to the breathless 
corpse, and to the weeping girls, said,>'ith strong emotion, ** Who, my Lord 
L , thinkest thou was neighbour unto these ? " 

Reader, " Go thou and do likewise." 

The above praiseworthy conduct will never be obliterated from the pages 
of history. It reminds us of the conduct of the good Samaritan, as recorded 
in Luke x., who succoured the man that fell among thieves, *' bound up his 
wounds, pouring in oil and wine, and set him on his own beast, and brought 
him to an inn, and took care of him ; " and concerning whom our Saviour 
said to the lawyer, <*Go thou and do likewise." This also accords with 
what Christ said to the rich young man, *' Go thy way, sell whatever thou 
hast* and give to the poor, and thou shalt have treasure in heaven ; and come, 
take up thy cross and follow me." But he, like too many lovers of this 
world, was sad at this saying, and went away grieved. However hard the 
rich may think this saying of our Lord, it must be complied with ; for 
Christianity requires us, in addition to our ''loving God with all our heart, 
to love our neighbour as ourselves." 

I shall never forget some remarks the venerable and Rev. W. Jay, of 
Bath, made in a sermon he preached at Manchester, some three or four years 
aince, to the following effect, ** Many years ago I came to a decision never 
to preach a funeral sermon for a rich man. I hope my brethren in the 
ministry will come to the same conclusion; die ncVi\ Yi\vv\e ^o xsivci'j tk\^ 



156 The Royal Minister, SfC. 

lions of human souls are perishing for want of the bread of life ; die rich ! 
while we have so much poverty and misery around us. I say, it is a disgrace 
to any man to die rich t *' St. John says in his epistle, '* Whoso hath this 
world's good, and seeth his brother liave need, and shutteth up his bowels of 
compassion from him, how dwelleth the love of God in him ? " The religion 
that does not prove itself by works of charity and mercy, is not of God. True 
Christianity will lead us to cellars, garrets, and cottages to find out the dis- 
tressed; hence, savs Job, *' I was eyes to the blind, and feet was I to the 
lame. I was a father to the poor ; and the cause which I knew not I searched 
out." Surely it is the duty of the various sections of the Church, to visit, 
and, as far as possible, to supply the wants of the Lord's poor — the destitute 
representatives of Christ. 

Attention to the wants of the poor, among us, is a pleasing feature in our 
Liverpool Society, to their honour be it spoken. A Clothing Society has 
been established for several years, under the management of a committee of 
ladies, who meet weekly during a few winter months, for the purpose of 
making articles and distributing them to poor persons connected in Uhurch 
fellowship with us, all of whom are previously visited by ladies who are 
appointed to the office of visitors. At the last annual meeting of the com- 
mittee and friends of this god-like work, which was held in Pleasant Street 
School-room, about seventy persons sat down together to tea, which was 
provided at Is. each. After the tea-things were set aside the ladies' report 
afforded much gratification ; 682 articles of clothing have been distributed by 
them to the needy within' the last four years ; a delightful feeling pervaded 
the meeting whilst the brethren Messrs. Woolstenholme, Rowland, Bridson, 
Wren, Partington, Davidson, Joyce, and myself, were advocating the cause 
of the Lords poor. Several new subscribers came up and threw their 
contributions into the treasury. 

Id addition to the above, I am happy in being able to state, though we have 
pnly about 900 Members in this town, our friends raise about £lOO yearly 
to the poor's fund, which is carefully distributed among our poor through 
their proper channels. This is acting in conformity with the Word of God, 
" If there be among you a poor man of one of thy brethren, within any of 
thy gates in thy land which tne Lord thy God giveth, thou shalt not harden 
thine heart, nor shut thine hand from thy poor brother ; but thou shalt open 
thine hand wide unto him, and shalt surely lend him sufficient for his need, 
in that which he wanteth. Thou shalt surely give him, and thine heart shall 
not be grieved when thou givest unto him ; because that for this thing the 
Lord thy God shall bless thee in all thy works, and in all that thou puttest 
thine hand unto. For the poor shall never cease out of the land ; therefore, 
I command thee, saying, Thou shalt open thine hand wide unto thy brother, 
to thy poor, and to thy needy, in thy land.*' The exercise of the great prin- 
ciple of benevolence ought to be the governing motive of Christian conduct ; 
we should be ready to distribute, and willing to communicate, according to 
the ability which God giveth us. Our duty and advantage are always con- 
nected. To give is to be blessed, and it is more blessed to give than to 
receive. To lessen the woes of others is to augment our own happiness. 
Blessed is be that considereth the poor, the Lord will deliver him in time of 
trouble : the Lord will preserve nim and keep him aUve, and he shall be 
blessed upon the earth." Let us then, as Christians, stretch forth the hand 
of benevolence, heartily and without grudgingly, let the heart go with the 
gift, for God loves a cheerful giver ; and so does a poor man, let the soul pity 
and the hand give. Whatever we give from a pure principle, shall not lose 
its reward, but shall be gloriously rewarded at the last dat/, hence ** the King 
shall say unto them at his right hand. Come, ye blessed of my Father, inherit 
the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world ; for I was 
an hungrsdy and ye gave mc meat ; I was thirsty, and ye gave me drink ; 



Geology of tlte Bible. 157 

I was a stranger, and yc took me in ; naked, and ye elothed me ; I was sick, 
and ye visited me ; I was in prison, and ye came unto me. Then shall the 
righteous answer ^im, saying, Lord, when saw we thee an hungred, and fed 
thee? or thirsty, and gave ihec drink. When saw we thee a stranger, and 
look thee in ? or naked and clothed thee ? Or when saw we thee sick or 
Iq prison, and came unto thee ? And the king shall answer and say unto 
them, Verily, I say unto you. Inasmuch as ye have done it unto one of the 
least of these my brethren, ye have done it unto me/' 

Let us, as a Connexion, arise to active exertion, and carry out the true 
principles of Christianity, in all its ramifications, in every part of our Zion. 
Let this conviction rest upon our understandings — we are only stewards, 
repositories of the goods of heaven, and that whether these are intellectual or 
temporal, they are not ours, but God*8 ; and are to be employed in the 
manner, and for the purpose, he has expressly appointed. 

*' O that each in the day of bis coming may saj',— 

I have fought my wav through, 
I have finished the work thou did'st give roe to do. 
O that each from bis Lord may receive the glad word, — 

Well and faithfully done. 
Enter into my joy, and sit down on my throne." 

By your inserting the above in your excellent Magazine, you will oblige 
our friends. 
Liverpool. Thomas Ellert. 



GEOLOGY OF THE BIBLE. No. IL 

^For the Wesley an Methodist Association Magazine. J 
" In the beginning God created the heavens and the ear/A."— Gen i. 2. 

The account of the creation of the world, given us in the book of Genesis, 
Dot only asserts the simple fact that Almighty God was its creator ; but enters 
into a minute account of the order of the proceeding in such precise terms, 
as to convey the impression of the Divine origin of the narrative : for, of the 
tliinj;s called into existence before man liimself had a being, how otherwise 
could the particulars have been known to him ? The knowledge may have been 
originally obtained by Adam, and from him descended through the patriarchs; 
for as it was the pleasure of the Deity lo converse wiih his creature ** in the 
cool of the day," what more noble, aud otherwise so worthy, can we suppose 
to have been the subject of such conversation ? Or the knowledge may have 
been derived from the colloquy of Moses with his God ; for their discourse was 
like as a man talketh with his friend; and we may judge that the philosophic 
legislator, even though already well instructed, would gladly seize the occasion 
to learn from such a source an authentic account of that grand subject of 
Egyptian disquisition, the origin of all ti)ing$. 

In every case, however, the authority for the facts related is to be found in 
the miracles performed with the rod of God; for these were given as much to 
confirm the historic accuracy, as the Divine authority of the Deliverer of 
Israel. But whilst this is admitted by all who receive the Scriptures as a 
Divine revelation, yet some remarkable interpretations have been given to the 
language employed ; and hence, though it is not an object of these essays to 
enter upon an examination or refutation of the generality of the conclusions of 
modem geologists, where they appear contrary to the sacred word, yet it seems 
necessary at times to refer to the more prominent of them, either by allusion 



158 Geology of the Bible. 

or open reference — at least to those whicli Have been expressed by some who 
would shrink from denying or doubling it3 authority, and yet have, scarcely 
avoided violating its integrity by interpreting its language in a manner causing 
it to express almost the opposite of the plain meaning of its. statement, 
Such interpretations have probably, in many instances, gone fiar to alarm 
the minds of simple hearted believers in revealed (ruth ; since they cannot but 
be aware of the difficulty of reconciling what is commonly interpreted in 
Geology, with the history of creation by Moses, when they see some whom they 
believe to be sincere believers, and who are commonly esteemed as not ill- 
Instructed philosophers, labour at this work of reconciliation with very un- 
satisfactory results. The following suggestions, among others, will encourage 
and enable them to suspend their fears for a season :— Many have been the 
geological theories which have arisen in the world: eacii built on the theri 
state of scientific acquaintance with the earth's structure, and the changes it 
has undergone, since it was moulded into shape, and with the causes whicli 
have led to these alterations. All tiiese theories narrated surprising facts, and 
occupied and involved in the mazes of doubt, the public mind for a season. 
But though few of them have ever received a formal answer, they have yielded 
in succession before the light of further discovery. Within the last twenty years 
new researches in geology have kept the science in a perpetual state of change ; 
so that even its fundamental principles have been modified : and circumstances 
that had long, been supposed to be established as facts on the sure basis of 
observation, have subsequently been differently viewed and explained. A care- 
ful distinction should be drawn between the facts alledged, and the explanation 
of them ; for the facts may even be correctly noted (which however is not of 
common occurrence), and yet the conclusions derived from them be void : they 
have been observed for too short a time — over too small a space — at too 
shallow a depth — and without reference to (and in some instances in contra- 
diction to) minute particulars— to be capable of supporting such an edifice as 
is built on them. Many observed facts cannot be explained by any theory 
yet invented ; and therefore for the present we shall be acting most philosophi- 
cally if we suspend our judgment — or at least refuse to suffer it to be biased 
against the simple narrative of the revealed history on such insecure grounds. 
In truth, at the present moment, theories in philosophy are viewed in no other 
light than as convenient pegs to hang observed facts upon — as a mere assistance 
to the memory — and very far indeed from being in most of their parts, even 
plausibly true. 

According then, to the narrative of scripture six natural days were employed 
in reducing into order the discordant elements of which the chaos consisted: — 
and that by the expression, days, we are justified in understanding no other to 
be meant than what is commonly understood by the term — appears from the 
fact that we are assured — that each of these days consisted of an evening and 
morning: the former preceding the latter in the reckoning. The doctrine 
advocated by many geologists is, that those days consisted of time, of perhaps, 
in each case regular, but yet very extended length — perhaps to the extent of a 
thousand years : — and that such an extension is necessary to be understood, 
in order to explain the effects which followed, and the arrangement of the earth's 
materials as they are known now to exist. We have seen, however, that 
sand, precious stones, and gold, in a separate state — which theory supposes to 
have necessarily formed a part of the solid rocks, and which could only have 
been dispersed by the mouldering or gradually wearing down of their materials 
by the lapse of time, and force of storms and rain — are represented in the 
history as originally found in a condition not much unlike their present state : — 
that even trees were not made to grow, blossom and ripen fruit; but that 
they were planted originally of adult growth, and bearing ripe fruit. To say 
therefore, that as these things now take long time to accomplish, such must, in the 
Divine hand, at the beginning have required long periods, is a n.ere pctitio 



Oeology^ of Ute Bible. 159 

prineipU"-^ demanding of the question ; a reasoning by false analo^'y. The 
winalive of Moses, as implying a rapid and decisive act of creation that was 
finished in a given and not long extended space, is. further authenticated by 
Isaiah xlviii; 13, — *<Mine hand also hath laid the foundation of the earth, and 
ny right hand liath spanned the heavens:*' — and where it is added, '* when I 
call unto them they stand up together.*' Critics inform us that it should 
be^-^^wheit J called unto them, they stood forth at oncCf* and not by fits and 
surts, or in a long continued process. In contradistinction to this, the further 
supposition of the theorist is, that the ages of creation were interrupted by 
intervals, not of rest only, but of destruction ; so that certain whole tribes of 
beings bad their duration of existenoe in almost, if not entire dominion of the 
earth; and then vanished, to give place to other successive but insulated 
creations, which in their turn existed and perished for no other apparent reason 
than to afford materials for the construction of rocks, in which, as in a museum, 
their remains are now lodged to testify that they at some time occupied our 
world. The supposition that the world, as we have it, was even at the first 
(or in the creation of Adam, according to the Mosaic narrative) formed out of 
worn materials of a former globe, which had fulfilled the purposes of some 
former destiny, and had left a few fragments of its former living inhabitants, 
Tvhich have no connection with existing races, is only a modification of the 
same theory ; but in whatever shape we view these observations, a few remarks 
will enable us to discern the futility of such opinions; — that they do not 
explain the facts they are invented to support; and that in all respects they are 
pntirely gratuitous. « 

In our first paper we referred to the creation and arrangement of the solid 
structure of the earth ; and we are informed that on the third day, vegetables 
were made to adorn tlie surface. On the fifth, the inhabitants of the waters 
and the birds were created. Terr^stial animals were brought into being on the 
sixth day ; and in reference to these particulars an enquiry may be suggested — 
since we may suppose that some affinity may exist between the races of 
crefitures formed at one time or from similar materials — why are fishes and birds 
classed together, while terrestial animals are separated from them in material 
and date? The answer is, that the junction is made according to the principles 
of physiological affinity : fishes, however dissimiliar in form, being of eviparous 
propagation, and consequently in their principal mode of existence more closely 
onited with birds than, either of them, to other vertebrated classes. Creatures 
of the sixth day's creation are all of them placental, and altogether distinct. 
It is not a little interesting, that the most recent discoveries in geological 
science should go far to show that the view itself of which the supposition of 
floccesave eras of creation and destruction is a portion — or that the materials 
consolidated in rocks are the fragments of a former world — is the baseless fabric 
of a vision, and not merely unsupported by, but incompatible with the observed 
&cts. The. philosophic naturalist is now well aware, that there is an affinity 
or relationship, of nature, form, and structure, between the various races that . 
now inhabit the world. But at the same time he perceives that the numbers 
ia each separate existing family or tribe s^re unequal; and that in some 
instances the connecting link which the observation of other classes shows to 
be necessary to unite certain portions together is not to be found. Without 
going into more minute particulars than the limits, or even nature of this 
Magazine will allow, a satisfactory account cannot be given of what is meant 
by an affinity of families: — or an animal or a class forming a connecting link 
to unite what would otherwise be distinct classes ; but an enquirer on tliis part 
of our subject is referred to such works as treat more especially on the science. 
It is sufficient to our present object to &how that such a connection of affinity 
exists in all the tribes in nature, and is admitted by the most strict geological 
theorist ; though in some of these tribes it is less manifest, or pariially inter- 
rupted. But the remarkable and decisive fact is that the animal whose remains 



160 On Pttblie Warship. 

are found embedded and preserved in the various geological strata, rise to supply, 
in many instances, these lost affinities: and thus the fossils themselves prove 
the harmony of the extinct races with the present system of creation: and con- 
sequently that they were created together, and cannot belong to an exploded 
system, not in harmony with the present. A single mind clearly presided 
over the formation : all things were made by Him, John i. 3. Concordancj 
of principle pervades the whole, and tlie lost tribes^ so far from being an 
exception to the unity of creation, are necessary to render the classification 
complete. 

POLPEBRO. 



ON PUBLIC WORSHIP— No, IV. 

(For the Wesleyan Methodist Association Magazhie,) 
UNIFORMITY. 

Let no misconception arise from the use of a term (uniformity) which, m 
its connections with ecclesiastical affairs, has but too generally been associated 
with measures of coercion, and the violation of conscience. Long will be the 
time, I trust and most fully believe, before any attempt will be made, if e?er, 
under our highly favoured constitution, to enforce such uniformity in matters 
ordinary, and indifferent, as has always been characteristic of absolutism in the 
government of the church ; whether as exhibited in the councils of the Vatican, 
or the periodical gathering of any Protestant conclave. That peculiar feature in 
our system, *' the independence of circuits" which distinguishes the Wesleyan 
Methodist Association from any other religious connexion^ whilst it is associated 
with all the advantages which an union of churches, having an itinerant ministry, 
can obtain, appears, indeed, to have secured the desideratum, the one thing that 
was needed, to render a connexional form consistent with the inalienable right, 
which, according to New Testament practice, clearly belong to every separate 
church ; that of managing its own internal affairs. Such a right has been fully 
recognised, and is now well understood, and carried out, in our respective 
circuits ; and so long as it remains on the statute book, and continues to be 
exercised by the churches, must effectually prevent all unnecessary and impro- 
per interference on the part of any assumed authority from without. It is well, 
however, that we should clearly understand our position ; in order that we may 
not only see our privileges, but also know our duties. There really is some 
danger \e9i we should mistake the nature and extent of our peculiar, but 
unalienable right, as circuits, to manage our own local affairs; for, after all, we 
are integral parts of a >Khole, and the very name of a connexion implies that 
churches are associated together for a common purpose in which all are mutu- 
ally interested. The question then remains, what are the purposes for which we 
are thus united ? And the answer in brief, may perhaps be,— everything con* 
nected with the raising up and the support of an effective itinerant ministry; 
the management of all external matters, bearing upon the protection, and exten* 
sion, of the body at large ; and whatever else may be requisite, which does not 
in any manner intermeddle with the proper exercise of the discipline of the 
church, upon the members and officers of the respective societies of our 
confederation. Perhaps the point of danger lies in the indistinct and frequently 
erroneous views associated with the phrase " independence of circuits ; " and 
which is likely enough to lead unreflecting persons to connect with that term 
everything which it may be thought expedient to do in a circuit, whether it 
relate to merely local matters, or have a decidedly connexional bearing ; with- 
out sufficiently considering the real nature of a connexional form of government. 



On Public Worship. 161 

and the authority which inherently, and most properly, belongs to such an 
association. No such danger, however, is likely to happen, provided circuits 
and those who are connected with the management of their affairs, will only 
direct their candid attention to all the circumstances of the case, and be as 
willing to recognise and support connexional rights, as to claim and exercise 
those specially belonging to circuits. The entire subject, is, indeed, one of 
great importance, and deserves to be discussed much more at length than 1 can 
attempt to do on the present occasion ; and I can only indulge a hope that some 
one, fully competent to exhibit the bearings of the Question, in a clear and cor- 
rect manner, will, at an early period, undertake this outy. Such a writer would 
lay the entire Connexion under obligation. 

But I have unintentionally been led into a digression, which was not contem- 
plated by me when sitting down to write a short article on uniformity, as con- 
nected with public worship. The thought which was uppermost in my mind 
was this, that although an objection might be found to exist in our Connexion, 
and perhaps justly, to such an uniformity of general internal discipline, as might, 
perhaps, in some respects, intrench on circuit independence, by interfering with 
various practices which have been found to work advantageously in different 
circoitSy yet possibly such an approximation might be made to an uniform 
oooise in some few important particulars relating to Divine worship, as mi{>ht 
prove generally useful and acceptable. It is to this point then, that a few 
remarks will be more immediately addressed. 

And first, as to the desirableness of such a procedure. I am not aware of 
any essential difference in the general form of worship adopted throughout our 
Coonexiooy such as would interfere to prevent an arrangement like the one 
now proposed ; but I am inclined to believe, from what 1 have seen and heard 
of the i>ractice in most parts of the Association, that it is in its main features 
everywhere essentially the same. There is, however, considerable variety in 
some minor points, almost every circuit having some peculiarity of this nature 
of its own ; and I would respectfully submit that if one uniform plan could be 
suggested which would embody the excellencies of the whole, and meet the 
acUud requirements of a congregation, that, on every consideration in a Con- 
nexional point of view, it would be desirable to adopt universally throughout the 
Association a measure so exceedingly suitable. 

It is surprising what diversity of procedure is to be found in different parts 
of the Connexion, and in some instances, even in the same locality, in the 
simple routine of. public worship. Let us take, for example, the Sabbath 
morning service. In some circuits it is the practice for the preacher, on an- 
nouncing the page, and the number of the hymn, to read two or three verses, 
or it may be the whole hymn, which is to be sung ; or perhaps a single verse of 
it. Id others again, the mention of the page, and hymn, is immediately fol- 
k>wed by giving out the two lines which are first to be sung, and the singing is 
immediately commenced. Then, in reference to prayer ; it is, of course, the 
nnifersal practice for the minister to offer up solemn supplication to the throne 
of. the heavenly grace; but in some chapels this is preceded by one of the les- 
sons for the day being read, the other ueing read immediately on rising from 
the knees ; and then again, in other places there is this difference, which is pro* 
bably the common practice, that both lessons are read immediately after prayer. 
Then, as regards the portions of Scripture which are read. In some cases the 
lessons for the morning service, as set down in the order of the Church of Eng- 
land, are regularly adhered to, being printed upon the preachers' plan ; and a 
departure from that arrangement would, in the estimation of some of the con- 
gregation, be deemed very heterodox. But in other places, the preacher is left 
to bis own inclination and discretion, in this matter ; and sometimes the audience 
are &voured with the reading of two chapters, one from the Old, and one from 
the New Testament ; or it may be, a single psalm ; or perhaps one chapter from 
the Gospels, or the Epistles ; or possibly the extent of Scripture reading is limited 
to a few verses out of the chapter from which the text is about lo b^ ^^\^c\<&^ \ 



162 On Public Worship. 

and in many chapels the Scriptures are not read as a distinct part of the public 
religious worship. 

In reference to the evening service, the difference is probably not so great as 
in that of the morning, but still sufficiently varied as relates tathe reading of 
the Word of God as a part of the Divine worship. Here again, we find the 
custom to be, in some congregations, to read an entire chapter, or a considerable 
portion of one, immediately preceding the act ;of prayer : in others, to do so 
after the first prayer has been offered up ; but in probably the greater number of 
cases, it is not the custom to read a portion of God's Word, as a part of the 
Sabbath evening service in our chapels. 

Now it is quite clear, that in all this diversity of opration, every varied mode 
cannot legitimately claim to be the most ** excellent way ; ** there must 
necessarily be a greater and more suitable adaptation of some of these plans, as 
means to the accomplishment of an end, than there can be in others. If then 
the best selection could be made and adopted, the least advantage which would 
))e obtained would be that of uniformity ; the higher, and more important 
benefit resulting would be that of a well-managed and suitable plan for the con- 
ducting of public worship. It would not, I trust, be deemed presumptuous, 
were the ibllowiog suggestions — which are submitted with great deference- 
recommended for general adoption :— - 

In the first place, with regard to the hymn with which divine worship is 
commenced at the mornivg service, I would venture to recommend that, after 
announcing the number of the page, and that of the hymn, the first verse should 
be distinctly and solemnly read to the congregation, and then the page again 
mentioned. That immediately on the singing being closed, the first lesson, 
previously selected by competent circuit authority, either from the service of the 
Church of England, or otherwise, and printed on the preacher's plan, should be 
read ; after which, prayer should be offered up. The second lesson, appointed 
in the same way, should next be read ; to be followed by singing, introduced 
to the congregation in the same manner as suggested with reference to the first 
hymn. After the sermon, the same course should be pursued for the concluding 
hymn, unless notices have to be read to the congregation, in which case the 
simple announcement previot/s/y, of the number of the page, and of the hymn, 
as it would afford time to the people to find them, might be amply suflScient. 
So far as the evening service is concerned, the same course throughout with 
respect to singing, that is, the mention of the page and hymn, and reading two 
of the first lines to be sung, which is recommended for the morning worship, 
would be also applicable here. On the first hymn being sung, I would again 
suggest the propriety of a portion of the Scriptures being read, before prayer, 
and when the latter is concluded, singing to be resumed ; then the sermon to 
follow, and the whole to be terminated with singing and prayer. 

With reference to the reasons which may be assignea in justification of the 
course now recommended, for uniformity in public worship, and for the nature 
of the details themselves, the following remarks are respectfully submitted: — 
In a connexional form of Church Association, where the ministers are not per- 
manently located, but itinerate from one circuit to another, it is very desirable 
that those ministers should not, on entering upon a new locality of labour, find 
themselves ignorant of its modes of acting in reference to so important a part of 
their duties as the conduct of public worship ; on the contrary, it would be 
difficult, I think, to assign any sufficient reason why the knowledge they acquire 
of these matters, in the first circuit to which they are called, should not ecjually 
serve them in every other to which, in after life, they may be appomted. 
Remarks of a similar nature may be also made in reference to persons— members 
of society — who, in the order of Providence, are removed from one place to 
anotlier, whether permanently to reside in a circuit or in journeying. How 
refreshing and encouraging to find in the order and arrangement of public 
worship, the same instrumentality, and means, which have so often been 



On Public Worship, 163 

made a blessing to them in days that are past, and in other parts of the kingdom ! 
And how much easier to recognise in the persons among whom they are thus 
brought, brethren of the same calling, and profession of fiiith, and to feel a close 
identity of interest, than if such general harmony in the forms of public worship 
with those they had been ascustomed to follow did not exist. Besides, one settled 
and uniform system in the service of the sanctuary is really not more important 
in a counexional point of view, than desirable as it relates to circuits indi- 
vidually. For want of this — I appeal to most circuits in the Connexion — the 
mode A conducting Divine worship in the same circuit, and even in the same 
chapel, is sometimes as varied as the preachers who officiate ; for every man 
appears to feel himself at liberty to do, in this respect, whatever is right in his 
own eyes. Now this, it must be acknowledgeid, is a state of things very 
undesirable, and would, I trust, constitute a sufficient apology were it needed, 
for venturing to urge this subject upon the Connexion at large. 

With respect generally to the reading of the Scriptures in public worship, 
I beg to remark, that it is of the highest importance that such a practice should 
universally prevail. It is much to be feared, that the charge made by an 
apostle at an early period of the Christian Church, that at the time when some 
to whom he wrote " ought to have been teachers," stood in need of being 
again taught the elementary principles of Christianity, and its doctrines ; will 
apply with great force to very many who, in the present day, profess discipleship 
with Christ : and that this great defect in their Christian character is traceable 
as one of its prime causes, to their ignorance of the Scriptures generally ; their 
want of acquaintance with the great leading truths of the Gospel more par- 
ticularly ; and hence their consequent lack of establishment in high religious 
principles. How many professing Christians there are to be found who, during 
an entire week, from Sabbath to Sabbath, never lay their hands on God*s 
blessed book, or read a single line from its invaluable pages ! 1 cannot help 
saying, *' I fear their * name is legion ' — that they are indeed many I *' Then 
there are those who make no profession of religion, hundreds of whom may be 
found amongst the most ret^ular attenders at public worship, who cannot be 
supposed diligently to ** search the Scriptures,'* and who in all probability, 
seldom, if ever, either hear, or read a chapter out of the Bible, but in the house 
of Grod. All these considerations I respectfully submit, constitute important 
and unanswerable reasons, for a regular and sufficient reading of the Scriptures, 
as a part of public worship. 

But in order to read the Word of God to the greatest benefit of a congregation, 
I venture to say that, it should be read systematically, and in due and well- 
arranged order. That it is not the best way to select a single chapter, or perhaps 
part of one for reading, with the object merely of illustrating the subject which 
is afterwards to be discussed fr6m the pulpit; the Scriptures should, on 
account qf their own intrimic merit and importance, independently of all 
other considerations, be read to an audience met to worship God. And the 
advantage of regular, consecutive reading, will be found in affording the con- 
gregation an opportunity of becoming much more extensively acquainted with 
the sacred writings, than could possibly happen from the desultory, and un- 
systematized practice, which I fear, but too frequently prevails. The best and 
most proper course to be followed in this case, would probably be that which 
has already been suggested, namely, — for the proper authorities in each circuit to 
make a suitable selection of chapters, and place them on the printed circuit plan, 
by which means a lesson from the Old Testament, and one from the New, might 
be read at the morning service ; and one from the Old and New Testament, 
alternately, at the evening service, on every Sabbath throughout the year. In 
this way an opportunity would be afforded for various portions of Divine truth 
being communicated to the hearers, some one of which, when all others had 
failed to make a lasting impression, might, in despite of Satan, and the world's 
attempts to eradicate it, remain in the memory, and produce an effect upon 
the heart, which should eventually lead to the happiest results. 



164 British and Foreign School Society. 

In concluding these remarks upon tmiformity in public worship, permit me 
to observe, that a practice prevails in some circuits — which appears to me an 
improvement upon the old mode — of announcing the contents of the noticef 
which are sent to the pulpit for publication, immediately after r^ing the 
second lesson at the morning service, and before singing the second hymn ; and 
also at the evening service, after the reading of the lesson ; excepting such notes 
as refer to persons offering public thanks for benefits received, which are reed 
just before the concluding prayer. This plan seems to be much preferable to 
that of reading the whole of the notes immediately previous to joining io the 
last prayer. A crowd of thoughts which sometimes arise out of the announce* 
ments made, are thus prevented obtruding upon the mind during the act of 
solemn devotion ; and the entire service may oe concluded more in accordance 
with the character of a religious exercise. 

Upon the whole subject, perhaps I may be allowed finally to say, that its 
importance will, I hope, be so far admitted, as to justify, in this manner, call- 
ing the attention of the Connexion to it ; and, should it be thought advisable 
to take any steps to promote the uniformity recommended, that the Annual 
Assembly will suggest some proper, and suitable plan, at its next meeting, 
which the Connexion at large will approve and adopt. 



BRITISH AND FOREIGN SCHOOL SOCIETY. 

The Committee of this Society, recently convened in their Normal School, 
Borough Road, London, a Conference of friends of Education ; for the purpose 
of considering several important topics, connected with the present educational 
movements. 

The Conference held four sittings on the 15th and 16th of March. Some 
valuable papers were read, on the history and objects of the Society, — on the 
tendency of the establishment of denominational schools, to prevent the more 
rapid progress of enlightened and liberal principles, which might be effected by 
the united efforts of all Christian denominations in establishing, supporting, and 
conducting Day schools — ^and on the circumstances under which Government aid 
had been accepted by the Society. The discussions were animated and im- 
portant ; and produced in many minds a deepened conviction, of the import- 
ance of renewed efforts on the part of the friends of Education, who desire to 
unite upon a liberal and Scriptural basis, rallying around the standard of this- 
Society and affording their most liberal support. 

It appeared that there was a debt upon the Institution of more than four thou- 
sand pounds. Several gentlemen gave in their names as contributors. One 
of £250, and many of £100 each. Many important reasons were urged why 
Government aid should not be accepted for Educational purposes. When it is 
so accepted the Government claims the power of visitation and examination. 
The Committee will we are persuaded rejoice if the contributions of tbeir friends 
will place them in circumstances by which they may be able without such aid to 
support the Institution. 

The Quarterly Meeting of the London Circuit has recommended its several 
Leader's Meetings, to make arrangements for carrying into effect the fourth 
resolution of the Connexional Committee, as recorded on page 115 of our 
Magazine for March. We hope that our other Circuits will also do likewise. 

BRITISH AND FOREIGN DAY SCHOOLS. 

To THE Editor— Dear Sib, 

In my letter upon the subject of Education, which you kindly inserted in the 
last January Magazine, something is said of that invaluable Institution, the 
British and Foreign School Society. The writer may be allowed to give an 
opinion in reference to that Institution since he has personally had an opportunity 



Abolition of War. 165 

of obsenring its characrer, constitution, and utility, of these he cannot but speak 
in the highest terms. The very Ubercii and Anti- Sectarian spirit in which it is 
conducted is deserving of all praise. I also beg leave to direct your attention 
and that of the Readers of the Magazine to a small pamphlet, entitled, " Plain 
Directions," published by the above Society, and which ma^ be had from its 
worthjT Secretary, Henry Dunn, Esq. In this small book are laid down the broad 
Christian principles upon which this Institution is based and conducte.d, and 
** Plain Directions" how to proceed to establish British Schools in different parts 
of the country. Having mentioned in my last, that our Sunday School Rooms 
m^hi without much expense be fitted up for Day Schools, I may take the 
liberty to quote a sentence or two from the above mentioned work, upon this 
sobject ; — ^* A Sunday School Room ; an old warehouse or storeroom ; a good 
bun ; — any place in short, capable of containing a sufficient number of children, 
with facilities for obtaining light and air may at a very moderate expense be 
converted into a School Room, if nothing better can be had. Only let there be 
a deep settled conviction that something ought to be done, and the determination 
that it shall be done, will be soon followed by light as to the best mode of doing 
it." 

It would not be proper to attempt to enter into a minute description of the 
admaUages of having Day schools connected with our Sabbath schools, and with 
our various Societies. They will be neither few nor small, and will with the 
blessing of Heaven help to promote the prosperity and durability of both. That 
bis blessing and his Spirit may rest upon the Wesle3ran Association, and that it 
may be the means in his hands, of spreading far and wide the benefits and 
blessings of Sght, and /t/e, and UbertUt both spiritual and intellectual, is the 
fervent prayer of, Dear Sir, Yours truly, 

A Member. 



ABOLITION OF WAR. 

The follomng Petition has been recently presented from the Peace Society. — 

To the Honorable the Commons of Great Britain and Ireland, in Parliament 
assembled : — 

The Humble Petition of the Committee of the London Peace Society. 

SHEWETH— 

That your Petitioners are fully of opinion that War^ upon whatever 
pretext it is engaged in, is inconsistent with the spirit of Christianity, and the 
true interests of mankind , and that the practice of having recourse to arms for 
tiie purpose of settling disputes, cannot but be displeasing to Almighty God ; 
whilst it is fraught with unnumbered evils to all parties connected with it, and is 
altogether unavailing for the equitable adjustment of such disputes. 

That your Petitioners do consequently regard the existence of laige 
mflitary establishments as an evil on all accounts to be deprecated by every lover 
of Peace and Good Government ; and as repugnant to the free spirit of the 
British Constitution. 

Your Petitioners do therefore pra^ your Honorable House, that there 
may be no increase whatever made to the existing Military Establishments of the 
Empire : and that your Honorable House will take into their most serious con- 
sideration, the propriety of immediately adopting such measures, as may, by your 
Honorable House, be deemed most suitable and effective for removing the 
fearful temptation to War, which such Establishments present : and — 

Your Petitioners are the more encouraged to uige this upon the attention 
of your Honorable House, because, in common with their fellow-subjects at 
large, they have received with unfeigned satisfaction, the confident announcement 
made from the Throne at the opening of the present Session of Parliament, 
that " the general peace, so necessary for the happiness and prosperity of all 
nations," is expected to '* continue uninterrupted.* And your Petitioners will 
ever pray, &c. 



166 



RELIGIOUS INTELLIGENCE. 



ANTISTATE CHURCH CON- 
FERENCE. 

From an advertisement, which appears 
on our cover, our readers will learn, 
that a Conference is to be held of per- 
sons opposed to the state establish- 
ment of religion, with a view to the 
adoption of legitimate measures for dif- 
fusing information on this important 
subject, and produiung a general con- 
viction of the necessity of the dissolu- 
tion of the impious and unscriptural 
alliance of the church with the state. 
This is a most important movement, 
and will require to be conducted with 
much wisdom, so as not to injure, 
but advance the real interests of reli- 
gion. The separation of the church 
from the state would necessarily include 
the abolition of all compulsory pay- 
ments on account of religion — the 
abolition of the dominancy now exer- 
cised by one sect over the other sections 
of the church, and the consequent 
prevention of that profanity which now 
results from the unholy union of church 
and state. 

We hope that the Conference will be 
numerously attended. As nearly all the 
members of the Wesleyan Association 
are opposed to state church establish- 
mentSj it may be expected that repre- 
sentatives will be sent from many of 
our churches or congregations to attend 
the Conference. Dr. Wardlaw, of 
Glasgow, and severalother distinguished 
men will prepare important documents 
to be read at the Conference. 



GOSPORT. 

To THE Editor, — Dear Sir, 

It is with feelings of unmingled plea- 
sure that I sit down to write to you 
in reference to the improving condition 
of our Society in this place. When I 
came to it in August last, its aspect 
was very unsatisfactory — a state of Ian- 
gour and inactivity almost universally 
prevailed, yet it was obvious, from the 
situation of our chapel, the character 
of its neighbourhood, and the persons 
of whom our Society was composed » 
that all that was required to give 
stability to our cause and to ensure 
success, was a spirit of deep and active 
piety in the church, uniting its energies 



with a faithful and affectionate ministry 
of God's Word. To promote this 
spirit, I embraced the earliest oppor- 
tunity of enforcing upon the members 
of our Society, the necessity of 
renewed and unreserved devotedness 
to (iod, and of soliciting their untir- 
ing co-operation with me, in endea- 
vouring to promote a revival of reli- 
gion amongst us. I also collected 
together the young people in our con- 
gregation, and formed them into a pre- 
paratory class, which I took under my 
own care ; and as soon as I could as- 
certain where the members resided^ I 
commenced a course of pastoral visi- 
tation—hoping that by tuis means, in 
connexion with a diligent attention 
to my other duties, I should be enabled 
to secure the object I so much desired. 
But what I felt, as month after month 
rolled away without any visible indica- 
tion of good, beyond a gradual increase 
of our congregation, I need not attempt 
to describe. At length, however, the 
dawning of a brighter day appeared— 
"the time to favour Zion came — 
the church began to shake off her 
lethargy, and to make arrangements 
for a general and united effort to obtain 
a greater measure of the Holy Spirit's 
influence ; a series of protracted meet- 
ings were convened, at which pointed 
addresses were delivered, and powerful 
and effectual prayer offered— God heard 
and answered — the effect soon became 
visible. First one was led to cry for 
mercy — then another — then several, 
and so on, until within the last six 
weeks not fewer than forty- three per- 
sons have been brought into a state 
of salvation, through faith in our Lord 
Jesus Christ; beside whom two or 
three backsliders have been restored, 
and others who had lost the evidence 
of their acceptance have had it re- 
newed. I am happy to say this work 
is still going on — every night our vestry 
is filled, and scarcely an evening pas- 
ses without some manifestation of the 
power of saving grace. O that our 
most enlarged desire may be speedily 
granted, that every house in this guilty 
town may become a house of praver, 
and every heart a temple for the Holy 
One. I hope I have not, by giving 
this account, exposed myself to egot- 
ism, my object being only to show 
the necessity of united effort in carry- 



Beligious Intelligence. 



167 



ing on the work of God. I am aware 
that much may be done by individual 
exertion. I also readily admit that 
the church has a right to expect her 
ministers to be active, diligent and per- 
severing, but I cannot forbear thinking, 
that many persons are in error in refer- 
ence to the amount of good a minister 
can effect ; they think him capable of 
doing evei^thing, and hence they expect 
him to do it while they take their ease, 
and complain if everjrthing is not done 
to their mind. This is an error which 
ought to be corrected ; the fact is, no 
one roan, however gifted, can reasonably 
be expected to accomplish much, unless 
he ^assisted and encouraged bv those 
with whom he is associated in the 
church — even the apostles themselves 
sought assistance and encouragement 
from the members of the church ; how 
much more then do their successors in 
the ministry feel their need of the co- 
operation of their brethren. The work 
in which we are engaged is one of 
transcendent importance— but it is the 
work of the whole church. May we 
•11 fed our reapoiuibUityy and rightly 
apply the facilities with which we are 
favoured to the end for which they are 
afforded, that God may be glorified 
both in us and by us for his name 
sake. 

G. Chesson. 



DARLINGTON CIRCUIT. 
On Wednesday, the Idth inst. the 
foundation stone of a new Wesleyan 
Methodist Association Chapel was laid 
at Bishop Auckland, in the presence of 
a considerable number of persons, who 
bad assembled to witness this inter- 
esting ceremony. After singing and 
prayer, appropriate addresses were 
delivered bv Messrs. J. Kipling and J. 
Harley, and the service was concluded 
in the usual manner. From the com- 
mencement of our cause in this place 
we have had to struggle with difficul- 
ties, owing principally to the want of 
suitable accommodation for public wor- 
ship. Ineffectual efforts have been 
made, at different times, to purchase 
a site for the erection of a chapel, but 
at last a plot^ of ground has been 
secured, which is generally allowed to 
be more eligible than any other hitherto 
thought of. It is in a locality where 
a school and chapel are the most 
needed, and where they are likely to 
prove a great blessing to the town. 



The dimensions of the chapel will be 
twelve yards by fourteen inside, and 
will seat from 300 to 400 persons. 
March, 1844. T. Townend. 



REDDITCH. 

To THE Editor.— Dear Sir— To 
the praise, and glory, and honour of 
God, I write to inform you of our once 
fallen Zion being raised ; glory to God ! 
it has not been in vain that his people 
have prayed, " Peace be within her 
wallsand prosperity within herpalaces. " 
In answer to our mutual and effectual 
intercessions, God has manifested bis 
goodness, by building up our waste 
places, and restoring to us paths to 
dwell in, making some who were dead 
in sin to become living stones in 
the spiritual temple of our God ; these, 
I trust, will ever be as corner stones, 
polished after the similitude of palaces, 
or as pillars in God's house, never to 
go out any more. During the last 
three months, eighteen have been added, 
to the Society here, to God be all the 
praise ; for it has not been by might, 
nor by power, but by the Spirit of the 
Lord of Hosts. We are still praying 
and believing for greater things, and 
have strong grounds to expect, as great 
union and concord prevails in the church, 
that our prayers will be answered. I 
will just add, that there is a mistake in 
the * Minutes ' as to our numbers, which 
I should like to correct. In addition to 
thirty full members, there have been 
put down twenty on trial, whereas we 
then had not one on trial; under the 
head ' on trial ' I put a cypher ; how 
the mistake occurred I cannot say. 
Wm. Mackenny. 

March, 1844. 



ROCHDALE. 

The anniversary sermons of Baillie 
Street chapel were preached on Sunday, 
the 1 1th of February; in the forenoon 
by Mr. D. Rowland, of Liverpool, and 
in the evening by Mr. R. Eckett, of 
London. This commodious place of 
worship is ninety feet long, and seventy- 
two feet wide, with galleries all round ; 
there is, under the chapel, a spacious 
school room, vestries, and other con- 
venient appendages. It was opened for 
Divine worship in January, 1836, and 
was subsequently enlarged, by raising 



163 



Obituary — Poetry, 



the walls and introducing galleries. 
The total cost was £6,200, towards 
which £2,457 was raised in £\ shares. 
It was soon found that the sharehold- 
ing plan was attended with great incon- 
venience, and it was, therefore, resolved 
to make an effort to get the property 
secured to the use of the Society, by 
having it properly vested upon suitable 
trusts. A subscription was accordingly 
entered into for thii purpose, amount- 
ing* to £1,400. The Connexional 
** Chapel Trust Model Deed " was care- 
fully examined, and after mature deli- 
beration, the trustees decided on its 
adoption, believing that it will effec- 
tually secure the chapel for the use of 



the Society for ever, and guarantee the 
purity and soundness of the doctrines 
to be taught therein. 

On the shareholding plan no appeal 
could be made to the public in support 
of the chapel, and it was then considered 
merelv as private property, not having 
any claim on their Christian sympathv. 
This objection no longer existing, tne 
poorest members of the congregation 
have now an opportunity of shewing 
their attachment to the bouse of God, 
bv contributing according to their 
ability towards its support. The col- 
lections made on this occasion proved 
that thev were not slow to avail them- 
selves ot this privilege. 



OBITUARY. 



Died at Eccleshill, in the Bradford 
circuit, on the 17th of December, 1843. 
Martha, daughter of William and 
Phoebe, Houldtworth, About the year 
1832, by the death of a beloved sister, 
she was awakened to a sense of her 
danger, and continued to seek sal 
vation until the spring of 1834, when 
she obtained the liberty of the children 
of God. The happy evidence of which 
she held fast until mortality was swal- 
lowed up in life. 

Soon after the Wesleyan Methodist 
Association visited Eccleshill, she. with 
her father and some others, left the 
Conference Connexion and joined the 
Association. From the time of her 
conversion she adorned the doctrine of 
the Saviour, b;^ her exemplary conduct 
and conversation. Another pleasing 
trait in her character was, her unabat- 
ed attachment to the Lord's house, 
and the means of grace in general. 
Even when her health became so deli- 



cate that she could scarcely walk, she 
was frequently seen, pale and care- worn, 
holding her sides with her hands in the 
house of prayer, by reason of pain from 
exhaustion. During her last affliction, 
which after eleven weeks terminated 
her earthly pilgrimage, she was often 
heard to express her unshaken con- 
fidence in her heavenly Father, and to 
praise him that the fear of death was 
taken away; and that she knew, **That 
for her to live was Christ, but to die 
would be gain." In this peaceful state 
of mind she continued till the above- 
named Lord's day, when she exchanged 
this world of sorrow for the heaven of 
endless bliss. The event was improved 
to a large and deeply attentive congre- 
gation, from ** Write, blessed are the 
dead which die in the Lord from hence- 
forth ; Yea, saith the Spirit, that they 
may rest from their labours." Rev. 
xiv, 13. 

J. Edgar. 



POETRY. 
THE NEGROES' PETITION. 



Hark 1 I beard a wUb, a ti^h, 
Stronger, loader, is the cry : 
Christiaiis listen, I declare, 
*Tis the negroes* humble prayer. 

Lo 1 In darkncM here we lay, 
Lo t we haate the downward way : 
None can teach us here to love, 
God, the only Ood above. 

We have beard that Christians praise, 
Ood, the giver of all grace : 
Vfe have heard that Christians love, 
God, the only God above. 
Mankinboles. 



We would love great God as they, 
We would sing, and praise, and pray. 
We would love our Jesus too. 
We would love as Christians do. 

But alas I there's none to show, 
Humble negro how to do : 
Christians, send the white man here. 
For to teach us what we bear. 

You have bread enough to spare, 
Hear the negroes humble prayer. 
Now in pity, do bestow 
But a crumb on poor negro. 

GULIELMUS. 



T. C. JOHNS, PRINTER, R«d Lion Court. PImi 8trMt. 



THE 

WESLEY AN METHODIST ASSOCIATION 

MAGAZINE. 



MAY, 1844. 



MEMOIR OF THE LATE MRS. SIGSTON, 

By Mr. James Rawson, Chaplain of the Leeds Cemetery, and formerly 
one of Mr, Sigston^s pupils. 

The late beloved \vife of Mr. James Sigston, of Leeds, was the 
daughter of Mr. Joseph Teale, of that town. From early life she 
was distinguished by unusual gravity and propriety of deportment. 
One, who was her schoolfellow, says : " She was not like most young 
persons, but was indifferent to the levities and frivolities in which so 
many delight.*' It was at this time that she formed and cultivated 
those habits of diligence, economy, and regularity, which all, who 
were acquainted with her, knew her so eminently to possess. 

Her conversion to God occurred when she was about seventeen 
years of age. A sermon preached in the parish Church, Leeds, by 
Mr. Porter, curate of St. Paul's, from James iv. 13 — 15, was the 
means of awakening her mind, and bringing her to the feet of 
Christ. The change wrought in her by the Spirit of God was most 
decisive. She was deeply convinced of the evil of the vanities of 
the world, and resolved to make every required sacrifice for Christ. 
She began to attend the private meetings conducted by Mr. Miles 
Atkinson and his curate. It now became her delight to associate 
herself with the people of God, and to participate of the privileges 
of the sanctuary ; and so intense was her anxiety to enjoy the 
means of grace, that she frequently obtained permission to remain, 
locked up in the church, at the conclusion of the afternoon's service, 
sometimes without any light; and after partaking of her simple 
repast of bread and milk, would earnestly and devoutly wait for the 
evening lecture. 

In the year 1799, she joined the Methodist Society, and with holy 
ardour and sacred joy took upon herself the solenm responsibilities 
of a public Christian profession. The means of grace were, indeed, 
at this time, wells of salvation. She regularly attended the preach- 
ing and prayer-meeting held at five o'clock in the morning, and 
thought no sacrifice too great, in order that she mi^bt b^ y^^'^^tA. 



170 Memoir of tfte UUe Mrs. Sigston, 

on those hallowed occasions — with the royal Psalmist she could say, 
" I was glad when they said unto me, let us go into the house 
of the Lord/' She coidd appeal to him who searcheth the heart, 
" Lord, I have loved the habitation of thy house, and the place 
where thine honour dwelleth." 

On the 14th of January, in tjie year 1800, she entered into the 
marriage state with "Mr. Sigston, who now survives and mourns 
the loss occasioned by her death. In the various relations of life, 
which she was called to occupy, she conducted herself with that 
prudent and conscientious propriety which has seldom been equalled, 
and never surpassed. As a wife, a mother, a matron of a large 
seminary for the education of young gentlemen, too much cannot 
be said of her. Knowing the importance of religion herself, she 
panted to communicate its blessings to the members of her family, 
and to all within the sphere of her influence. 

The following fact is a pleasing illustration of her ardent desire 
for the conversion of her own c)iildren, — when one of her sons was 
going from home, before he left, she selected passages of Scripture 
which she wrote on slips of paper, and placed in various articles of 
his wearing appiarel, fondly hoping that whilst removed from the 
restraints of the domestic roof, the words of eternal truth might 
impress his mind, and be brought home to his conscience, and heart ; 
truly is it said, " Blessed are ye that sow beside all waters." 
* By the kind providence of God, she had the privilege of close 
and intimate intercourse with some of the most devoted and exem- 
plary Christians of her day; such as Miss Kitchie, Mrs. Crosby, 
Miss T^pp, Mris. Baiston/&c.,; and with exquisite delight, and true 
tohiistian hospitality she entertained, under her roof, some of the 
most distinguished ahd holy presLchers of the Methodist body ; 
among whom may be mentioned, Messrs. Bramwell, Nelson, George 
Smith, David Stoner, and John Smith. " The memory of the just 
is bles8ed,"-*-and these are names embalmed in the remembrance 
and hearts ' of all who knfew them. She grayed with them, she 
j^raised with them, she rejoiced with them, she wept with them on 
earth, and now they have welcomed her to their blest society 
above. 

Bl^e was Inost devoted in her efforts to convey religious instruction 
to the minds of this pupils of her husband's establishment ; and she 
did hot labour in vdin. The Sabbath evening was often a season of 
holy ahd solemn impression. After the public services of the day, the 
interesting diarge committed to the care of her beloved partner, were 
assembled, isind' she would, with him, and the pious teachers, advise, 
chtreat, and beseech them to turti to God, and surrender their early 
laffectioiis to the blessed Jesus. ' The Word was often accompanied 
witH Divine unction — many a youiig heart was powerfully impressed — 
the deqp sigh l^eaved the bosom— the tear of godly^sorrow for the 
fif St tihie was shed — ahd the feager cry was teard, '* What must 
t dc^?"'— .'and 80taetlmes''aftef* they had retired, she was delightMly 
employed in standing over their beds, telling them of the power and 
IVilHii^ess of Christ to save. Many oh earth, now occupying im- 
MiHsnt 'stations in the church of Chidst, do refer, and many in 



Memoir of the kUe Mrs, Sigetan. 171 

heaven ivUl, through eternity, refer to her active and holy zeal, with 
unspeakable gratitude and joy, and acknowledge her as the honoured 
instrument from whom they received spiritual instruction. 

And, oh! if there are any whom she exhorted and warned, but 
hitherto in vain, may they, whilst perusing this imperfect sketch, 
be induced to recal her pious admonitions, and tender appeals ; and 
return to the Lord God, against whom they have so greatly revolted. 
Qod forbid that she should appear as a swift witness against any ! 

Exemption from trials is not permitted to the peoplo of God; 
the truth of this she was called to realize, having had to gj through 
much tribulation. Her bodily sufferings were severe, and of a long 
protracted duration ; consisting of frequently returning paroxysms of 
spasmodic affection: but as her sufferings abounded, so her con- 
solations did much more abound. 

Por many years she had not a doubt of her interest in Christ ; 
and that confidence in God which distinguished the various stages 
of her life, supported her during the pains of her disorder, and the 
approach of the last enemy. She had long cast her anchor within 
the veil, which she found to be sure and stedfast ; and with Paul 
the aged, she could say, ^'Henceforth there is laid up for me a 
crown of righteousness, which the Lord, the righteous Judge, shall 
give me at that day." 

When her body was feeble, decaying, and sinking, her mind was 
as vigorous, active, and cheerful as ever. Detached portions of 
Scripture and of sacred poetry were constantly on her thoughts, 
and on her tongue. On one occasion Mr. Sigston repeated the fol- 
lowii^ first line of a verse of one of the Wesleyan hymns : — 

** There all the ship's company meet/* 

When she instantly added,— 

** Who 6ail*d with their Saviour beneath, 

And repeated the remainder of the verse. 

On the afternoon previous to her death she exclaimed, *^ The Lord 
is good in a dying hour — I have known him a long time, upwards 
of forty years." Her nephew, Mr. Thomas Teale, called to see her, 
and on taking her leave of him, she said, " If I don't see you again 
on earth, I hope to meet you and all your family in heaven." 

At another time looking most affectionately towards her husband, 
and no doubt, anticipating what he might have to endure after her 
departure, she told him that when she should be gone, he would 
be " as a sparrow upon the house top." The night before her de- 
parture, she requested him to pray that she might have an easy 
idmission into the mansions of blessedness ; after which she told 
him, that he would soon follow her, and that she would welcome 
him into glory, adding, with peculiar emphasis, " Be thou faithful 
unto death." 

On Tuesday night, the 8th of February, she was rapidly sinking, 
and it became evident that the time of her dissolution was near; 



172 Memoir of the late Mrs, Sigston, 

but her spirit was composed, placid, and happy ; not a feature in 
her expressive and lovely countenance appeared to be disturbed— the 
glance of her bright eye still retained its vigour, even to the last 
moment of her earthly existence. She was indeed, in the dark valley, 
but the good Shepherd was with her, to hush every fear, to cheer 
her with his presence, and to give her a foretaste of the glory just 
about to be revealed. Surrounded by her dearest earthly friend, 
and her weeping family, her happy spirit left its tenement of clay, 
to mingle with the spirits before the throne, at half-past five o'clock, 
on Wednesday morning, the 9th of February, 1842, in the sixty- 
sixth year of her age. 

On the following Sabbath, her remains were interred in the Leeds' 
Cemetery, in the presence of a large concourse of sorrowing relatives 
and Christian friends. The mournful service was conducted by Mr. 
James Rawson, chaplain of the Cemetery, and on the Lord's Day, 
Feb. 20th, the same gentleman improved the solemn event in the 
Wesleyan Methodist Association Chapel, Lady Lane, from the words, 
"Who hath abolished death." Let me die the death of the 
righteous, and let my last end be like liers ! 

The following sketch, of the distinguishing traits of her character, 
is from the pen of him who was long and most intimately favoured 
with her society— and it is hoped that many will be induced not only 
to admire, but also to imitate her excellencies. 

1. Neatness and cleanliness. When a child she manifested 
a dislike to finery in dress. Cleanliness and neatness were then 
strictly attended to by her ; and when she arrived at years of 
maturity, the same peculiarities were conspicuous, not only in her 
dress, but in every thing in her house. Indeed, some have thought 
that she carried these matters to an extreme; in proof, however, 
that they were perfectly natural to her, they were attended to by her 
to the very last : after taking her food, or her medicines, and when 
so weak that she had scarcely strength to put the bed clothes in 
order, she would point with her delicate fingers, and thus intimate to 
her attendants what she wished to have done. 

2. Punctuality. When a girl she was remarkably punctual in 
her attendance at school, unless lawfully detained, she was always 
in her place, at the time appointed. When she grew up it was an 
invariable rule with her to be punctual in all her engagements. If 
she had to call upon any one, at a certain hour, she was sure to be 
there by, and generally before, the time appointed. When she had 
to take a journey, and to go by an early coach, on the previous 
evening, she made every needful arrangement ; and it is not known 
that for upwards of fifty years, she was ever once too late. When 
she had the domestic superintendence of a family, of from forty to 
fifty persons, she would have every meal precisely at the time 
appointed ; she would be in her place in the dining room, waiting 
for the moment when the bell was to ring ; and every servant, as 
well as all the teachers and young gentlemen knew that they were 
expected to be there at the proper time. 

3. Eakly kisino. For many years, whilst in pretty good health, 
(Bhe was seldom more than seven out of twenty-four hours in bed. 



Memoir of the laie Mrs, Sigsion, 173 

She regularly attended the prayer meeting and preaching in the 
vestry of the Old Methodist Chapel, Leeds, at five o'clock in the 
morning, which she found very profitable : on those occasions she 
was often edified in hearing some of the Old Methodist preachers, 
such as Messrs. Mather, Pawson, Benson, and others, with whom, no 
doubt, she is now associated in worshipping before the throne in 
glory. 

4. Diligence. She was never known to be idle, constantly doing 
something and generally that which was useful : " Whatsoever thy 
hand findeth to do, do it with thy might. Be diligent in business, 
fervent in spirit, serving the Lord," appeared to be written on the 
fleshly table of her heart. Often in company, whilst otheis were 
talking around her, she was busily employed with her needle ; and 
the remark was frequently made, " Mrs. Sigston, you are always 
busy." When her children were young, she has been known sewing 
for them soon after four o'clock in the morning. It was almost 
miraculous, considering her delicate frame, that she sustained such 
arduous exertions for so long a period. 

5. Pekseverance. Whatever she undertook, she resolved to per- 
form. When attempting any thing very difficult, if for sometime 
unable to accomplish it, she would not, like too many, give it up in 
despair ; but would try again, and again, till at length she succeeded. 
Mr. Bramwell, who for many years was her guest when he visited 
Leeds, had carefully observed this trait in Mrs. Sigston. On one 
occasion, whilst in his presence, she was endeavouring to do some- 
thing very difficult, one in the company who perceived it, remarked, 
Mrs. Sigston you had better give it up, she however still persevered, 
and Mr. Bramwell said, " No, no, that would not be like Mrs. 
Sigston." 

6. Tempebance. She never took much animal food, and from 
a child she seldom drank any beverage, but water ; it is therefore, 
probable, that she was a Teetotaler for above half a century. When the 
Teetotal Society was formed in Leeds, she was glad to have her name 
enrolled on its list ; and when able, she was delighted to accompany 
their public procession through the town. Considering her delicate 
frame, and having been often threatened with consumption, it is 
probable that one cause of her being spared so many years was, her 
regular and undeviating practice of temperance. 

7. BenevoIiENCe. She was indeed a well-wisher to every member 
of the human family. Whilst in competent health and circumstances, 
she administered relief to many of her needy fellow-creatures ; some 
were regular pensioners, and others received occasional proofs of her 
kind and benevolent spirit : nothing was more pleasing to her than 
to minister to the necessities of the poor : she was, indeed, a cheerful 
giver ; and had her means been equal to her liberal spirit, like Job, 
she would have been eyes to the blind, and feet to the lame, and 
would have caused the widow's heart to sing for joy. Such were 
her tenderness and sympathy, that it was very painful for her to meet 
any object of distress in the street, if she had not the means of 
affording relief : and on some occasions, she would give articles from 
her own wardrobe to clothe poor distressed females. 



1 74 Memoir of the late'^Mrs. Sigston, 

8. FoBGiviNG spiKiT. Whatever any one had done to oflfend her, 
and however aggravated the nature of the oflfence might be, if there 
was the least appearance of repentance, she was always ready to 
forgive ; she could indeed, as her Saviour had commanded, forgive, 
not only " imtil seven times, but until seventy times seven J^ 

9. Resignation to the divine will. During a sojourn upon 
earth of upwards of sixty years, she had occasionally to drink of 
the cup of sorrow; like many others she was bereaved of lovely 
children, kind parents, and other relatives and friends ; and for 
several years she suffered much from an asthmatical complaint ; and 
during the whole of those afflictive dispensations, she manifested a 
truly Christian spirit, was resigned to the will of her heavenly 
Father, and was ever ready to exclaim with one of old, " Shall we 
receive good at the hand of God, and shall we not receive evil ; the 
Lord gave, and the Lord hath taken away, blessed be the name of 
the Lord :" and, no doubt, with the Psalmist she could say, " It is 
good for me that I have been afflicted." On beholding the eidiibition 
of Divine grace in circumstances so afflictive, we are ready to 
exclaim with Dr. Young : — 

'* Affliction is the good man*s shining scene ; 
Prosperity conceals bis brightest ray. 
As night to stars, woe lustre gives to man.*' 

The following words are thought to be strikingly descriptive of 
this mother in Israel :— 

*' Grace was in all her steps, heaven in her eye, 
In all her gestures dignity and love." 

. This Memoir may be appropriately concluded by the following 
verses, on " The Death of a Christian " : — 

'* She*s gone, and the grave hath received her, 
*Twas Jesus who call'd her away ; 
She's gone to the Lord who redeem'd her, 
From night to the splendour of day. 

She's gone, but we will not deplore her — 

Then weep not, ye friends left behind ; 
She's gone, but we would not restore her 

'Mong the halt, and the maim'd, and the blind. 

She's gone, where the blessed around her. 

Are singing the praise of the Lamb ; 
She's gone, where all tongues rejoice o'er her, 

Surrounding the mighty I Am !" 



175 .... .-. 

MEfMOIR OF MISS MARGARET PLACE, \l 

By Mr. Robert. Ht^la. . 

Marqarst Flags was Iwm in the village of, West Bradfoni* near 

Clitlieroe. Yorkslure, in the year of our Lord, 1802. . hx childhood abe 

was xemarkali^ for her obedience patience^ and. resignation. Hsr 

parents were in very humble cir<niiBstaQces ; and having a familj! of 

childrea .to provide fpr, out of a. very limited income* they :therefere 

were not: enabled to give her any education. Thus probably she t^wbHA 

have remained .devoid of one of the greatest blessings. .we enjoy, ob 

earth, had it not been for the mercy and wonderful prayidence ,o£ ..God^ 

in directing a few pious and laborious Methodists, to the neighbourhoaii 

in which she lived, to establish a jBabbajfck school. There gkxwed « 

flame of heavenly love, inspired with Divine ardoun. within the breasts 

of these holy* deyoted, benevolent, and philanthropic -mea, - Having 

felt and experienced the goodness of ,Gud in the atxwement made by 

Christ Jesus, they were led to devise means which they conceived waie 

best calealated to make others partakers of the blessing they enjoyed. - 

Sbe was naturally of a mild and arable disposition ; simple, teacbi^ 
able, and meek. • Her punctuality in attendance, and diligence when A 
school, soon gained her the notice and particular esteem of her toachtrs. 
The school was in truth her delight*. Possessed of 4 willing mind atid 
retentive memory, she made surprising progress in the rudiments of 
learning-^progressing with; rapidity from class to class, until she couldy 
without difficulty, read with fluency the Holy Scriptures. Occasionally 
when her teachers commented upon what was read, she w6nld listen 
with intense earnestness to the remarks they made, treasure thein up 
in her heart, and when at home would .repeat to her parents tl^ 
delightful things she had heard. => r 

In early life she bore marks of the Almighty 'i teaching ; and fCasja 
pattern worthy of imitation. In conversation she spoke with the 
artless, unaffected simplicity of a child, yet ^ith ;.the <j^ept thoughtful 
seriousness of an older, and experienced Christian* Her countenance, 
invariably, was beautified with lovely and interesting affections, whidi 
spoke far more nowerfuUy to the heart than the Janguage which lell 
from her lips. Neither the disadvantages of poverty, nor the inexpert^ 
ence of childhood, are impregnable or insurmountable barriers to the 
operations of the Spirit of God. This ^ was evident in the case of 
Margaret. About the age of fourteen she became a member of the 
Methodist Society, and ever after was. an ornament to the cause of 
God — an example to his people — an exemplary Christian, and an affec- 
tionate and ■ dutiful daughter.. . When she first met in class, ishe knew 
and fielt herself to be a lost and undone sinner; "by nature: a child of 
wrath, an heir of hell,'' even as others. Sh^ heard with marked 
attention the pathetic narratives of. her class-^mates^; stating how God, 
for Christ's sake had, T)artioned their sins— waihed thpto in^tke atotk- 
ing " blood of the Lamb "• — made them the happy ^recipients of his *'ir^'e 
grace'^'r— by giving them the knowledge of their tu»septaneiMrith'G<)4, the 



176 Memoir of the late Miss Margaret Place. 

" Spirit bearing witness with theirs that they were bom again/' These 
were subjects which her wounded soul loved to hear of ; and she most 
earnestly desired to be brought into possession of the enjoyments of 
the children of God. She prayed, " O God, teach me presently, and 
effectually how to obtain the forgiveness of my sins, and be made the 
inheritor of thy favour." She rested not, nor would she rest until 
she found it in the wounds of her Redeemer. God was pleased to 
answer her prayers, and in a " still small voice," spoke to her troubled 
heart, " peace! " this had an influence on her ruffled feelings, like the 
voice of Christ had on the stormy sea; " straitway there was a calm." 
Former anxieties were no longer felt, uneasy apprehensions vanished; 
soothing hopes, delightful anticipations were done the joyful inha- 
bitants of her bosom. This change was not the sudden work of a 
moment, as is the case with some, but gradual and progressive con- 
fidence increased, as faith expanded ; until her overwhelmed soul burst 
forth in language of thanksgiving and praise. 

The class meeting to her was a highly valued means of grace ; by 
her regular attendance, and serious devotion, she made a deep impres- 
sion on all around, and evidenced the good she received. Her leader, 
Mr. John Fox, has written the following testimony concerning her. 
" I have been acquainted with Margaret Place about eleven or twelve 
years, and she met in class with me the greatest part of that time ; and 
from the intimate acquaintance I have had with her, I feel assured 
she was a subject of the saving grace of God ; and without anything 
like flattery, I hesitate not to say, that she was a pattern of piety 
worthy the imitation of many professors who make greater pretensions 
to religion than what she did. In her there were no fits and starts, but 
a constant, even, steady moving onwards in the way to heaven. The 
religion she possessed was particularly exhibited in the regard she had 
for the characters of others. T do not remember, in all my acquaint- 
ance with her, that she ever said, directly or indirectly, anything which 
would militate against the characters of others; but she invariably 
made it the rule of her conduct, if she had nothing good to say of a 
person, she would remain silent. Another trait in her character, which 
I consider as decisive of the genuineness of her piety, was the humble 
views she entertained of herself; although her piety was of the '.most 
genuine stamp. In relating her experience, she constantly expressed 
the most humiliating views of herself, and was ready to say with the 
poet, — 

' I loathe myself when God I see, 

And into nothing fall ; 
Content if thou exalted be, 

And Christ be all in all.* '' 

Another proof of the genuineness of her piety was her constant love 
of peace ; whatever tumult arose, she would, almost, do and sufiTer any- 
thing if peace could be restored. I must say that her equal in many 
respects I have not seen. She was, in my view, a real ornament to the 
cause of Christ ; and attended particularly to the apostle's injunction, 
" Be not conformed to the world." Although she did not make a con* 
spicttous figure in the church, and by those who judge from outward 



Memoir of the late Miss Margaret Place. 177 

appearances^ might have been overlooked, yet her adorning was that of 
'< a meek and quiet spirit, which, in the sight of God, is of great price.'* 
£arl7 after her conversion she became a teacher in the Sabbath school, 
where for many years she continued a zealous and indefatigable labourer. 
She studied not only to teach the tender mind the letter of God's law, 
but also to rivet on the heart its inward and spiritual meaning. In the 
language of Thomson it was her — 

''Delightful task to rear the tender thought. 
And teach the young idea how to shoot ;** 

And stamp upon the memory a sacred clue to find the Crucified. In 
the course of a few years her father removed to Clitheroe, low-Moor. 
This was a great trial to Margaret, as well as others of the family, some 
of whom had become members of the Methodist Society. She felt it 
deeply to separate from those she loved, with whom she held sweet 
converse, her fellow pilgrims to the skies, to whom she was knit by 
Christian fellowship and love, delighting to mingle with them her 
praises and her prayers. She, however, submitted to this trial with 
her usual fortitude, raising her drooping spirits by looking forward to 
that period when she would for ever have done with this changing 
scene, and be safe landed in that place where there shall be no more 
separation. After her removal, she joined the people of God in 
CUtheroe. Here she had to bear the rod of affliction, and was, for 
many weeks and months, deprived of the means of grace. This added 
a new trial ; for the house of God and his people were the delight of 
her soul. • It was in CUtheroe that she joined the Wesley an Methodist 
Association, of which she, afterwards always spoke in the highest terms, 
and, continued a member until her death. After a few years she was 
again called to a new scene of action. Her parents removed to Far- 
rington, in the Preston circuit, whither she went with them. Shortly 
after their arrival it pleased the Almighty to remove her father from 
this world of difficulty. The grace of God enabled her, with the rest 
of the family, to bear up under this bereavement with calmness and 
resignation. After this event the health of our sister began rapidly 
to declincy but was for some time very fluctuating. At times she was 
led to desire health in order that she might be a staff for her mother 
to rest on in declining years, but such was not the will of God. 

In June, 1843, she was very weak, and compelled to refrain from 
labour altogether. In the course of a few days she appeared rapidly 
to regain her wonted strength, and was able to resume her general em- 
plo3nanent: this sudden change was marked by all around her with 
delight and satisfaction, but alas ; their newly kindled hopes were born 
only to perish as soon as conceived. How frail is mortality ; and how 
slow we are to learn that " in the midst of life we are in death." 
Under the multipUed changes, and vicissitudes of her illness, this beloved 
sufferer had upon her heart and lips, ** not my will, but thine be 
done." A smile of cheerful submission ever irradiated her countenance ; 
no murmur escaped from her lips ; neither the loss of appetite, the 
decay of strength, nor the wasting of disease, could break the calm, 
peaceful and settled composure of her mind. Languid days, and rest- 



178 On Entire SancHfioation. 

less nights were htv portion ; still shie repined not ; but looked forward 
in eager anticipation to the time, when the conflict would be over, and 
the battle won. The Rev. Charles Edwards frequently called to see 
her, and was much pleased to find her so happy ; willmg to do and 
suffer, that which the Almighty was pleased in his providence to appoint. 
During my visits I have been often deeply impressed with the power of 
religion, and the effects of Divine grace- upon her heart ; in the most 
trying moments, not the least impatience was visible. I once asked 
her ** Does not your affliction require a great deal of patience ?" Her im- 
mediate reply was, *• Yes I but it will soon be over." On Saturday, Aug. 
12th, I called to see her, and asked her, **How do you feel ? " she an- 
swered •• a little better." This was the last time I saw her aKve. I little 
thought then, nor did the family think, she Was so near the termination 
of her earthly sojourn. Sunday and Monday passed without any visible 
alteration taking place. On Monday night, her two sistera accom- 
panied her to the bed room ; upon leaving which they thought her 
breathing to be somewhat quicker. Early in the morning her aister 
gave her something warm to drink, of which she partook a little, hxA 
composed herself to rest again — it was an endless rest, begun on eortl^ 
to be consummated in heaven. Between the' hours of seven and eigh^ 
her mother entered the room, she appeared to be sleeping, ber coan^ 
tenance placid and unaltered — ^but it was the sleep of death— ^the vital 
spark had burst asunder its mortal bonds, and fled to mingle with 
happy spirits, in immortality. ' ^ 

Thus lived and died Mafgliret Place, showing in her life the advan- 
tages of religion, and in her death its peaceful tranquillity. The Ren 
Charles Edv\^ards, our esteemed minister, improved her death to a large 
and attentive congregation from Isaiah xl. 6 — 8, •' The voice said, cry, 
and he said, what shall I cry ? all flesh is grass ; and all the eoodlineis 
thereof is as the flower of the field : the grass withereth, the flower 
fadeth, because the Spirit of the Lord bloweth upoti it. Surely the 
people is grass, the grass Withereth, the flower fadeth ; but the word of 
our God shall endure for ever." 



ON ENTIRE SANCTIFICATION. 

The attainableness of such a state is not so much a matter of de- 
bate among Christians, as the time when we are authorized to ezpe^ot 
it. For as it is an axiom of Christian doctrine, that *' without holiness 
no man can see the Lord," and is equally clear that if w(6 would " bfe 
found of him in peace,** we must be found *• without spot and blameless,*^* 
and that the church will be presented by Christ to the Father without 
"feult," so it must be concluded; unless, on the one hand, we greatly 
pervert the sense of these passages, or, on the other, admit the doctrine 
of purgatory, or some intermediate purifying institution, that the entire 
sanctification of the soul, and its complete renewal in holiness, must 
take place in this world. 

While this is generally acknowledged, however, among spiritual 



On Entire Sandification^ 179 

Christians, it hds been warmly contended by many, tbat tbe final stroke 
wfaicb destroys our natural corruption is only given at death ; and tbat 
the soul* when separated from the body, and not before, is capable of 
that immaculate purity which these passages, doubtless, exhibit to. our 
hope. 

If this view can be refuted, then it must follow, unless a purgatory 
of some description be allowed after death, that the entire sanctificar 
tion of believers* at any time previous to their dissolution, and in the 
foU sense of these evangelic promises, is attainable. 

To the opinion in question, then, there appear to be the following 
fatal objections:-^ 

1. That we nowhere find the promises of entire sanctification re- 
stricted to the article of death, either expressly, or in fair inference, 
firom any passage of Holy Scripture. 

2. That we nowhere find the circumstances of the soul's union 
with the body represented as a necessary obstacle to its entire sanc- 
tification. 

The principal passage which has been urged in proof of this from 
tbe New Testament, is that part of the seventh chapter of the Epistle 
to the Romans, in which St. Paul, speaking in the first person of the 
bondage of the fiesh, has been supposed to describe his state, as a be» 
liever in Christ. But whether he speaks of himself, or describes the 
state of others, in a supposed case, given for the sake of more vivid 
representation in the first person, which is much more probable, he is 
dearly speaking of a person who had once sought justification by the 
works of the law, but who was then convinced, by the force of a spiri- 
tual apprehension, of the extent of the requirements of that law, and 
by constant failures in his attempts to keep it perfectly, that he was in 
bondage to his corrupt nature, and could only be deUvered from this 
thraldom by the interposition of another. For, not to urge that his 
strong expressions of being " carnal," ** sold under sin," and doing al* 
wajTS * the things which he would not,' are utterly inconsistent with 
that moral state of believers in Christ which he describes in the next 
chapter ; and, especially, that he there declares that such as are in 
Chnst Jesus *' walk not after the flesh, but after the Spirit.'^ The 
ttventh chapter itself contains decisive evidence against the inference 
which the advocates of the necessary continuance of sin till death have 
drawn irom it. The apostle declares the person, whose case he de- 
scribes, to be under the law, and not in a state of deliverance by 
Christ; and then he represents him, not only as despairing of self- 
d^erance, and as praying for the interposition of a sufficiently power- 
ful deliverer, but as thanking God that the very deliverance for which 
he groans is appointed to be administered to him by Jesus Christ. " Who 
shall deliver me from the body of this death ? I thank God through 
Jesus Christ our Lord. " 

This is also so fully confirmed by what the apostle had said in the 
preceding chapter, where he unquestionably describes the moral state 
of true believers, that nothing is more surprising than that so preverted 
a comment upon the seventh chapter as that to which we have adverted, 
should have been adopted or persevered in. •* What shall we say, then ? 
Shall we continue in. sin, that grace may abound ? God forbid ? 



180 On Entire SanctificatUm. 

How shall we, who are dead to sin, live any longer therein ? Know 
ye not, that so many of us as were baptized into Jesus Christ were 
baptized into his death? Therefore we are buried with him by 
baptism into death; that, like as Christ was raised up from the 
dead by the glory of the Father, even so we also should walk in 
newness of life. For if we have been planted together in the likeness 
of his death, we shall be also in the likeness of his resurrection ; know- 
ing this, that OUR old man is crucified with him, that thb body of 
SIN might be destroyed, that henceforth we should not serve sin; 
for he that is dead is freed from sin.'* So clearly does the apostle 
show, that he who is bound to the •* body of death," as mentioned in 
the seventh chapter, is not in the state of a believer ; and that he who 
has a true faith in Christ, ** is freed from sin." 

It is somewhat singular that the divines of the Calvinistic school 
should be almost uniformly the zealous advocates of the doctrine of the 
continuance of indwelling sin till death ; but it is but justice to say, that 
several of them have as zealously denied that the apostle, in the seventh 
chapter of the Romans, describes the state of one who is justified by 
faith in Christ, and very properly consider the case there spoken of as 
that of one struggling in legal bondage, and brought to that point of 
self-despair, and of conviction of sin and helplessness, which must 
always precede an entire trust in the merits of Christ's death, and the 
power of his salvation. 

3. The doctrine before us is disproved by those passages of Scrip- 
ture which connect our entire sanctification with subsequent habits 
and acts, to be exhibited in the conduct of believers, before death. So 
in the quotation from Romans vi, just given, — ** Knowing this, that the 
body of sin might be destroyed, that henceforth we should not serve 
sin." So the exhortation in 2 Cor. vii. 1, also given above, refers 
to the present life, and not to the future hour of our dissolution ; 
and in 1 Thess. v. 23, the apostle first prays for the entire sancti- 
fication of the Thessalonians, and then for their preservation in 
that hallowed state, " unto the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ." 

4. It is disproved, also, by all those passages which require us 
to bring forth those graces and virtues which are usually called the 
fruits of the Spirit. That these are to be produced during our life, 
and to be displayed in our spirit and conduct, cannot be doubted ; and 
we may then ask whether they are required of us in perfection and 
maturity? If so, in this degree of maturity and perfection, they 
necessarily suppose the entire sanctification of the soul from the 
opposite and antagonist evils. Meekness, in its perfection, supposes 
the extinction of all sinful anger : perfect love to God supposes that 
no affection remains contrary to it; and so of every other perfect 
internal virtue. The inquiry, then, is reduced to this, whether these 
graces, in such perfection as to exclude the opposite corruptions of 
the heart, are of possible attainment? If they are not, then we 
cannot love God with our whole hearts ; then we must be sometimes 
sinfully angry : and how, in that case, are we to interpret that 
perfectness in these graces which God hath required of us, and pro- 
mised to us, in the Gospel ? For if the perfection meant (and let it 
be observed that this is a Scriptural term, and must mean something) 



On Entire Sanctification, 181 

be so comparative as that we may be sometimes sinfully angry, and 
may sometimes divide our hearts between God and the creature, we 
may apply the same comparative sense of the term to good words 
and to good works, as well as to good affections. Thus, when the 
apostle prays for the Hebrews, ** Now the God of peace that brought 
again from the dead our Lord Jesus, that great Shepherd of the 
8heep> through the blood of the everlasting covenant, make you 
perfect in every good toorky to do his will," we must understand this per- 
fection of evangelical good works so that it shall sometimes give place 
to opposite evil works, just as good affections must necessarily some- 
times give place to the opposite bad affections. This view can scarcely 
be soberly entertained by any enlightened Christian ; and it must, 
therefore, be concluded that the standard of our attainable Christian 
perfection, as to the affections, is a love of God so perfect as to " rule 
the heart, and exclude all rivalry, and a meekness so perfect as to 
cast out all sinful anger, and prevent its return ;" and that as to good 
works, the rule is, that we shall be so " perfect in every good work " as 
to " do the will of God " habitually, fully, and constantly. If we fix the 
standard lower, we let in a license totally inconsistent with that Chris- 
tian purity which is allowed by all to be attainable ; and we make every 
man himself his own interpreter of that comparative perfection which 
is often contended for as that only which is attainable. 

Some, it is true, admit the extent of the promises and the require- 
ments of the Gospel as we have stated them ; but they contend that 
this is the mark at which we are to aim, the standard toward which we 
are to aspire, though neither is attainable fully till death. But this view 
cannot be true as applied to sanctification, or deHverance from all inward 
and outward sin. That the degree of every virtue implanted by 
grace is not limited, but advances and grows in the living Christian 
throughout life, may be granted ; and through eternity, also : but to 
say that these virtues are not attainable, through the work of the 
Spirit, in that degree which shall destroy all opposite vice, is to say, 
that God, under the Gospel, requires us to be what we cannot be, either 
through want of eflScacy in his grace, or from some defect in its 
administration ; neither of which has any countenance from Scripture, 
nor is at all consistent with the terms in which the promises and 
exhortations of the Gospel are expressed. It is also contradicted bv 
oar own consciousness, which charges our criminal neglects and 
failures upon ourselves, and not upon the grace of God, as though it 
were insufficient. Either the consciences of good men have in all 
ages been delusive and over-scrupulous, or this doctrine of the neces- 
sary, though occasional, dominion of sin over us is false. 

" 5. The doctrine of the necessary indwelling of sin in the soul till 
death, involves other anti-scriptursd consequences. It supposes that 
the seat of sin is in the flesh, and thus harmonizes with the pagan 
philosophy, which attributed all evil to matter. The doctrine of the 
Bible, on the contrary, is, that the seat of sin is in the soul ; and it 
makes it one of the proofs of the fall and corruption of our spiritual 
nature, that we are in bondage to the appetites and motions of the 
flesh. Nor does the theory which places the necessity of sinning in 
the comiection of the soul with the body, account for the whole moral 



182 On the Work of the Spirit. 

oate of man. There are Bins, as pride, covetoiisnetty malice, and 
others, which are wholly spiritual ; and yet no exception u made in 
this doctrine of the necessary continuance of sin till death as to them. 
There is, surely, no need to wait for the separation of the toul from 
the hody in order to he saved from evils which are the sole ofispnng 
of the spirit ; and yet these are made as inevitahle as the tins which 
more immediately connect themselves with the excitements of the 
animal nature. 

This doctrine supposes, too, that the flesh must necessarily not 
only lust against the' Spirit, hut in no small degree, and on many occa- 
sions, he the conqueror : whereas, we are commanded to *' mortify the 
deeds of the hody ;" to " crucify,^* that is, to put to death, " the flesh ;'' 
<' to put off the old man»" which, in its full meaning, must import sepa- 
ration from sin in fact, as well the renunciation of it in will ; • and " to 
put on the new man." Finally, the apostle expressly states, that though 
the flesh stands victoriously opposed to legal sanctification,^ it is not 
insuperable by evangelical holiness. " For what the kno could not do, 
in that it was weak through the flesh, God sending his own Son in the 
likeness of sinful flesh, and for sin, condemned sin in the flesh; that 
the righteousness of the law might hejiilfilled in us, who walk not after 
the flesh, but after the Spirit," Rom. viii. 3, 4. So inconsistent with 
the declarations and promises of the Gospel is the notion that, so long 
as we are in the body, '< the flesh ** must of necessity have at least the 
occasional dominion. 

We conclude, therefore, as to the time of our complete sanctifica- 
tion, or, to use the phrase of the apostle Fatd, " the destruction of the 
body of sin," that it can neither be referred to the hour of death, nor 
placed subsequently to this present life. The attainment of perfect 
ft'eedom from sin is one to which believers are called during the present 
life, and is necessary to that completeness of " holiness," and of those 
active and passive graces of Christianity, by which they are called to 
glorify God in this world, and to edify mankind." 

R. Watson. 



ON THE WORK OF THE SPIRIT. 

The glory to which the Saviour hath been raised, when contem- 
plated in the light of his Spirit, cannot fail deeply to impress and 
to influence the heart. It is not mere abstract grandeur that is 
then seen, but grandeur most powerfully expressive of the divine 
delight in his work and character. And how fitted to convince the 
disciples of Christ of the reality and strength of the love of God 
to them, is the heart-cheering reflection, that the work rewarded is 
that by which our redemption was achieved, that the character in 
which Jehovah delights was displayed in effecting our deliverance, and 
that the constituent principles of this sacred character comprehend 
the exercise of love, mercy, and grace towards us, passing compre- 
Jbension. If because he so loved us, Jesus is himself loved of his 
^FWtber,— how great the love of the Father himself to us. Can we 



On the W&rk €f tiie Spirit. 183 

wonder then» that the Redeemer shoald with a tone of high and 
benevolent t triumphf exclaim, "Therefore doth my Father love me, 
becanse I lay down my hfe that I might take it again." John x. 17. 
And , when Jehovah declares that in effecting our redemption^ the 
fiavioiir emhodied the brightest display of the divine character itself, 
can- we fail so see that in contemplating the character of Christ, as 
thus hcmonred in the celestial temple, we are brought into dose contact 
with an immortal and glorious principle of life and blessedness, 
because it is angularly adapted to influence and govern the whole 
principles of our moral nature; and we partake of its immortality 
and glory when it becomes the sole ground of our confidence, the 
spring; t>f all cor enjoyment, and the centre of attraction to our every 
faculty, and afiUctian. It is thus that the Christian becomes imbued 
^h.tbe very princ^iles whidi distinguished the Saviour, so that it 
may be said of Hm, that being "joined to the Lord he is one spirit," 
as well as one in law with him^ 1 Cor. vi. 17. And thus, by the 
agency of the Sanctifier, the Christian becomes meet for heaven, where 
there shall be snob a conununion of sentiment, feeling, and affection, 
lietween him and his glorious representative, as shall produce such a 
perfect evenness of character, and fullness of joy in everlasting 
Mowship, as shall consummate his bliss. How important then is 
the work of the Holy Spirit! Much has the Saviour done for his 
people, but much also he has to do in them. His gracious Spirit is 
given to dwell in the heart as his temple, and to hallow the whole soul 
anto God. He is the source of all spiritual life. By his influence 
the sinner is at first made " to come to himself,*' to feel his guilt and 
his wretchedness, and to return to God by faith in Christ. And as 
he begins, so he carries forward the work of renovation to its close. 
He gives to the Christian strength for the duties, the trials, and the 
cmiflicts of his course, and he secures to him the final triumph. He 
** perfects that which is lacking in his faith," by enlarging his views 
<^ the personal grandeur and the official administration of his Lord. 
The truth by which he operates in the heart is a revelation of the 
character of God, and gives a tangible form to his high and holy 
attributes. And partaking as it does of the infinity of Jehovah, it 
grows upon the mind as the faculties of the Christian are expanded, 
and its multiplied and extensive bearings come to be understood. 
And through the channel of faith advancing as the understanding 
iqpiritually enlightened takes in more of the divine record, it continues 
to influence the character, for the Christian grows in grace as he grows 
m the knowledge of the Saviour, 1 Pet. iii. 18. As the gracious 
Comforter, the Spirit of Christ gives such views of the plenitude of 
heavenly love, of the exuberance of divine grace, and of the magni- 
ficent prospects opened in the Gospel, that the soul is raised above 
the evils of time, and is enabled even to ** glory in tribulation." 

In the midst of all our weakness, then, there is reason to rejoice 
that there is exhibited a ground of confidence fully adequate to our 
numerous wants. We can do "all things through Christ who 
Btrengtheneth us," by the mighty influence of this omnipotent agent. 
It becomes us to pray with the most, importunate fervour for the 
dnmdatit communication of this mighty inflaence. We ought not 



l84 On the Immortality of the Soul. 

to be satisfied with occasionally lookmg for his aid, but ought to main- 
tain an habitual dependence on his agency, and honour him in all our 
services* And when conscious of much remaining repugnance to 
divine things, and of the workings of an evil bias towards earthly 
pursuits, is it not at once our duty and our privilege to commit 
ourselves to one who is able and ready to give a blessed efficiency 
to the means of his grace ? He can impart a spirit of holy superiority 
to the things of time, can give the most sublime conceptions of 
celestial objects, and bring into a state of full subordination all those 
earthly affections which entwine themselves around our hearts. 

There is no inconsistency between habitual dependence on the Spirit 
of God, and the exercise of our faculties. We are exhorted to watch 
while we pray, Matt. xxvi. 41. In the operations of husbandry , the 
labour of man would be fruitless without the influences of the sun, bat 
do we ever suppose that there is on this account the smallest contrariety 
between the effects of sunshine and the diligence of the husbandman ? 
And why then should it be supposed, that the necessity of divine 
influence to produce Christian fruits supersedes the activity of believers 
in Christ ? AH Christians will acknowledge, that " by the grace of God 
they are what they are.'* But still they act freely and not compulsively. 
Influenced by divine illumination, they choose the path of holiness, and 
strengthened by divine grace, they continue to walk in it. The assu- 
ranee that " God worketh in them both to will and to do,'* instead of 
lulling them into a state of dormancy, operates as a stimulus and an 
encouragement to activity, Phil. ii. 12, 13. The passions and affections 
of our nature are powerful principles of action, and such are the 
bearings of the facts and truths of revelation, that the whole of these 
active powers are called into exercise, and being thus directed, they 
exert a salutary influence in forming our character. 

It is for us then to seek that divine truth may not merely float in the 

head, and that its precious lessons may not be entertained as opinions 

only, but that it may take possession of the whole heart, that its 

lessons may become principles of action, and mould us into its likeness. 

And carefully ought we to guard against the error of mistaking the 

pleasurable emotions which may be excited by a mere theoretical view 

of the character of Christ delighting the imagination, for the spiritual 

emotions which are the means of filling the heart with devout and 

benevolent affections, of subjugating evil passions, and of rousing to 

active and persevering exertion in the divine service. Holiness is the 

grand end of the work of the Spirit. And when influenced by his 

grace, the principles of the Christian character will be found to flourish, 

and to shed their fragrant influences around. 

* * * 



ON THE IMMORTALITY OF THE SOUL. 

Christianity affirms our future existence is certain. It is not the 
revelation of the fact alone, but a description of its nature, and a pro- 
vision for its beatification. And he who impugns "the word of life," 
must bear the burden of his own dreaded immortality! The only 



On the Immortality of the Soul. 195 

difference between him and his fellow-travellers towards eternity^ ia, 
that he has thrown away the torch and the staff, which the others 
acknowledge to enlighten and help them. The argument must rest 
with the infidel : he must prove that man is not immortal : for this 
is the obligation on any one who sets himself in defiance of general 
consent. 

Now» whatever is, may still be ; a body impelled into motion, con- 
tinues in motion : and the presumption is, that a man, who at present 
exists, will always exist, unless the strongest reasons can be opposed. 
Is such a contrivance likely to perish ? And if he continue to exist, 
Bhonld not his being, as it advances, become more important ? Extri- 
eated from its littleness of pursuit, and disciplined of its frivolity in 
state ? Is not his immortality the pledge of a more solemn state of 
thmgs? Can the reasoning being of time be the non-entity of 
eternity ? 

Deatii will, however, be urged as the palpable extinction of the being. 
But no man will assert that then a single atom of the body is destroyed. 
The organic structure is altered ; fibre and fluid are decomposed ; the 
whole enters into new combinations, but not a particle is lost. Why 
may not the same be true of the soul ? It was held by the body — ^the 
body has been affected by mechanical causes which could not reach the 
soul — the soul has become disengaged. Many changes took place in 
that body through life, and yet the soul was the same. And to the 
last, amidst the wreck of its corporeal vehicle, how often does it tri- 
umph. I speak not of the hero, the martyr, the patriot, who kisses 
the blocky the chief who chaunts the death-song — but of one whose 
springs of life are shivered, and all his vigours spent. There a lam- 
bent fire playsy which no chill and damp of death can extinguish. 
There a might puts forth itself, victorious in that grasp beneath which 
all things wither. And have we not witnessed the holy spectacle? 
The mind rising in majesty, while all its barriers were falling from 
around it ! It is then greatest when it might be expected to yield — ^then 
freest when it might be expected to waver — then boldest when it might 
be expected to shrink? "Death is thus a spontaneous act, a more 
ardent prayer of the mind*." Are not then the probabilities strongly 
in favour of the souVs independence and indestructibleness ? And 
should a desire be felt to confuse the properties of matter and spirit, 
of which the human being in his present state is compounded, we shall 
again remit the disputant to the common sense of mankind. All allow 
them to be as different things, as differing and inconvertible proper- 
ties can prove them. And whatever physiological hardihood has 
dared, we wait with perfect composure for it to prove, that man is a 
mere machine ; that intellect is the result of organization and a modi- 
fication of matter, most subtilized and alternated ; that thought is an 
effect of refined substance and arrangement, even though it will allow, 
that no more of grossness enters into its nature than into the effluvium 
of a rose, and the tone of a vibration. And if soul and body be such 
foreign essences, how can it be supposed that they are subject in 
themselyes to the same accidents, or perish by the same fates ? 

* De Stael. 



166 Rmews and LUerary /^aiicei. 

'And Ob the tappositicm that there is no immortality for man, let tfee 
ieeptic attempt to vindicate the character of his God. It cannot be 
denied that it is the fervid aspiration of our nature, that the cewatioli 
of being is regarded by us as the greatest possible infliction, and that 
each yearning of our bosom dipposes us to '* give all that we have for 
our life," Something of this feeling we admit, may have been 
benevolently given, though death were the last scene of all, as a pre- 
oautionary instinct, that we might prize and guard so important a 
deposit* Bat this is a nobler tending of our being. It cannot bear 
that its gamer of affections and its treasures of purest delights shall, ill 
a moment, be crushed. It cannot endure that its high studied, itild 
wonderful acquirements, shall be instantaneously blotted into night. It 
cannot brook the sudden transition from the intellectual sout, into the 
sleepless clod. And yet the sceptic must conceive that the Deity hta 
raised these hopes to crush them, and taught men to ascend a mount, 
whence they might descry the boundless prospect, that they might die 
•6n that mount. And thus represented cruel to man, he is described as 
equally unjust to himself. His creatures made capable of understanding 
bim, are perplexed with his conduct, but confide in its destined expla- 
nution. They have only seen ** a part of Him." They have heard but 
a passage of infinite history, and beheld but a scene of the eternal 
drama. They " wait the great teacher— Death and God adore.*' Bat 
while their spirits are wrapt in anxiety, they perish in the Buspense ! 
Ready to burst into the song of wonder, love, and praise, their Upa are 
steled in endless silence. 

' Let, then, the unbeliever consider his case. He is hastening to 
judgment! He will soon enter into etemitv. His rejection of 
Christianity does not, in the slightest degree alter these laws of bis 
iieing. For him there is no pause, no choice. He is borne resistlessly 
forward : however his spirit may recoil, his step cannot. Each momebt, 
each pulse, testifies his progress. He is always accountable, and shall 
live always.— - 

..♦♦♦■■■ 



REVIEWS AND LITERARY NOTICES. 

MEMOIR AND REMAINS op tbb Rbv. Robbkt Miratu^ 
M'Cbbtnb, Minister of 8t. Peter's Church Dundee.- By the Rxv^^ 
Andrbw a. Bonar. Two Volumes, Royal 18mo. 395 pp. 410 i>p - 
MiDDLBTON, Dundee, Hamilton and Co. and Nisbbt and C(^ 
London* 

• Biographical records of those who have sustained impoirtant poa&' 
^ions in the church of Christ, who have been eminently pioni, um^ 
;«ealou8ly devoted to the service of God, form a most valuable {lortic^fli 
of Christian literature. The importance of such. records may toe 
inferred from the large portion of the pages of the holy Scriptures 
devoted to set forth the histdyof those who had obtained " a good 



Reviews and Literary Notices. 187 

jieport through: fiaith/' The volumes now before us, are a highly 
▼aloable addition to the biography of the pious dead, lliey record 
(jf^ history of one whose virtues shone with conspicuous lustre, and 
Fhose ardent and fedthful labours in God's vineyard were honoured 
with glorious success. 

The Rev. R. M. M<Cheyne was bom in Edinburgh^ on the 21st of 
May, 1813. He entered the High School, m October, 1821, where 
h6 remained the usual period of six years. In 1827, he became a 
student in the Edinburgh University. In 1831, he commenced his 
studies in the Divinity Hall, under Drs. Chahners, and Welsh. By the 
death oi an elder brother, his mind was seriously impressed with 
Divme things, and under the influence of the Holy Spirit, he resolved 
to devote himself to the service of God. When he was a student in 
the University^ he, with some other students, devoted a portion of time 
to vint the careless and needy in the most miserable portion of the 
city. Here were found masses of human beings living in awful igno- 
rance of Divine things. By engaging in this work of mercy, Mr. 
H'Ch^rne was much blessed in his own soul. 

. In July» 1835, he was licensed by the Presbytery of Anan, to 
preach the Gospel, and shortly after he became assistant to the pastor 
of the united parishes of Larbert and Dunipace. In this sphere of 
Isboor, he proved himself to be a faithful minister of Christ. He 
tooght to increase in personal holiness, and to benefit the souls of all 
who were under his care. After 'a short time he was compelled by 
affliction to relinquish for a season his public duties. Upon being 
restored to health, he again entered- upon his^ Work and prosecuted it 
with holy ardour, visiting from house to house, and in every way 
making full proof dP his ministry. 

The church of St. Peter's, Dundee, having been erected and re- 
quiring a minister, he was invitied to take charge of it ; and, believing it 
to be his duty, he removed to Dundee. He entered upon his pastoral 
duties in this place with a solemn sense of his deep responsibility to 
God. His Sabbath Day's services brought multitudes to sit under his 
ministry. He spoke from the pulpit as one earnestly desiring the 
salvation of souls. The mode of public teaching which he adopted, 
as related by his biographer, is particularly worthy of imitation. ** It 
was his wish to Wtive nearer at the primitive inode of expounding 
Scripture in his sermons. Hence when one asked him. If he was 
never afraid of running short of sermons some day— he replied— 'No; 
I am just an interpreter of Scripture, in my sermons ; and when the 
Bible runs dry, then I will.' And in the same spirit he carefully 
avoided the too common mode of accommodating texts — fastening a 
doctrine on the words, not drawing it from the obvious connection 
of the passage. He endeavoured at all times to preach the mind of 
the Spirit in a passage; for he feared that to do otherwise would be to 
grieve the Spirit." 

Mr. M^Cheyne had solicitations to remove from Dundee to other 
parishes, where his income would have been improved and his pastoral 
labours lessened, but he did not regard these circumstances as suffi- 
cient to justify his removal, and therefore resolved to abide where he 
Wfcved Fto?idenoe had placed him. He said—" My Maater haa 

^2 



188 Reviews and Literary Notices. 

placed me here with his own hand ; and I never will directly or in* 
directly, seek to be removed." 

Towards the close of 1838, Mr. M'Cheyne's health again gave 
way, and he was about to desist from his public labours. He went 
to Edinburgh to recruit his health. While there, it was proposed to 
him to accompany some other ministers on a Mission of inquiring 
into the state of the Jews in Palestine and other countries, lying on 
the route to Judea. It was supposed that engaging in this work might 
tend to his restoration to health. Believing it to be the will of God, 
he consented and went to Palestine in company with Dr. Black» 
Dr. Keith, and the Rev. A. A. Bonar. To obtain suitable ministerial 
aid for his people, during his absence, was a matter of great solicitude, 
and he was so happy as to obtain the services of Mr. W. C. Bums, 
son of the minister of Kilsyth. During the absence of Mr. M'Cheyne 
a most extraordinary revival of religion broke out in his parish; 
extraordinary eflfects were produced under the ministry of Mr. W. C. 
Burns. Many for whom their absent pastor had earnestly desired 
the blessings of salvation, were brought into the liberty of the sons 
of God. This was to Mr. M'Cheyne, a cause of great rejoicing. 
Upon his return to his parish, he manifested that his earnest desire 
was the salvation of the people, and that he had no feeling of jealously 
or envy, as to by whose agency they were brought to know the Lord. 
This will appear from the following letter addressed to one who had 
accompanied him on the Mission to the Jews : — 

" Rev. And. A. Bonab, Collace. 

*'My dear A. — I begin upon note-paper, because I have no 
other on hand but our thin travelling paper. 1 have much to tell you and to 
praise the Lord for. I am grieved to hear that there are no marks of 
the Spirit's work about Collace during your absence ; but if Satan drive you 
to your knees, he will soon find cause to repent it. Remember how fathers 
do to their children when they ask bread. How much more shall our hea- 
venly Father give {agatha) all good things to them that ask him. Remember 
the rebuke which I once got from old Mr. Dempster, of Denny, after preach- 
ing to his people — * I was highly pleased with your discourse, but in praye r— 
it struck me that you thought God unwilling to give' Remember Dante^H 
— *At the beginning of. thy supplications the commandment came forth."". 
And do not think you are forgotten by me as long as 1 have health and grae^^ 
to pray. 

'' Every thing here I have found in a state better than I expected. Thi^ 

night 1 arrived I preached to such a congregation as I never saw before. 

do not think another person could have got into the church, and there w a^M 
every sign of the deepest and tenderest emotion. R. Macdonald was witlT^ 
me, and prayed. Affliction and success in the ministry have taught an 
quickened him. I preached on 1 Cor. ii. 1—4, and felt what I have ofte — - 
heard, that it is easy to preach where the Spirit of God is. On the Frida^B 
night. Burns preached ; on the Sabbath I preached on that wonderful passagr*^ 
2 Chron. v. 13, 14; Mr. Burns preached twice, morning and evening. H^ i 
views of Divine truth are clear and commanding. There is a great deal ^i 
substance in what he preaches, and his manner is very powerful, — so xxm^^h 
so, that he sometimes made me tremble. In private, he is deeply prayerfaJftJ^ 
and seems to feel his danger of falling into pride. 

'* 1 have seen many of the awakened, and many of the saved ; indeed, tli/' 
is a pleasant place compared with what it was once. Some of the awakeoetf 



Reviews and Literary Notices. 189 

are still in the deepest anxiety and distress. Their great error is exactly 
what your brother Horace told me. They think that coming to Christ is 
some strange act of their mind, different from believing what God has said of 
his Son ; so much so, that they will tell you with one breath, I believe all 
that God has said, and yet with the next, complain that they cannot come to 
Christ, or close with Christ. It is very hard to deal with this delusion. 

" I find some old people deeply shaken ; they feel insecure. One con- 
firmed drunkard has come to me, and is, I believe now a saved man. Some 
little children are evidently saved. All that I have yet seen are related to 
converts of my own. One, eleven years old, is a singular instance of Divine 
grace. When I asked if she desired to be made holy, she said, ' Indeed, I 
wbh I was awa*, that I might sin nae mair.* A. L. of fifteen, is a fine ten- 
der-hearted believer. W. S , ten, is also a happy boy. 

" Many of my own dear children in the Lord are much advanced ; much 
more full of joy — their hearts lifted up in the ways of the Lord. I have 
found many more savingly impressed under my own ministry than I knew 
of. Some have come to tell me. In one case, a whole family saved. I have 
hardly met with anv thing to grieve me. Surely the Lord hath dealt bounti- 
fully with me. I fear, however, that the great Spirit has in some measure 
passed by — I hope soon to return in greater power than ever. The week 
meetings are thinner now. I will turn two of them into my classes soon, and 
80 give solid, regular instruction, of which they stand greatly in need. I have 
not met with one case of extravagance or false fire, although doubtless there 
may be many. At first, tliey used to follow in a body to our house, and 
expected many an address and prayer by the road. They have given up this 
now. I preached last Sabbath twice, first on Isaiah xxviii. 14-1 A, and then 
on Rev. xii. 11,' Overcame by the blood of the Lamb.' It was a very solemn 
day. The people willingly sat till it was dark. Many make it a place of 
Bochim. Still there is nothing of the power which has been. I have tried 
to persuade Mr. Bums to stay with us, and I think he will remain in 
Dundee. I feel fully stronger in body than when I left you. Instead of 
exciting me, there is every thing to solemnize and still my feelings. Eternity 
sometimes seems very near. 

" I would like your advice about prayer-meetings ; — how to consolidate 
them; what rules should be followed, if any ; whether there should be mere 
reading of the Word and prayer, or free converse also on the passage ? We 
began to-day a ministerial prayer-meeting, to be held every Monday at eleven 
for an hour and a half. This is a great comfort, and may be a great blessing. 
Of course we do not invite the colder ministers ; that would only damp our 
meeting. Tell me if you think this right. 

** And now, dear A., I must be done, for it is very late. May your people 
share in the quickening that has come over Dundee. I feel it a very powerful 
argument with many — * Will you be left dry when others are getting drops of 
heavenly dew ? ' Try this with your people. 

*' I think it probable we shall have another communion again before the 
regular one. It seems very desirable. You will come and help us; and 
perhaps Horace too. 

In the year 1 842, Mr. M'Cheyne in company with several other 
ministers, visited Newcastle on Tyne, and some other places, and 
preached in the open air, and in places of worship. On one occasion 
he preached a most impressive sermon on " The Great "White Throne," 
to above a thousand persons assembled in a space of ground, near 
the com market in Newcastle ; and although the service was con- 
tinued until ten o'clock at night, not one person went away until the 
conclusion. Thus he continued to labour with unremitting zeal and 
ataidaity in the service of his Divine Master, until March J 843. On 



190 Heviewit and Literary Notioei, 

the 14th of that month, he was taken ill, and after eleven dayft' illness, 
his immortal spirit went to that Jesus whom his soul loved. In the 
midst of his usefulness, this devoted servant of Christ, then only in his 
thirtieth year, was called from his labour to his reward. 

From the preceding brief and imperfect outline of the history of 
Mr. M'Cheyne, it may be inferred that he was an extraordinary man — 
" a burning and a shining light;" and that his Memoir is a work 
of more than common interest. It contains several valuable letters, 
written by Mr. M'Cheyne to his friends, while he was travelling in 
Judea ; also many interesting extracts from lus journal, breathing the 
spirit of ardent piety. To the Memoir are added, a number of sermons, 
and other pieces in prose and verse, from the pen of Mr. M*Cheyne. 
If our limits would permit, we would gladly enrich our pages with 
copious extracts from these interesting volumes, but we can only afford 
space for the following quotation, from one of his pastoral letters, 
written from Breslaw, in Prussia, Oct. 1839 : — 

*' O my dear flock, ' how shall you escape if you neglect so great salvation P* 
See how desolate they are left that refuse Him that speaketh from heaven. 
The free offer of a divine surety rings through your churches, now that God 
continues faithful teachers among you. Every Sabbath, and oftener, the 
fountain for sin is publicly opened for you, and souls all defiled with sin 
are invited to come and wash. But these mercies will not always last. 
If you tread the glorious gospel of the grace of God under your feet, 
your souls will perish ; and I fear Dundee will one day bo a howling wil- 
derness like Capernaum. I spent nearly the whole of August during my 
illness in Bouja, a village near Smyrna, under the care of tenderest friends, 
whom the Lord wonderfully provided forme in a strange land. You remember 
Smyrna is one of the Seven Churches in Asia to which the Saviour sent 
those quickening messages in the Revelation of St. John. I thought again 
and again of the happy Thursday evenings which I once spent with you in 
meditating on these Seven Epistles to the Churches. You know it is said of 
Samuel, even when he was a child, that God did not let one of his words fall 
to the ground, and the same is true to this hour of the very weakest of God*s 
fiuthful ministers. What we have spoken to you is not like the passing wind 
which hurries on and leaves no trace behind. It is like the rain and snow — it 
will not return to God without accomplishing some end in your hearts, either 
melting or hardening. Smyrna is the only one of these churches where a pure 
golden candlestick is now to be found with the light burning. There is a 
small company who believe in Jesus. It was pleasant inde^ to hear the 
j|Ospel preached there in all its purity and power. Be you also faithful to 
death, and you shall receive a crown of life. Leaving Smyrna, we sailed past 
Troas and Bitbynia, and visited Constantinople, the most beautiful city in the 
wi^rld, and yet the most miserable. Looking round from the deck of the 
vessel, I could count above ninety minarets, many of them pure marble, 
carved and gilded in the richest manner. These all form parts of mosques, 
or temples of the false prophet Mahomet, This religion is a singular inven- 
tion of Satan ; their Koran, or Bible, is a book filled with nonsense, and 
with much wickedness. All their belief is comprehended in the short saying, 
' Lo Ullah il Allah, a Mahomed Rasal Allah'—' There is no God but God, 
and Mahomed is his prophet.' They expect to be saved chiefly by making 
pilgrimages to Mecca, by abstaining from wine and pork, and by praying 
Ave times a-day. Every day, at sunrise or sunset, we saw them at prayer; 
wherever they are, in the open street, on the top of the house, or on the 
deckof a ship, they take off their shoes, wash hands, face, and feet, spread 
their garment btrore them, and taming their faee towards Mecca, pray. 



Hevfews and LUerary NtAicefi 191 

bendiof jand^Bsipg tbegronnd, often fifteen and twenty times. Tbey 'are 
ntber pleased if you look at them. They are very proud of their own faith, 
and will not listen fpr a moment to the gospel of Jesus. It would he instant 
banishment or death if any Missionary were to attempt their conversion. 
Ah! my dear flock, how differently you are situated. How freely saWation 
isofieredto ybu-^a faith that really saves you from your sins — that makes 
you love one another. For love is of God, and every one that loveth is bom 
of God. If you are not growing humble and loving* be sure your faith is 
no better than a Mabometan*s. You are not of God, but of the world. The 
next conntries we visited were Wallachia and Moldavia. We sailed to them 
from Constantinople, across the raging waves of the Black Sea, and up die 
mighty river Danube. These are two singular countries, seldom visited by 
tniveliers; they are governed by two princes, and the established religion 
is of the Greek Church. I wish I could show you all that I have seen of the 
superstitions and wickedness practised among them, that you might give 
more earnest heed to the pure Gospel that flows as freelv as air and water 
through our beloved land. One day, in Bucharest, the capital city of 
Wallachia, I was present at a festival on the princess birth-day. An immense 
crowd was present in their finest church, and all the nobles of the land. The 
service consisted of prayers and chanting by a number of priests, dressed in 
the most splendid manner. When all was over I staid behind to see a curious 
raperstition. At one side of the altar lay an open coffin, highly ornamented ; 
within I observed a dead body wrapped in cloth of gold ; a dead withered 
hsnd alone was left out This is said to be the body of St. Demetrius, lately 
found in a river, by the water parting asunder miraculously. Such is the 
tak>' we are. told. • I stood beside it. when the worshippers approached the coffin 
in great numbers, men and women, rich and poor. First, they crossed them- 
selves, and kneeled, kissing the floor three times. Then they approached 
reverently, and kissed the withered hand of the dead body and a cross that lay 
beside it. Then they gently dropped a small coin into a little plate at the 
dead manV feet, and after receiving a blessing from the priest, with three 
prostrations more to the ground, they retired. This is one specimen of their 
ibominable worship of dead men. Do I tell you these things that you may 
be proud of your superior light ? Ah ! po. I write these things that those of 
TOO who live no better lives than they do may be convinced of your danger. 
What can yon expect of these poor idolaters, but that they will live after the 
flesh, in rioting and drunkenness, in chambering and wantonness, in strife and 
envying. .But are there none of you, my dear flock, for whom, night and day, 
my prayers ascend— are there none of you who do the same things, though 
ron have the Holy Bible, and a freely-preached Gospel, and no superstition ? 
Yet how many of you live an unholy life! Ah ! remember Sardis — ' I know 
thy works, that thou hast a name that thou livest, and art dead. Be watchful, 
and strengthen the things which remain, that are ready to die ; for I have not 
fonnd thy works perfect before God.' Tiie next kingdom we came through 
WIS Austrian Poland — the land of graven images. We came through its 
diief towns, Tamapole, Brody, Lemburg, and from thence to Cracow, travel- 
Ung many hundred miles. You would be amazed, as I have been, if you saw 
tile aboaiinable idolatry of this land. The Roman Catholic is the established 
Cuth ; and the Government are bitter persecutors of any who change. At 
every village there are numbers of crosses, of immense . size, with the image 
of the Saviour. There are also statues of tbe Virgin Mary, and of other saints, 
as large as life, all along the roads. Often there are wooden boxes set up, 
full of images ; often, in the middle of a square, there is a small covered 
chamber full of these idols, of wood and stone, whom the poor people worship 
everyday. The Bible is an unlawful book in this country. All our Bibles 
Were taken away from us, even our Hebrew ones, that we might not preach 
to the Jews the glad tidings of a Saviour. Blessed be God, they could not 
take them froib our memories and hearts. Should not th^s make you all ^tx\ 



192 Retiewi and Literary Notices. 

for the coming of the day when the towers of Popery shall fall— the da? 
when God shall avenge us on her ; for the Bible which she hates so much 
says, <* Her plagues shall come in one day, death, and mourning, and famine ; 
and she shall be utterly burned with fire ; for strong is the Lord God who 
judgeth her." Pray for that day, for it will be 5ie same day when God 
will bind up the breach of his people Israel, and shall heal the stroke 
of their wound. It will be the day when the Lamb^s wife shall come 
forth in all her loveliness, and when the Lord Jesus shall wear the 
crown of his espousals. I began this letter to you in Cracow, the an- 
cient capital of Poland, but now an independent state. We spent three 
days there inquiring after the poor despised Jews. We had much intercourse 
with a faithful, prayerful Missionary, who labours among them there ; and on 
the Sabbath we celebrated the Lord's Supper. During the four years he has 
been in Cracow, the Missionary had never once enjoyed the ordinance, for all 
around are sunk in Popery or infidelity. We were but five souls in all, and 
vet we felt it very pleasant, when surrounded with them that hated us, and far 
from our homes, with the door of the chamber shut, to remember Jesus. My 
thoughts and desires were much towards you. I had greatly hoped to be 
present at your next Lord's Supper ; but now I see it cannot be. My only 
comfort is, I have committed you to those who are beloved of the Lord, work- 
men that need not to be ashamed, whose names are in the Book of Life ; and 
the Chief Shepherd, I feel persuaded, will not leave you orphans, but will come 
to you, and breathe upon you. May the Lord keep back from the Table all 
who are not united to Christ ; and may you, who are his own children, have 
communion with the Father and with his Son Jesus Christ I 

Since yesterday morning, we have travelled 180 miles nearer home. We 
are now in Breslaw, and we breathe more freely, for this is the Protestant 
kingdom of Prussia. It makes my heart light to think that I am really on my 
way to you. It has been a sweet work indeed to me to carry, with poor 
stammering lips, the word of salvation to the scattered sheep of the house of 
Israel ; still, I do long, if it be the Lord's will, to feed once more the flock 
that was given me in the dew of my youth. Whether I shall be permitted, 
and how long, to take up so great a work again, my Master only knows ; but, 
if you wish for it as fervently as I do, solemnly agree, in the presence of God, 
on the night on which this letter is read to you, to these two things — 1st, 
Strive, together with me, in your prayers to God for me, that it would please 
him to forgive and forget our past sins and shortcomings — mine in carrying 
the message, yours in receiving it ; and that he would really heal my body, 
and strengthen my soul, for again uptaking the blessed work of the Gospel 
ministry among you, and that he would grant us a prosperous journey to come 
unto you. 2d, Solemnly agree, in the strength of the Lord Jesus, to break off 
your sins by righteousness, and your iniquities by showing mercy to the poor. 
The sin of one Achan troubled the whole camp of Israel. If any one of yon 
who are God's children wilfully continue in some old sin, then it may be Qod*s 
will, for your sake, to trouble our camp, and continue his chastening. See 
that no fleshly lust — no coveteousness, which is idolatry — no hankering after 
the world and its unholy pleasures—no unlawful affection— be reigning in you. 
Clean out the old leaven from all your houses, so that we may meet again in 
peace, and be refreshed together by days of the Lord's presence, and of the 
Spirit's power, such as we have never seen before. This is the hearty desire 
and prayer of your affectionate pastor, &c.'* 

. As Mr. M*Cheyne was, what is usually designated, a moderate 
Calvinist, his writings are slightly tinged with Calvinism. There are, 
therefore, some expressions in a few passages to which we could not 
subscribe. These, however, are but few, and are, in our judgment, but 
slight blemishes. We should not entertain a very favourable opinioa 



Reviews and LUerary Notices. 198 

of the intelligence or spiritnality of any person who conld read these 
volumes without deriving both pleasure and profit. Mr. M'Chejme's 
biographer has done himself great credit, by raising such a monument, 
as these memorials constitute, to the memory of his deceased friend. 
Perhaps we ought not to conclude without stating, that Mr. M'Cheyne 
had attached himself to the " Free Church of Scotland," 

FOX'S BOOK OF MARTYRS, Edited by the Rev. Jons Cvmawg, M.A., 
Super Royal Bvo. Parts XXXI, to XXXIII. G£0rge Virtue. 

Thb purchasers of this most excellent edition of Fox's Martyrology cannot 
&il to have been pleased with the successive Parts of the work, as they have been 
published. The typography, paper, and the numerous beautiful illustrative steel, 
and wood, engravings, are such as entitle the work to very high praise. 

THE HERALD OF PEACE. April 1844. 8vo. 50 pp. Ward & Co. 

Every right-minded person must admire the object of this publication — the 
Abolition of War, and toe consequent establishment of universal and perpetual 
peace. This important purpose must be greatly advanced by spreading the infor- 
mation which this work imparts. Philanthropic persons will do well to aid in 
extending the circulation of this and the other publications of the Peace Society. 
We copy, from the present number of the Herald of Peace, the following awful 
account of the results of the military exploits of Napoleon : — 

" Never," says a Paris paper, ** was there a conqueror who fixed more 
cannon, fought more battles, or overthrew more thrones than Napoleon. But we 
cannot appreciate the degree and quantity of his glory, without weighing the 
means he possessed, and the results which be accomplished. Enough for our 
present purpose will be gained, if we set before us the mere resources of fiesh and 
blood which he called into play, from the rupture of the peace of Amiens in 1804, 
down to his eventful exit. At that time, he had, as he declared to Lord Went- 
worth, an army of 480,000; and his different levies from 1804 to 1814, amounted 
inall to 2,965,165. This account, derived from Napoleon's official journal, the 
Moniteur, under the several dates, is deficient in the excess which was raised 
beyond the levies ; but even if we deduct the casualities, as well as the 300,000 
men disbanded in 1815, we shall be under the mark, in affirming that he slaugh- 
tered 2,500,000 human beings, and those all Frenchmen. But we have to add 
thousands and tens of thousands of Germans, Swiss, Poles, Italians, Neapolitans, 
and lUyrians, whom he forced under his eagles ; and at a moderate computation, 
those cannot have fallen short of 500,000. It is obviously just to assume, that the 
number who fell on the side of adversaries was equal to that against which they 
were brought, 

" Here, then, are our data for asserting that the latter years of Napoleon's 
glory were purchased at no less expense than 6,000,000 human beings ! And what 
was gained by all this sacrifice ? This horrible inroad on the fairest portion of 
the population of Europe, resulted in the abandonment of every conquered terri- 
tory ; the bringing of foreign enemies, twice within twenty-four months, under 
the walls of Paris, and the erasure of his name from the records of dominion." 

THE TRUMPET BLOWN IN ZION; or, the Present Condition, Duty, 
and Incitements of the Church of God ; a Sermon, by G. Wallis, Wesleyan 
Methodist Association Minister. Published by request. 8vo. do pp. Pearson, 
London ; Ziegler, Edinburgh. 

The text, on which this discourse is founded, was addressed to the people of the 
Jews, to encourage them with the prospect of deliverance from their oppressors, 
to stimulate them to arouse their slumbering energies, and to manifest their joy 
in the day of their triumph by putting on their most beautiful apparel. In the 
discourse before us this is admitted ; but, it is said, '* That the rescue of the Jews 
from the thraldom of the Assyrian yoke, was a type of the redemption of the world 
by the Saviour of our race," and that this ** must be conceded." We, however, 
are not convinced that such is the case. A type is, some circumstance, person, or 



194 Gtohgy of the Bible. 

eyenlif which is designed to prefigure and iUustrate, some other circumstJince, 
person* or event. Now wc do not remember that there is any evidence to prove 
that Jehovah designed that the deliverance of the JewA from the Assyrian yoke 
should prefigure our deliverance by the death of Christ. If such bad been the 
purpose of Jehovah, then the words of the text, on which the discourse before ut 
18 founded) ought to be rather regarded as addressed to those who have not yet 
found deliverance from the yoke of Satan, than as addressed to those who are 
brought into the liberty of the sons of God. We know that it is a yerj common 
practice, even with some highly distinguished men, to take latitude in interpreting 
passages of holy writ, and to deduce therefrom meanings never designed to be 
expressed in them by the Holy Spirit. Although good doctrine may be thus 
inculcated, the practice is by no means commendable. Notwithstanding we think 
some such liberty has been taken in the Sermon before us. yet we must admit that 
the words of the text have frequently been so applied. The discourse is designed 
to arouse the slumbering energies of Christians to increased exertions for spread- 
ing the knowledge of Divine truth ; and is highly creditable to the talents of its 
author. Several verbal inaccuracies have escaped correction. 

HINTS ON THE ESTABLISHMENT OP SCHOOLS fir Early Edu- 
cation f and on their Superintendence by Committees, Patrons^ and Visitors. Pvh^ 
Usked under ike direction of the Committee of the Home and CohniaJ Infant School 
Society, RiDi^WAY. 12mo. 84 pp. 

This is a useful manual for those who are engaged in superintending Infant 
Schools. There are some very important suggestions which will afiford valuable 
aid to Committees and Visitors. 

AN AFFECTIONATE APPEAL TO OUR YOUNG MEN, on Aeir 
Mental Improvement, By a Friend, 12mo. 12 pp. Theakston, Scarborough; 
and SiMpluK and Marshall. 

The writer, it appears, has assisted in procuring an abridgment of the hours 
of business for persons engaged in shops in the town of Scarborough, and wish- 
ing that the leisure thus afforded should be devoted to the best purposes, he hat 
published this pamphlet. Tht advice it contains is very excellent and appropri- 
ate. We wish It an extensive circulation. 



GEOLOGY or THE BIBLE. No. III. 

fFor the Wesley an Methodist Association Magazine,) 

The wisdom displayed in the works of creation, has employed the pen 
and excited the wonder of men of the highest endowments In every agO:; 
and Uiat the Most High cares for the creatures he has made, is witnessed, by 
what we see, of such a Providence, carried on before our eyes, as well as by. 
the evidence of the Book of Revelation. But though not a sparrow falls 
to the ground without our heavenly Father, yet as wc are entitled to conclude, 
even on natural grounds, that man is of higher value than many of thes^ 
we have no fear, of successful contradiction, in laying down the axiom — 
that man is the most important being in the material world; and that 
through whatever changes that world may be made to pass under the super- 
vision of Omnipotence, especial reference will be had to man, the visibU 
bead of the creation of Goa. This is clearlv seen even in the present day ; 
whether we regard the countries occupied by thinly scattered aborigines, or 
those which have been recently colonized, or those which have long been 
occupied by settled communities. The condition of roan is in every case 
that which controls the existence of the inferior animals ; and the conduct 
of the human race toward them, however objectionable in individual in* 



Otology of Hie Bible. 195 

staiMses, ooDthraally on the whole, bears witness to the impression, that tho 
general direction is in conformity to the Divine will. 

** The 8<ml*s high price is the creation's key, 
Uolocks its mysteries, and naked lays 
The genuine cause of every deed Divine : 
That in the chain of ages vrhich maintains 
Their obvious correspondence, and unites 
Most distant periods in one bless'd design : 
That is the mighty hinge on which have turned 
All rev<dution8, whether we regard 
The natural, civil, or religions world ; 
The former two but servants to the third : 
To that their duty done, they both expire, 
Their mass new cast, forget their deeds renown'd, 
And angels ask, * where once they shone so fair ?' '* 

Young. 

But in respect to the dependency of the animal tribes on human interests, 
the impressions of the mind in the bulk of the human race is generally 
foDod to have a reference to the material conveniences only : to the means of 
comfort or support which the presence of some animals supply or take away, 
or to safety from danger, which the prevalence of others would place m 
hazard. We can easily suppose that in God*s providential arrangements. 
His prescience has a wider range than this, and that it extends to other — 
and we may add, more important objects. The moral government of man, 
and his condition in the developement of dispensations may be supposed to 
have occupied a high— even the highest place in the Divine contemplation ; 
and, for this purpose, that at different periods in the lapse of ages, there 
should be developed different qualities of the human intellect, or different, 
though not discordant intentions of the Divine purposes. Even if man had. 
never sinned, there is no reason to believe that the world and its inhabitants 
would have passed on through their different ages without considerable 
changes ; which would have been subservient to the display of the different 
attributes of the all-wise Governor, according as the human intellect had 
attained the faculty of comprehending them. Such at least, has been the 
order of the Divine procedure since man became a sinner. The moral 
condition of the human race has been different, not in degree of guilt and 
innocency only, but in manner also, of which the elements have been formed 
by his opportunities, his prejudices, his foregone conclusions, and even the 
means of easy or difficult subsistence : and therefore, in different ages of 
the world, in consequence of these different conditions, and to prepare for 
others, the great Eternal has seen fit to change the externals of human 
existence; among other things, and in a way to excite special attention 
(though assuredly not for this alone) changing the length of human life, 
from almost the duration of a thousand years, down to the ordinary span of 
seventy years, at which we now see it. The Scriptures inform us that this 
did not proceed from any wearing out or declension of human vitality, as 
some have supposed ; for creation knows nothing of such a natural wasting. 
It was not gradual ; though this might have been without any impeachment 
of the Divinity of the procedure : but the better to display intention, it was 
sudden, as testifying that the cause, however connected as we may allow it 
to have been with natural phsenomena, was not a perpetually acting one. 
In philosophical accordance with this remark we will here notice — what 
perhap we shall again have to refer to — that competent authority has shown, 
that the extinction of the tribes of animals, now known to exist only in a fos- 
sil state, must in every case have taken place on the occurrence of some 
suddenly acting cause ; for if it had been accompanied with a gradually 
altering state of natural circumstances, (as those of the composition of the 
air and water, temperature, elevation or depression ) the living creatures 



196 Geology of th€ Bible. 

themselves would have passed through some changes of structure, to accom* 
modate themselves to these new conditions of existence, until the change 
hecame so great or rapid, as to exceed their capacity of further adapting 
themselves to it : none of which is found to have been the case. The believer 
in Revelation holds this as proceeding from an original and express command 
of Deity ; but, no believer in a God — except perhaps the follower of Epicurua 
who imagined that the Most High is above caring for any of these things — can 
doubt that the eye and intention of God must have seen and permitted these 
things. In such a case, to see and permit is to order : for even die capacity of 
tendency to change must have entered into this comprehension of the Creator 
when he exercised his creative power. 

It will require but a small portion of our stores of philosophy to show 
— First: — that the present constitution of this world is well fitted to the exist- 
ing nature of its inhabitants : including in the enumeration the multiplicity 
of beings of the various natural races which people the air, earth and sea. 
Many volumes have been written in illustration of this proposition ; and if 
any one is inclined to entertain doubts on the subject, he is referred to Bay, 
Derham, Paley, and the Bridgewater Treatises : in one or other of which he 
will find the first philosophers of this or any other age, triumphing in this 
important demonstration— that the constitution of living animals, of which 
man is the chief, is closely adapted to the nature of the air, temperature, 
seasons — vea, to the whole frame work of nature, as it is now seen ; displav- 
ing something more than an accidental approximation : and proving that the 
one was made to suit the other. 

Secondly, our stores of philosophy will show, what indeed is no more than 
a corollary from the former principle : — that if the nature of man were in any 
remarlcable degree made to differ from what we now see it to be, it would 
become less adapted to the existing nature and constitution of the globe : and 
that consequently when undergoing, if he must do so, a very important natural 
change, the world itself, in its air, water, temperature and other (as we are ac- 
customed to regard them,) essential portions of it must undergo changes corres- 
ponding thereto ; or by remaining as it is become ill adapted to the safety, com- 
fort or existence of its principal inhabitant. That in the lapse of ages man 
has undergone important changes in his natural temperament, is testified as 
as well by the Bible as by ancient traditions of all nations, and is believed 
by the generalitv of the human race. 

That the world has also suffered change we have already seen referred to in 
St. Peter's remarkable words, and shall have further to develope. It is at the 
foundation of the science of geology, and is proved by every rock and fossil on 
which we cast our eyes ; and we will put this question to every candid enqui- 
rer ; whether in the vast multiplicity of the species of the animal and vege- 
table creation, all endowed with the specific characters, and a limited capacity 
of existence, it is net exceedingly probable, that in the course of the great 
alterations which may have taken ( we say may have, but we intend to show 
that they must have taken place under the circumstances ; and the material 
proofs remain ) in the air, water, temperature, seasons, and structured compo- 
sition of the solid portions of the earth, as has been already shown ( in No. 2} 
some tribes of animals and vegetables will not be found, \ahose living exist- 
ence could not be maintained, amidst the changes or under the new constitu- 
tion of things ? The conclusion seems unavoidable, and therefore instead of 
feeling surprise that in the course of ages some tribes of beings should drop 
out of existence, the wonder might have been neater if it had been otherwise. 
They had a place in one harmony of nature ; out in a new arrangement their 
place is no more found, and to have kept them alive would have been to 
smpport anomalies in an unnatural state. The knowledge of their natural 
amnities may be as well preserved in their fragments consolidated in a rock ; 
and for that alone it is that the philosopher would desire their presence. 



On Public Worship. 197 

It ii well known that man as be is now constituted, is capable of living and 
ftilfilling the objects of his existence, under a vast variety of physical circum- 
stances and changes : so that the cold of the Pole and heat of the Equator, 
the level of the sea or the highest mountain, the free air of the ocean or 
desert, or that of the crowded city, are alike natural to him. The dog is the 
only animal capable of living and propagating under similar circumstances ; 
bat if any of the other existing races were compelled to pass through condi- 
tions which both of these would suffer with impunity, they must sink under 
it ; and we can even conceive of changes greater than any of those which are 
measured out by transitions from the Equator to the Pole — where the compo- 
sition of the air and water might be altered, under which many must die, to 
whom other or slighter changes might be indifferent. We even know that 
there are creatures, whose limits of existence are exceedingly circumscribed, 
and whom a comparatively slight variation of temperature, moisture, or even 
light, would drive out of existence. The birds of paradise, and humming 
mrds, for the most part, can only exist within the tropics ; and the Proteus 
Anguinus only in the dark caverns in Camiola. In our next paper we shall 
proceed then to the application of these observations, to the purposes of our 
geological reasoning ; and we shall find no great difficulty in reconciling the 
utmost that the geologist can legitimately contend for, with the truths 
contained in the Divine Records. 

(To be continued.) 



ON PUBLIC WORSHIP— No. V. 

CONCLUDED. 

(For the Wesleyan Methodist Association Magazine,) 
NON-ATTENDANCE. LATE- ATTENDANCE. 

Faoic the earliest period of the world, the worship of the Supreme Being 
flas been considered a duty of the highest importance, obligatory upon every 
human creature possessed of rational powers. The worship instituted in the 
first ages appears to have been exceedingly simple, consisting of an offering 
made to Jehovah of the fruits of the earth, by which the bounty of his pro- 
vidence was acknowledged ; whilst the offering up of a lamb or a goat, or 
some other animal from the flock was designed to express consciousness of 
guilt, and a confession of the necessity of a sacrifice. Generations of men 
succeeded each other in the downward course of time, witnessing no change 
in the mode of approach to Deity, or in the institutions of religious worship ; 
save and except that, as families increased through the patriarchal dispensa- 
tion, the number of priests became necessarily augmented ; — the head of each 
family being charged with the duty of presenting for himself, and those 
belonging to him, the usual required offerings. Scripture and reason con- 
cur in inducing the belief that as no member of a family was excluded from 
participating in the benefits of Divine Worship, so none were exonerated 
from the regular performance of it, as a solemn duty. 

"When the Israelites became settled in Palestine, and a regularly ordained 
priesthood established, a most important change in the mode of conducting 
public worship, under the immediate direction of the Almighty, took place! 
As an acknowledgment of the necessity of an atonement for sin, by Divine 
appointment, a public sacrifice was offered up every morning and even- 
ing, on behalf of the entire inhabitants of the country. The worship of 
Almighty God thus became more distinctly recognized ; and his claim to 
the pubHc homage of his rational creatures, established on a lasting founda- 



198 On Public Worship. 

tion. To meet the circucnstances of those of the Je^sh people who were 
scattered throagh the various towns and villages of the erupire, and who, cou- 
sequently, were unable to be present at the daily worsnip in the temple, 
iynagoguea, and proseucha^ or courts of prayer, were erected ; to which the 
people were wont to repair, at the time for offering the daily sacrifice in the 
temple ; and the very profession of Judaism, required the regular and stated 
attendance of its votaries at these places. There were occasions, however, 
when neither distances, nor the claims of family, or business, could serve as 
a sufficient excuse for not appearing personally at Jerusalem, to join in the 
solemn worship of Jehovah ; three times in each year,— at the feast of the 
Passover— the feast of Pentecost— and the feast of Tabernacles ; e,sety 
male inhabitant who was not infirm*, or sick, or an idiot, or under the age of 
thirteen years, being imperatively required to '* appear '* in the great congre- 
gation gathered from all the coasts of Israel, ''before the Lord his God." 

It is true, that the ceremonies and requirements of the Mosaic dispensation 
imposed a heavy burden upon its professors, and became a ''yoke, whicb, 
said the apostle Peter, neither they nor their fathers " were able to bear.*' It 
is not, therefore, to be wondered, that the wisdom and goodness of God saw 
fit, in the fulness of time, and when all the objects for which it hod been 
established were accomplished, to abrogate and abolish its ceremonial obliga- 
tions, and substitute a more simple, and less oppressive mode of worship. Ii 
is important, however, to observe that, although Divine worship became thus 
lightened of an undue pressure, and better adapted to men's circurascances in 
life, its claims upon mankind universally, were in no wise changed or lessened. 
The offering up of daily sacrifices by the Mosaic priesthood, it is true, ceased, 
and men were no longer required to present '* the blood of bulls or of goats,*' 
as an expiation^ for sin ; for the fun atonement for all mankind had been 
made in the offering up of Christ. Besides, the new economv had consecrated 
the whole body of the faithful as priests, who, without the necessity of a 
material altar, or the slaying of a single animal, were enabled to present 
perpetual sacrifices to God, of praise and thanksgiving. But, it is not con- 
ceivable that, because the claims of the Supreme Being to homage and wor- 
ship, were thus rendered easier to be performed, that the force of such claims 
should be terminated, or in any respect become weakened. The founders of 
the Christian system, the apostles of our Lord, acting under plenary inspira- 
tion, both by their example and precept, demonstrated the paramount duty 
of all to unite in "lifting up holy hands;** and for this purpose, exhorted 
Christians not to " forsake the assembling of themselves together.** And 
the church, in its best and holiest, as well as in its less favoured days, from 
that period to the present, has never ceased to recognize and enforce the duty 
and privilege of the people of God, to carry out the practice which the faith- 
ful have ever followed, — of diligently and conscientiously attending to public 
worship. 

It is not improbable that some readers may feci surprised at the present 
attempt to point out the scriptural authority, and the practice of the church, 
as the foundation of a duty which they themselves believe to be of paramount 
importance ; and which they are disposed to believe no Christian, at least, 
will call in question, or in any measure doubt. It is not, however, for one 
moment imagined, that the readers of this Magazine will be found among 
those who deny the duty, obligatory upon all, of being regularly found among 
the true worshippers of God, who, in the great congregation, worship God in 
spirit and in truth. The remarks already made are addressed to tnose who 
make this confession ; who, it may be said, in general terms, act out the 
principle which that confession involves ; and who would be ashamed to have 
ft thought that they were in any measure otherwise minded. Let me, how- 
ever, pause for a moment, and be allowed to put this simple queation to every 
individual of this class of professing Christians, — How does it happen, not- 



Oft JhibHc Wor$hip. 199 

withsunding the fbll reeoffnition of this duty among Christ h followers, that 
eoDgregitioQS lo freqoeoUj exhibit the absence of its members — yes, and 
nembers of the church too^for whose "non-attendance" upon public 
wwshipy no sufficieot or satisfactory reason can be assigned ? I am quite 
iware thst a yarietr of causes will occasionally arise— as personal and family 
illietiony unavoidable absence from home, and the claims of families upon 
tiieir nspectiye members ; but, after making every possible and reasonable 
dbwanee on these grounds, still it is greatly to be feared, nay, it is well 
known, that many persons allow other, and trifling matters, to detain them 
Ipboi Qod*8 house, and worship, when solemn and binding duty calls them 
Id it Is it not a fact, that the Sabbath day is often made choice of, even by 
professors of religion, for unnecessary journeying ; for family and friendly 
fislta ; for preparation for absence from home on ordinary business ; or for 
amfinement to the house for the purpose of temporary medical treatment ; all 
of which might be attended to with equal regard to the interests involved, 
vithoat infringing on the Lord*s day; were the dutv and obligation to 
be present at pnbTio worship, deeply rooted as a principle in the mind, and 
permitted to influenee and regulate the conduct ? Nay, the causes of such 
dereliction of duty are almost innumerable. A very slight feeling of bodily 
SMlisposition — which would not be allowed to interfere with the usual worldly 
avooation-^an unfavourable state of the weather, or even the prospect of it — 
disappointment of some expected article of dress — or the absence of a favorite 
minister — will keep individuals at home from public worship, and thus 
involve them in guilt and condemnation before God, for the neglect of a 
idemn and highlv important duty. Now it is very likely if those persons 
were charged with despising prophecy ; with culpably forgetting to assemble 
diemselves together, after the manner of some in- primitive times ; with 
robbing God of his right of public worship, as did the Jews in the days of 
Malaohi, and the legitimate consequence of their conduct pointed out to them, 
that they would startle at such announcements, and deny themselves to be 
soch cbaracten. But, let me ask, is the fact the less so for the apparent 
ignorance manifested in reference to it ; or the sin less offensive in the sight 
•f God iiecause men practise it with their eyes blinded, and with a conscience 
impervious to the teaching and influence of the Divine Spirit ? I hold it to 
be impossible that any man can commit so heinous an offence against Jehovah 
IS to deny him, without sufficient and overwhelming necessity which would 
at once deprive the act of all guilt, the homage which public worship implies, 
widiout being lost to every just moral perception, and destitute of the prin- 
ciples of a genuine and sincere Christian. Let those, then, who are justly 
chargeable with ** non-attendance*' at public worship, when duty and pri- 
vilege impieratlvely require them to be present, ponder the evil consequences 
both as regards themselves, and others, of conduct so serious and dan- 
gerons! 

Bnt there is, probably, a much more numerous class of persons than belongs 
to the one we have been considering, to whom the second description applies ; 
— that is, those who are guilty of " late attendance ** at public worship. It 
is truly surprising to see the number of persons who make a constant and 
almbst invariable practice of coming to worship after the service has been 
eommenced : and who appear as if they were incapable of doing otherwise. 
Many such persons in apologising for their conduct, express an opinion that 
the time for preparation in the morning is too short to enable them, and their 
fnnilies, to be punctual ; and they are thus necessitated to intrench upon the 
time of service j but the probability is, were the period extended even half an 
hour, they would be found following the same course, disturbing the more 
orderly part of the congregation by their late attendance. The fact is, that 
this is a matter which has reference more to the habits than the opportunities 
of ^fieMoat-; depMiding ma/ce upon a conviction of the mind as to duty and 



200 On Public Warship. 

obligation, than upon the means of carrying out such conviction. For the 

Sroof of this, we need only look round a congregation and observe the atten* 
ance of the hearers. In one case, we shall find the father and mother of a 
large family, who, with their children, have probably some distance to walk 
to the place of worship, who are almost invariably to be found in the pew 
before Divine worship is commenced. On the other hand, a less numerous 
household, all probably capable of making personal preparation for attendance, 
with a shorter distance to walk, will be found dropping into the chapel, per- 
haps in pairs, but oftener as single individuals, when the first singing is 
nearly concluded, or perhaps during prayer ; — for late attenders often intrude 
into Grod*s temple, to the annoyance of others, during the solemn moments of 
supplication to the Almighty, and some of them even after the lessons are 
read, and while the second hymn is being sung: Nor is this a mere occasional 
occurrence ; it will be found, on a very slight observance, that many individuals 
and families, are as regular in their irregularity, and as constantly absent 
from the house of prayer at the beginning of worship, as others are to be there 
at the commencement ; this proves, therefore, but too truly, that there is more 
of guilt and condemnation attached to the conduct of such persons than pro- 
bably they would be disposed to admit, or possibly are at all aware of. 

Nor is It difficult to trace out, in many cases, the causes which produce the 
evil now complained of. With some late attenders at public worship, it is the 

Eractice to indulge themselves with, it may be, two or three hours more of 
ed on the Sabbath morning than on that of any other day in the week ; they 
consequently lose, in the early part of that hallowed day, what can never 
afterwards be recovered ; and are behind time and duty, in respect to almost 
everything with which they are called to occupy themselves throughout the 
liOrd's day. At the same time, it is very probable, that many of these indi- 
viduals could boast of their order and punctuality in business; the regularity 
with which they commence it every d.i^, and the excellent system upon 
which it is conducted. It is much to be feared, that for some such professors 
of religion the world has greater charms and stronger inducements than the 
service of the house of God! Many persons, are, however, driven to late 
attendance from the mere want of thought and regularity in attention to the 
duties required of them on the Sabbath morning. But, a very little previous 
arrangement will suffice, for every duty being discharged at the right time, 
in a proper manner, and would prevent much confusion and disorder which 
sometimes disarranges families, and give ample opportunity for all to be 
found in their places in the house of God at the proper time. There are, 
however, it is to be feared, many who habitually occupy themselves on the 
morning of the sacred day with various matters which have no connexion with 
the Sabbath, and which ought never to be permitted to occupy the attention 
of the Christian on the day of rest. It is evident, when this is the case, that 
the views of such persons, of the proper nature and sanctity of that day, are 
far below the standard of the word of God ; and their practice such as cannot 
but be offensive in the sight of the Divine Being. No wonder then, that such 
persons are found among those whose attendance at public worship is both 
irregular and late. But whatever may be the cause of the absence of any 
part of a congregation at the time for the commencement of public worship — 
and especially when the practice is constant and habitual — it becomes an evil 
of no ordinary magnitude; a nuisance which reouires to be abated. If 
individuals guilty of such conduct, would but seriously consider some of the 
effects produced by such a course, surely they would be induced to abandon 
it. Let them think for a moment upon the character they acquire for them- 
selves, in the estimation of the reflecting, and more orderly part of the con- 
gregation. They will come, probably, to be looked upon by them as persons 
of unsettled principles, and aisorderly habits ; as those who profess no order 
in their family arrangements, and are destitute of a due regard for the sanctity 



On Public Worship. 201 

of the Sabbath. They entitle themselves to be considered as having no 
proper or sufficient devotional spirit, and as the common disturbers of the 
deTotions of others. And then the eflect of such a practise upon themselves, 
cannot be otherwise than most injurious. It tends to break down in their 
own mind the distinction, in matters of the highest importance, between what 
is strictljr right, and what is essentially wrong. To render them satisfied with 
only a Binaii portion, when duty and privilege invite them to a full banquet of 
spiritual blessings ; disregarding the claims which the Almighty has upon 
their time and service, and inducing a practice of doing the work of the Lord 
" deceitfully." 

And if such persons be heads of families, officers in the church of Christ, 
or teachers in Sabbath schools, how pernicious and deeply injurious docs their 
example become I When an indiviaual sustaining some place of honour and 
importance, some officer in the church, is found among those who attend 
late, — ^if the axiom be true, that ** no man liveth to himself" — what a lament- 
able efPect will such a course be likely to produce. There is, unhappily, no 
risk in saying, that such a practice finds many imitators ; that numbers of 
persons, with such an example before them, scarcely trouble themselves for 
an apology for their conduct, either to justify it to their own minds, or as an 
extenuation of it to others. And such is the influence of an evil practise, 
that the transition from ** late attendance,** to ** non-attendance," especially on 
the part of young persons, would generally be found but too easy. When 
those who during the earlier period of life had been taught the practice of 
arriving at the Lord's house and worship, at the latest possible moment ; and 
thereby had induced a belief that the public worship of Almighty God was 
irksome and unpleasant ; and that as much of it was compatible with de- 
cency, should, by **late attendance," be avoided; can it excite any degree 
of surprise if those young persons, when removed fr^m under the paternal roof 
and control, are, under such circumstances, soon found absenting themselves 
altogether from religious ordinances, and the service of God*s house. Well 
indeed will it be, if, at the day of judgment, it be not charged home against 
parents, and those to whose care such young persons have been conflded ; 
that to the force of their example, more than to any other circumstance, such 
an awful departure from the right way was to be attributed. Besides, the 
practises which are taught to youth, whether in families or Sabbath schools, 
become, by the force of habit, fixed rules of conduct, which are carried out 
into the every-day concerns of life, and are seen in everything they have to 
do. If then in affairs of the highest moment they are taught to trifle, to delay, 
and neglect, and thus to rob the Almighty of his due — in what other 
capacity can they be expected honourably, and faithfully, to discharge the 
various obligations which will be imposed upon them in passing through 
life! 

In conclusion, permit me humbly to indulge a hope, that, should any 
person who has neglected public worship, and against whom the charge of 
'^non-attendance," to a greater or less degree, justly applies, cast his eyes 
over these lines, he may, by reflection, see and feel his error, and be induced 
by the assistance of Divine grace, in future, to render the homage and service 
which Jehovah claims in his house. And that some late attenders— if not 
many — whose practise hitherto has been at once an annoyance to the con- 
gregations, and an insult to the worship of the Almighty, will see the impro- 
priety of such conduct, and resolve to show their love and attachment to 
public worship, by setting an example of order and punctuality in their at- 
tendance, which others may be induced both to admire and imitate. 

Leeds. M. J. 



202 



JUVENILE MISSIONARY ASSOCIATIONS. 

To THE Editor. — Sib, 

As every thing connected with the church of God, and the evangelization 
of the v^orld, is important ; and as, you are aware that, most of the good to be 
effected, for the future generation, must be done by the young of this : I 
think you will appreciate my motives in laying before you a plan by which, 
I imagine, great advantages will be gained, to the church of God and 
the world. 

In the Jirat place, sir, I consider the establishment of Joyenile Mis- 
sioHART Associations, composed of the elder boys and girls, as well as 
the assistant teachers, of our Sabbath schools, to be of the very first impor- 
tance. Almost all, if not a//, will, I believe, agree, that where there are a 
number of boys and girls, from fifteen to eighteen years of age, it is most 
difiicult to retain them in our schools ; and yet, that, this is a most desirable 
object, as at that age they may become most useful to others. The great 
difficulty is that of finding them suitable occupation. They cannot be 
retained, as scholars merely ; since they can read and spell as well as their 
teachers. Hence they consider themselves to be, and indeed really are^ to 
a great extent, beyond control I ]Now, sir, I am sure it is most aesirable, 
that they should be kept, so far under the eye of their instructors, that they 
may, when arrived at maturity, be useful in the church of God, both to 
benefit themselves and others. 

This being premist'd, my plan is, to make every school an Auxiliart 
Missionary Association. For instance, to appoint one scholar, a /7re«tc/en/, 
another vice-president, another secretary, and another «t/6-treasurer (for 
in all cases I would appoint as treasurer, a teacher in whom all parties 
can confide.) I would then select nine or a dozen as a committee ; let 
a goodly number have collecting cards, and do their best. Let them then 
meet at stated times, with (at least) one of their teachers present. By thus 
appointing each other to office, and accustoming each to fulnl its 
duties, they will be prepared for future usefulness in the church, when 
mature judgment will enable them to fulfil the higher duties required of them. 
Instead of indulging in levity and trifling, they will be accustomed to sobriety 
and steadiness ; and by having an interest in the work, will make the pros- 
perity of the church their own. They will then be fully imbued with the 
importance of the Mission cause, and thus will be better able to assist in 
evangelizing the world 1 

In the second place, I think that the plan is not only desirable for the 
reason I have stated, but that even taking a financial view of the matter, 
it is not to be despised. Suppose, that we have in our Connexion 150 
schools, able to assist in this way : suppose that each of these schools can 
average about four pounds per annum : we have then £600 to hand over 
to our Treasurer, and this too, without crippling the efforts, or relaxinff the 
energies of the adult members of the Connexion, and I leave you to judge 
with what feelings he would receive this handsome subscription, to assist in 
paying off the debt of our Connexion ; and I have no doubt the Com- 
mittee would most gladly avail themselves of the residue, to send more 
labourers into the spiritual vineyard I 

In the school witn which I have the pleasure to be connected, we have 
just commenced a society of this kind, and with considerable success I At 
our first monthly meeting not one half of our collectors reported progress; 
yet 25s. was handed over to our Treasurer. Now Sir, what is to prevent 
others from following an example, or even exceeding us in the success of 
their efforts. 



On Marrying Unbelievers. 203 

Let all then, try what they can do in this cause. In every circuit let each 
do his or her best to promote the cause of God. For my oitm part, 1 should 
rejoice, even if the present debt could be wiped away by the efforts of the 
young. What a triumph of religion aud reason, over levity and the 
thoughtlessness of human nature I I think I can say, that we in Liver- 
pool will do our part We have already four Sabbath schools engaged 
in this work, and I have little doubt that the other four will soon follow the 
example. 

Superintendents ! secretaries ! teachers I arouse yourselves I ** Quit 
you like men ; be strong ! ** and the arm of the Lord will be stretched out 
in power to assist your endeavours, and to crown them with success. 

I am, Sir, yours truly, 

Liverpool. A Supeeintemdest. 



ON MARRYING UNBELIEVERS. 

Dear Sir, 
Not only amongst the people of the world but also amongst very many of 
those who have been brought to the knowledge of the truth — it is to be lamented 
that pmUm or convenience are the principal motives in marriage ; the consequence 
of which is — and that in numberless instances — those who have in reality 
experienced the regenerating influence of the Gospel and who attend upon the 
same in truth and love, intermarry with such as have never been renewed 
in the spirit of their minds — aliens to the converting grace of God. Observing 
what the New Testament says on this important subject, we find that it exhorts 
Christian believers not to be unequally yoked with unbelievers^ and to marry only 
in the Lord, 

Solomon's paganish wives turned away his heart from the Lord. Uncon- 
verted husbands and wives injure the souls of their partners in life. In too 
many instances passion is allowed to take the reins before Divine counsel has 
been sought in a matter of such vast importance, as it regards both the health 
and prosperity of the soul in time, and its happiness for eternity. Henry 
observes, that if before marriages it be proper to ask counsel and consent of an 
earthly parent, much more ought we to ask counsel and consent of our heavenly 
Father. Now God does not give consent that a believer (one of his spiritual 
children) should marry an unbeliever, that is, one unacquainted with the saving 
influences of Christ*s Gospel on the heart and mind. 

To mixed marriages is ascribed the corruption of the old world. Gen. vi. 
They were forbidden to Israel. Deut. vii. 3, 4. They were, as we have already 
observed, the immediate cause of Solomon*s apostacy ; and they produced the 
most unhappy consequences among the Jews, after their return from the Baby- 
lonish captivity, Ezra ix. 10. O that the disciples of the blessed Jesus were 
more conscientious (living as they do under brighter dispensation) in examining 
the sacred phages of the New Testament 1 They would there find that a carnal 
and unconverted professor is as unfit a partner to a really converted Christian 
as ever the most ignorant heathen could have been to a Jew. The carnal mind, 
from the fall of Adam to the present day, in every age, and in both sexes, is 
*' enmity against God.'' Rom. viii. 7. It has often been urged, by advocates 
for mixed marriages, especially by young professors, in making choice of a wife, 
that if she have the form of godliness, a believing husband may be the means of 
bringing such an one to know its power ; they refer to St. Paul, 1 Cor. vii. 
10 — 16. The apostle in the passage is giving directions to converted Gentiles, 
how to treat their partners to whom they were married previous to their conver- 
sion to Christianity. It was in the days of their ignorance they formed this 



204 On Marrying Unbelievers, 

connection; the religion they professed, so far from dissolving the ties of 
marriage, served to fix them on more lasting principles ; in this case then, the 
marriage state was sanctified to the real believer, whether husband or wife, not- 
withstanding the non-conversion of the partner. But it is otherwise with those 
who presumptuously join hands with unbelievers under such fallacious expec- 
tations — expectations so contrary to the express injunctions of Scripture 1 

To the unmarried, St. Paul speaks in another style : To such he says, 
"Marry in the Lord." 1 Cor. vii. 39. ** Be not unequally yoked with 
unbelievers." 2 Cor. vi. 14. The Scriptures are so plain on this subject, that 
an attempt to make the thing clear, would be like holding the candle to the 
sua. Mixed marriages are not more unscriptural in their character than 
destructive in their consequences to social happiness and domestic peace. Such 
are inimical to the very spirit and genius of Christianity ; and invariably pro- 
duce consequences the most deplorable among the children of God. O that the 
upper servants of the sanctuary were above all others more scrupulously atten- 
tive to the will and directions of their Master, and their own present and 
eternal interests in seeking their partners for life I What a handle do they 
afford to the enemies of religion, when such behold them ** yoked together with 
unbelievers ;" and how they, by their saddening example, lead weak Christians 
to their hurt, if not to their eternal ruin I This consideration might well check 
any foolish, passionate fondness for the most splendid personal accomplishment, 
or the fairest prospect or pecuniary advantage, in preference to the more lasting 
and lovely ornaments of a meek and quiet spirit, which is, in the sight of God, 
of great price." 1 Pet. iii. 4. The Christian should make the will of God the 
reason, and his glory the aim and the end of all his desires and actions. This 
can never be the actuating principle of such as join affinity with either God*s 
enemies or dubious friends. 

Mixed marriages portend irreparable evil to society, and are big with mischief 
to the Church of Christ. How can two walk together except they are agreed ? 
Alas I the rising generation will afford ample proof to the truth of this assertion. 
Examples, for good or evil, make deep impressions — the latter most frequently, 
and is often the most powerful. A division of sentiment in the camp soon lets 
in the enemy. How feeble are divided efTorts — in training up children in the 
nurture and admonition of the Lord. Alas! the family altar, if at first set up, 
two frequently is soon cast down and trodden under foot. Piety is a delicate 
flower, easily injured, and often crushed in this world's wilderness; and if 
faith be not kept in constant exercise, it soon withers, — soon decays I How can 
it be otherwise, when a Christian is joined to one who is altogether a stranger to 
the dignified and tender feelings which actuate the soul of him who has in 
reality been turned from darkness to light, and from Satan to God ? However 
kind and condescending, she never can, in a spiritual sense, "rejoice with him 
when he rejoices : nor weep with him when he weeps." The spiritual sympa- 
thiser is required — but in vain does the wishful mind desire the needful aid. 
The soul has been wedded to its idol, but which, in the darksome day of 
affliction, can afford no soul comfort. The rich store-house of Divine promises 
is awfully closed. But glad is the heart of the Christian man who has kept the 
commanded course — the Divine direction of marrying only in the LorcT. In 
soul trouble — in bodily suffering — in social trouble — in personal or family 
affliction, where is the balmy medicine — the social prayer of faith to the cove- 
nant breaker? — Alas! alas! the door of the well-spring is closed, as with an 
** iron-hand." The throne of the heavenly grace is closed, through the turpitude, 
unfaithfulness, and disobedience of him — who at one period made the entire 
law of the Lord his delight. It is truly awful to reflect on the numberless 
instances and the tremendous evils consequent on this flagrant departure 
from the Divine direction. Individuals enchained in a marriage union, yet 
dragging out a death-like existence, in many instances, are as useless lumber 
in the Church of Christ. Men and women designed by the heavenly trans- 
former to become through life the happy instruments in his church of help- 



Educational Efforts. 205 

JDg many to glory — becoming dead weights and hindrances to others, and my 
h^rt bleeds whilst looking at ** instances numberless ! '' 

But the mos^ awful consideration is, the prospect of an eternal separation at 
death. Cutting, indeed, beyond expression, must it be, to have such a reflec- 
tion haunting the mind continually I The fond hope of seeing a divine change 
in the heart of the unconverted partner has proved to be, in many numerous 
cases, the ^hope — hopeless;'* and in the continuous absence of this change 
what racking fears and doubts prevail ; ** few are they that be saved.*' I close 
this distressing subject for the present, hoping to resume it at some early 
period ; and am yours truly. 



EDUCATIONAL EFFORTS. 

To THE Editob, — Dear Sir, 

With all deference to Mr.Mallinson, and admitting the suggestive prudence 
of bis letter to you of the 1 1 th January last, I beg to differ from his views 
respecting the subject of education, as it bears upon our Connexion. I 
cannot understand how the comparative failure of any one proposal, should 
be the necessary negative of every other. Many things may be proposed 
to men on which they cannot see alike ; or, for which, they are not disposed 
to do an equal service. Again, it will always happen with bodies, that 
incidental to their times or their peculiarities, measures will start up quite 
suddenly and unexpectedly, which nevertheless, must not be allowed to pass 
unheeded. The educational scheme, as laboured to be incorporated with 
Lord Ashley^s Factory Bill, was a lamentable case in point ; and who that 
was party to the resolutions, for raising the funds, alluded to by your cor- 
respondent, could then have contemplated the enormity of that sectarian 
measure, the very enunciation of which was the creation of energy, enter- 
prise and determination on the part of dissenters. A measure, too, which 
now requires the most extraordinary efforts on the part of the nonconform- 
ing world, though to accomplish and carry the same mto effect, should even 
involve the postponement of former plans of pecuniary usefulness. 

Extraordinary occasions demand extraordinary means, and there is not 
a single religious body without the pale of the Establishment, which was 
not emphatically called upon to arouse itself at the time of the fearful ex- 
tremity to which we have just referred. 

I would not say, we have the easy ability everywhere in the Connexion 
of conforming to an organised and uniform plan of education, and of thus 
encouraging, throughout our bounds, a system m strait-jacket and tight-lace, 
either bending or breaking^ all in its way, or falling under its influence ; — no, 
DO, but I would enquire — where is the solitary place in our common Chris- 
tian interest, that cannot in some way or other promote the work of daily 
education ? 

The duty of training occurs wherever a child is found to prattle ; abandon 
that duty and the work is engrossed by the state church. Or, let the matter 
of education be put off by us till a fancied ' more convenient season,' and it 
will not remain for us to do, for others will accomplish it, and probably on 
a decidedly different footing from that of nonconformity. 

How unsatisfactory it will be to begin to have nurseries when we should 
rather be looking to them, for replenishing our churches, must be left to the 
confusion of such a thought ; but how noble to have aided in instructing the 
British youthful mind at a time when baptismal error and other Puseyite 
dogmas alarmingly prevailed, will strike every magnanimous and retros- 
pective heart. 

The estimable Editor of the ' Christian Witness * has been pleased to call 



206 



Religious Intelligence, 



the Wesleyan Methodist Association '* active, enlighteDed, and liberal," and it 

were deeply to be deplored if our body should not endeavour fully to sustain 

that honourable character, at the present critical and unprecedented juncture. 

Penzance, W. H. Rodo. 



BRITISH AND FOREIGN SCHOOL SOCIETY FUND. 

A Circular Letter has been addressed by the President and Secretary of the 
last Annual Assembly, to all the superintendant preachers of our connexion, 
requesting them to bring the Resolutions on the extension of education, passed 
by the Connexional Committee in February last« before our Societies, for the 
purpose of getting the recommendations therein contained carried into effect. 
We hope this letter will receive due attention from all our friends. There are, 
we are pursuaded, many friends who if personally applied to by our itinerant 
preachers, will cheerfully contribute to the fund for the British and Foreign School 
Society. When a public collection cannot be introduced into our chapels on a 
Sabbath day, it may be advisable to have a week evening sermon and collection. 
Ministers of other churches would willingly render their services on such occa- 
sions. The amounts contributed will be separately acknowledged. 



PREACHER'S BENEFICENT SOCIETY. 

Few Circuits have as yet remitted contributions in aid of this fund. We trust 
however, that the importance of supporting this fund, designed for the assistance 
of Itinerant Ministers, when laid aside through affliction, and who may be 
in circumstances of absolute necessity, will receive the proper attention of the 
friends of our Connexion. A kind friend has recently sent us a letter on this 
subject, an extract from which, for the encouragement of others, we now insert. 

Dear Sir, Hull, April, 19, 1844. 

By applying to Sir Charles Price and Co., Bankers, London, you will 
receive £10 lOs. for the Preacher's Beneficent Society, which I promised some 
time ago, and should have sent it before, but was in hopes a friend of mine 
would have joined me with a similar amount. 

I am. Sir, yours respectfully. 
Rev. R, Eckett. J. H. Vallance. 

There have also been received the following amounts. 

Overton Circuit, by Mr. Tidswell, 19 6 

Mr. J. Lewarne, Probus, Cornwall, by Mr. Rosevear, 3 

Tavistock Circuit, 16 



RELIGIOUS INTELLIGENCE. 



MANCHESTER. 

SUNOAY SCHOOLS— GR08VEN0R STREET 
CIECUIT. 

Mr. Editor.— Sir— In the January 
Number of your increasingly interesting 
Miscellany, I noticed a request from 
you for more Sunday school informa- 
tion than you hud lately been favoured 
with. I will endeavour to do what I 
can in compliance with your request, 
and begin by informing you of a very 
pleasing, and, I trust, useful service, 
connected with the Sunday schools in 
Grosvenor Street circuit. We have 
quarterly addresses delivered in Gros- 



venor Street tabernacle, to the teachers, 
scholars, parents, and friends of the 
five schools in that circuit ; the service 
commences at half-past two o'clock on 
Sunday afternoon. Along the streets 
leading to the different schools, half an 
hour previously, may be seen long lines 
of clean and happy looking Sunday 
scholars, with their teachers by their 
sides, wending their way to the house 
of God, on these joyful and animating 
occasions. 

The galleries and sides of the chapel 
arc appropriated to the schools, and 
the middle is reserved for the parents 
and friends. After the bustle or enter- 



Heliffiotis Intelligence. 



207 



ing is over, and the children are seated, 
tier above tier, there is presented to the 
eye a sight which, to the lover of his 
species, cannot but be of a most pleas- 
ing and encouraging nature. To see 
hundreds of poor children met together 
for so good a purpose, must inspire 
feelings of devout gratitude to the 
Giver of all good. The service com- 
mences by singing a hymn out of the 
Sunday school hymn book ; and when 
the sweet voices of these " little ones " 
are raised (aided by the swelling tones 
of the organ) in a song of adoration to 
God, a sound is heard which methinks 
is caught by the angelic choir in hea- 
ven, and is accepted at the throne of 
Jehovah. The hymn being concluded, 
a suitable prayer is offered, and is, I be- 
lieve, joined in by most present, and a 
delightful and hallowed feeling gene- 
rally prevails. Then comes the ad- 
dress, which is delivered in a very 
familiar and impressive manner, and is 
generally listened to with deep attention. 
We believe that thus impressions have 
been made which shall be lasting as 
eternity. The service is concluded by 
■gain joining in the song of praise, and 
in snppllcations for the Divine blessing. 
The children who have far to go are 
again formed in order, and conducted 
home, the others are dismissed, at the 
chapel doors. These services are gene- 
rally conducted by one of the itinerant 
preachers, and on the last occasion, our 
much respected minister, Mr. Moli- 
neux, though but in feeble health, gave 
us one of his very pleasing and instruc- 
tiye addresses on the three Hebrew 
children, in reflecting on these de- 
lightful seasons, we do indeed think 
that,— 

" That will be joyful, joyful, joyful. 
When we meet to part no more." 

Such is the pleasure and happiness 
experienced on these occasions, and 
the good results which follow, in the 
way of stimulating the teachers in their 
"work of faith, and labour of love," 
and in their beneficial effects on the 
minds of the children, that the writer 
will be glad to learn that the same 
means have been adopted in every 
other circuit. 

E. H. 



On Easter Monday a number of the 
friends of Sabbath schools assembled 
in Grosvenor Street school for the pur- 



pose of receiving the' third Annual 
Report of the General Committee, of 
the Wesleyan Methodist Association 
Sunday schools, in the Grosvenor 
Street circuit. After tea, the Rev. 
James Molineux, the Superintendant 
: of the circuit, was requested by the 
meeting to take the chair. The chair- 
man, after making some observations 
upon Sabbath schools, introduced the 
business of the meeting by requesting 
the General Secretary to read the 
Report. 

The Report states that there are in 
the circuit five schools, viz. — 

Officers Teach. Girls Boys 

London Rd. District 8 42 249 240 

WUmotSt. ,, 6 28 165 132 

Grosvenor St. „ 8 3fl 242 267 

RidgwaySt. „ 3 10 87 70 

Bradford j, 4 11 79 66 



Total £9 127 822 



781 



Each school is furnished with a 
well-selected library, for circulation 
amongst the Officers, Teachers, and 
Bible and Testament Scholars, which 
in the aggregate contains upwards of 
1950 volumes. Writing is taught on a 
week day evening in four of the schools; 
and two of the schools have sick and 
funeral societies in connection with 
them, whose Rules are enrolled under 
the Friendly Society's Act. 

The Report was unanimously 
agreed to. The Meeting was also ad- 
dressed by Messrs. Lowe, Jones, 
Ashton, Walker, Horner, Mills, Whit- 
taker, Burgess, Wilson, Sanders, 
Higginbottora, and others. At half- 
past ten the meeting separated, having 
been much gratified and pleased with 
the evenings proceedings and the state 
and prospects of the institution. 

J. B. ViCKERS. 

We have been obliged greatly to 
abridge the account sent, not having 
space for the whole of it. Ed. 



LONDON PEACE SOCIETY. 

This Society will hold its Annual 
Meeting on Tuesday, May 21st, at 
six, P.M., in Finsbury Chapel, Moor- 
fields, London ; C. Hindley, Esq., 
M. P. will preside. 



208 



Obituary — Poetry, 



OBITUARY. 



DiBD on the I4th of November last, 
at Dalston, in tbe Carlisle circuit, 
Mrs, Elizabeth Porter, She was about 
twelve years a consistent member of 
the Methodist Society, and eight 
years of the Wesleyan Methodist Asso- 
ciation. When about forty years of 
age she began to attend the preaching 
of the Gospel, but she was at that time 
ignorant ot berself and the plan of sal- 
vation. Soon after this, she saw the 
necessity of giving her heart to God, 
and one Sabbath after her return home 
from the chapel, while engaged with a 
few friends in prayer, the Lord graci- 
ously spoke peace to her soul, and she 
was enabled to rejoice in the God of 
her salvation. From this time there 
was a manifest change in her deport- 
ment, '* old things had passed away, 
and all things had become new." Hav- 
ing become united to Christ, she delayed 
not to join the people of God, in Dal- 
ston; and she ever after manifested 
great solicitude for the prosperity of His 
work. She was much distressed if ever 
the cause of religion seemed on the de- 
cline. On one occasion she was called 
to pass through a sore trial — but the 
Lord delivered her. She frequently 
referred to this deliverance when relat- 
ing her experience. Soon after this she 
received tne blessin,' of entire sanctifi- 
cation. Our late sister was very much 
attached to the means of grace, and in 
them has many times been heard to 
exclaim, " Glory to God in the highest! 
Praise the Lord, O my soul I " 

At the commencement of her last 
illness many of her friends thought that 
she would soon recover ; she, however, 
considered it improbable, but she 
seemed to be quite ready, ^'as a sheaf 
of corn ready for the granary of hea- 
ven ; " and during her affliction she 
maintained the same happy frame of 
mind. When visited by the friends she 
would request to be raised up in bed, 
that she might speak of the goodness of 
God, and while engaged in this way, 
her countenance frequently brightened ; 
she indeed appeared to forget her weak- 



ness, while she would observe, ** Thank 
God, I have not religion to seek now." 
As she grew weaker she was less in- 
clined to talk, but always appeared 
engaged in converse with heaven. 

On the Sabbath before her death, 
she was visited by two or three friends, 
at which time she seemed insensible 
to every thing below, until a brother 
engaged in prayer, and when she heard 
the sound of his voice, she joined in 
the petitions in a manner astonishing to 
all. In this blessed state she continued 
until about ten o'(.'lock on the morning 
of Tuesday the 14th of November, 1843, 
when she entered upon her eternal 
rest. On the evening of the 17th of 
December, a funeral sermon was preach- 
ed from " Precious in the sight of the 
Lord is the death of his saints," which 
was heard with great attention by a 
densely crowded congregation. 

J. S. N. 

Died, March 6th, 1844, Mr, J, Blake, 
local preacher, of Wickham, in the Gos- 
port circuit. His last illness, which 
was induced by a severe cold which he 
took while he was engaged in his daily 
employment, continued for about a 
month, during which period he mani- 
fested entire submission to (jiod. Al- 
though he was exercised with much 
pain, his confidence in the Divine mercy 
was always strong and vigorous. As 
his residence was nearly nine miles 
distant from Gosport, I was not favor- 
ed with frequent opportunities of con- 
versing with him, but whenever I saw 
him, the statement of his Christian ex- 
perience was perfectly satisfactory; 
he had no fear of death, and submitted 
to this penalty of God*s violated law in 
sure and perfect hope of a resurrection 
to eternal life. He was a sincere, and 
humble Christian, a kind and affection- 
ate husband and father, and greatly 
respected and esteemed in the neigh- 
bourhood in which he resided for the 
urbanity of his manners, and the bene- 
volence of his disposition. 

G. Chesson. 



POETRY. 

DAY OF WONDERS. 



Lo ! It comes, that day of wonders ; 

Louder chorals shake the skies, 
Hades' gfates are burst asunder 

Sec ! the new clothed myriads rise • 



Thouffhtl repress thy weak endeavonr ; 

Hcte must reason prostrate fall: 
Oh ! the ineffable kor bvkr! 

And the eternal All in all ' 



T. C. JOHNS, PRINTER Red Monrourt, licit Mrret. 



THE 

WESLEYAN METHODIST ASSOCIATION 

MAGAZINE. 



JUNE, 1844. 



MEMOIR OF THE LATE MR. THOMAS FERGIE, 

" The memory of the just is blessed" 

Thomas, the son of Charles and Margaret Fergie, was born in 
Belfast, Ireland^ on March 19, 1776. His father, to whom he was 
apprenticed, was a joiner. When he had completed his apprenticeship, 
in the year 1794, he came to Liverpool, where he speedily acquired 
considerable improvement in the knowledge of the various branches 
of bis trade, and became an excellent workman. 

In the year 1796 his father died, this caused him to proceed to 
Belfast ; he then removed his mother and the other members of the 
femily to Liverpool, and provided for them until they were able to pro- 
vide for themselves. During this time, finding his means inadequate 
to support the family, he, to avoid being plunged into debt, resolved 
to go a voyage to the coast of Africa ; by which means his resources 
were increased. Upon being remonstrated with respecting the danger 
attending such a voyage, he replied ; " that as it was for the purpose 
of enabEug him, the better, to support his mother and family, his 
object was good, and he had confidence in the Almighty that he would 
preserve him." Accordingly he sailed in the capacity of carpenter's 
mate, and experienced many dangers. On his homeward voyage, he 
was pressed into his majesty's service at Port Royal, Jamaica; from 
which he escaped during the night, by getting over the bow of the 
vessel to which he had been taken, and swimming to his own ship, 
which lay about three miles distant. When within sight of home, 
he was shipwrecked, but fortunately the crew were enabled to secure 
from the wreck as much as entitied them to their wages, and he 
returned safe home to the great joy of his family. 

The following are the particulars of his conversion to God. Having 
made an appointment to meet a young man on a Christmas-day 
morning, to go and spend the day at Hale, he called upon him sooner 
than he expected, and while waiting for him in the street, he was 
attracted by the singing in Pitt Street chapel; he went in, heard 
Dr. Adam Clarke preach, and was so convinced of sin that he forgot 

s 



210 Memoir of the late Mr. Thomas Fergie. 

his engagement, and allowed the young man to proceed alone. After 
the service he returned home and informed his family of what he felt, 
and immediately afterwards, through the invitation of an unknown 
friend, he, in the year 1802, joined the Methodist Society. Shortly 
after, while wrestling with God in private, it pleased the Almighty to 
set his soul at liberty. He was then enabled to rejoice in a sin- 
pardoning God, which he did aloud; and was ever afterwards so 
attached to the house in which this event took place, that he repeatedly 
informed Mrs. Mc Cann, that if he had the money he would purchase 
the house, from her, in remembrance of it. Having tasted the sweets 
of redeeming love, he became anxious that others should also partake 
of them, and was therefore led to embrace various opportunities of 
pointing sinners to the Lamb of God, and inviting them to attend the 
means of grace. His humility was remarkable, the following circum- 
stances Will serve as an example. Having observed a poor man, a 
complete cripple, hobbling along the streets upon a chair to the hoose 
of God, whose singular appearance exposed him to the gaze of passers 
by, and the ridicule of thoughtless children, he felt sorry for him, 
and offered to carry him ; this offer was gladly accepted ; and for a 
length of time, on the Sabbath day, he was regularly to be seen 
carrying the poor man on his back from Cropper Street to Mount 
Pleasant chapel, to hear the Word of life, and after service returning 
home with him in the same manner. 

On the 31st of January, 1804, he entered into the marriage state, 
with Jane, daughter of Henry and Mary Penkith, an amiable and 
pious young woman, and a member of the society ; with whom he 
lived on the most happy terms for the space of more than twelve 
years ; and by whom he had eight children. 

The following extracts from his Journal, which he kept at the time, 
will exhibit his state of mind and progress in the Divine life. 

" Jan. 4th, 1805. This morning I felt that I could entirely give 
myself up to God, and cast my whole care upon him. At work I 
found all the patience that I was possessed of tried, yet the Lord did 
not leave me. I often think that I have | no religion, but I know that 
I love God, seeing that he gave his Son to die for me : Yes ! for vile 
me ! Why do I not get more of his mind ? May God quicken me, 
and stir me up for Christ's sake." 

<' Jan. 11th. I find God to be very present with me ; I see more of 
the emptiness of all created good, and feel a willingness to be entirely 
given up to God, and am resolved to be more faithful than ever. I 
thought that I did not feel the same power in prayer as I had formerly 
felt. May the Almighty cut short his work, and take me to himself, 
rather than I should draw back, or love any thing that would steal my 
heart from Him. I want all under my care to be real servants of the 
Most High ; may God keep me from erring. Amen." 

"Jan. 12th. This day I was taken ill with a pain in my side, and 
in the evening with a psiin in my head, which threw me into a fever, 
yet thanks be to God I had no terrifying thoughts of death, nor any . 
wish for my pain to be less. Oh ! 1 see myself weak, and, I thinks 
viler than ever. Lord keep me humble." 

" Jan. Idth. This morning my pain was a little abated, bat I 



Memoir of the late Mr. Thomas Fergie. 211 

thought that I was not sufficiently thankful ; yet I felt more hamble, 
and truly thankful that God ever brought me out of darkness into his 
most marvellous light. My cry is. Lord, quicken my soul, and may 
I he faithful unto death, that I may receive a crown of life." 

*^ Jan. 14th. I feel that my desires are heavenward, and thankful 
that I am not forsaken by my God — thanks be to his name. I have 
more settled peace, and prize what God has done for me more than life. 
I feel more of my own weakness than ever, yet God is precious. I 
am hungering after righteousness ; may God fill me for Christ's sake. I 
find that some persons have been causing mischief in my little family, 
by speaking evil of some whom I love, may God forgive them. I hope 
that I and my house will serve the Lord. May I be firm and stead- 
&st for Christ's sake." 

" Jan. 16th. This has been a good day to myl soul. I found it 
a profitable season at my private band ; felt great openness and much 
of God. Oh ! may these means never rise in judgment against me, 
but may they be times of refreshing to my soul." 

" Jan. 6th, 1806. Through illness in the family I was detained 
firom attending preaching and the band meeting. This is only the 
second time that I missed seven o'clock preaching sin6e I joined the 
society ; but I believe that I was in the path of duty. I felt a keen 
appetite, and although not present in body, yet I was in spirit. 
1 heard Mr. Barber preach in the afternoon from Matt. v. 8. 
^ Blessed are the pure in heart, &c." Under the sermon I was both 
brought l6w, and raised up ; thanks be to God, he did visit me ! My 
soul is in a thriving state, and I feel determined to put every thing 
to the sword that is not for my good or God's glory. After preaching 
I renewed my covenant with God — it was a solemn time— I found the 
Lord very near indeed— thanks be to God for such ordinances, and 
such preachers as we have. In the evening I heard a young man 
belonging to another denomination preach from the 25th Psalm, part 
of the 7th verse, • Remember not the sins of my youth.' I expected 
him to have been more plain and close than he was. I felt thankful 
to God that my lot had been cast amongst the Methodists — may I be 
one indeed." 

From this time he gradually progressed in the Divine life, and 
became an active member in the Society. He was a prayer leader 
for a number of years, and continued so until loss of health compelled 
him to resign. He was appointed to the office of leader, about thirty- 
five years since, and continued in that office, in the Conference 
Connexion, up to the time of the division of the circuit into the 
North and South circuits, which took place in the year 1826. He 
then had a class composed of about thirty-six members, many of whom 
had met with him a number of years. He was required to give up 
his class and to take another, because his residence was not in the 
circuit in which his class met, although distant only about 200 
yards. This was a severe trial both to him and to his members, 
and the source of deep regret; for many of thiem on that account 
entirely left the Society. He was waited upon by several of the 
preachers, who endeavoured to prevail upon him to take another class, 
but they found that they could not transfer his affections as easily as 

s 2 



212 Memoir of //le late Mr. Thomas Fergie. 

they had imagined. His feelings heing so much hurt hy this occur- 
rence, he could never afterwards be prevailed upon to take a class, 
until the time when he joined the Association, which was at its first 
commencement; he then took charge of a class and continued its 
Leader until the latter part of the year 1839, when through sickness 
he was obliged to resign the office to Mr. W. Heap, wi£ whom he 
continued to meet until his death. 

As a leader he discharged his duties faithfully and a£fectionately« 
never allowing a week to elapse, when in health, without visiting his 
absent members. His class was several times divided in consequence 
of its increase. 

He diligently visited the sick, not confining himself to members of 
his own class, but cheerfully visiting all that were desirous of his 
attendance. Many instances could be given of his usefulness in this 
department of labour ; but one must suffice. A giantess was brought 
in a caravan into the neighbourhood of London Road for exhibition. 
One evening after exhibiting, she was taken suddenly and dangerously 
ill, and on being informed that she could not survive beyond a few 
hours, she became alarmed for her eternal safety, and enquired of the 
person that attended her, " whether she knew of any minister who 
would come and pray with her ?" she replied, " that she was not 
acquainted with any minister, but knew of a good man who would 
attend if requested." The husband of the giantess accordingly sent 
for Mr. Fergie. He was in bed at the time, but arose and went 
with the messenger, and found the sick person in great distress of 
mind. He talked to her, and pleaded with God on her behalf. 
The Lord was graciously pleased to answer the prayers of his ser- 
vant, by imparting to her that peace which the world can neither give 
nor take away. He stayed with her until she breathed her last; 
when her redeemed spirit took its flight to the regions of eternal bUss. 

While thus employed, he never neglected the spiritual welfare of his 
family. Holding a responsible situation, he had to be very punctual 
as to time, and although only half an hour was allowed for breakfast, 
which he could not possibly exceed, yet he never omitted family prayer. 
After dinner he always retired to his room for private devotion, and 
there on his knees, with the Bible open before him, he poured out his 
soul in prayer and supplication. In the evening he again assembled 
his family around him to offer up thanks for the mercies of the day, 
and to implore the protection of the Almighty ; he then retired to rest, 
but previous to lying down he once more prostrated himself in the 
presence of his heavenly Father. He was indeed a man of prayer in 
the full sense of the word. 

He took great delight in reading the Scriptures both to his family 
and in private, seizing every spare moment that presented itself for 
the purpose. Even on his desk, in the workshop, there lay a New 
Testament which he designated his shop Testament ; and although his 
time was well occupied with the duties of his situation, yet he con- 
trived occasionally to give a hasty glance at the precious treasure, and 
to feed on its heavenly food. 

From a very tender age he took his children with him to the house 
of God ; thus, " training them up in the way they should go ;" trust- 



Memoir of the late Mr. Thomoi Ferffie. 213 

iDg in the declaratioD, that "When they are old they will not 
depart from it." Sunday, being the only day that he had at liberty, 
was exclusively devoted to religious duties, and frequently on has 
return home, in the evening, he felt more wearied than if he had been 
pursuing his ordinary employment ; yet he never complained, knowing 
that he had been doing the work of his heavenly Master. 

He was a kind and affectionate parent, always taking pleasure in 
seeing his children happy, and promoting their comfort as far as his 
means would allow. It was his custom every Sabbath, immediately 
after tea, to assemble them around him, to give them the most affec- 
tionate advice, and exhort them to give themselves to God in early life ; 
and he exhibited disappointment if any of them were absent on these 
occasions. 

On the 25th July, 1816, he lost his beloved wife. This was a severe 
trial to him. His feelings upon the occasion cannot be better described, 
or her character more clearly portrayed, than by the following account* 
which is copied from the family Bible, and which was written by him- 
self immedmtely after her decease. " Jane Fergie, the beloved wife 
of Thomas Fergie, and mother of the above children, departed this 
life, July 25, 1816, at half-past nine o'clock in the morning, in the 
thirty-fourth year of her age. She was an affectionate, prudent, 
industrious, virtuous, self-denying, sensible woman—more so than 
many of her sex ; a kind and tender parent, an affectionate child and 
a beloved sister, an exact housekeeper, and esteemed by all who knew 
ber. I and seven children are left to lament our irreparable loss. 
While in this life she bore her sore afflictions with patience and 
fortitude, for God was with her. She was sensible to the last, and 
fell asleep in'Jesus, in sure and certain hope of a blessed immortality. 
May her mantle fall upon me and her children. 

Thomas Fsroib." 

In a letter written to his sister-in-law, Sept. 1, 1816, referring 
to his late wife, he states : — " The following lines were furnished to 
me by a young man who lately visited Ireland. They were copied 
from a tomb-stone in a church yard, in a village about three miles 
from Belfast : they might have been written for me." 

* When worth like hers descends to dust, 
Grief is a debt, and sorrow is most just : 
Such cause had he to weep, who pays 
The sad last tribute of his love and praise : 
"Who mourns the best of wives and friends combined, 
Where with affection, diligence was joined ; 
Mourns, but not murmurs — sighs, but not despairs- 
Feels as a man, but as a christian bears ; 
Trusts he shall meet her on that happy shore, 
Where sickness, pain, and death, shsul be no more.' 

The true character of my dear Jane. T. F." 

Another trial immediately followed ; his infant daughter, who was 
taken away by death, on the evening of the Sunday on which his wife 
^as mterred. She had been taken to the residence of the wet-nurse, 



214 MmMAr of the late Mr. Thomas Fergis. 

in perfect health and likely for life, hut the following morning she was 
brought home a lifeless corpse ; having been overlaid during the night. 

A still greater trial followed, soon afterwards, in the death of his 
youngest son, which was occasioned by his clothes accidentally taking 
fire. His Child's sufferings were severe, and Mr. Fergie's sensitive feel* 
ings brought him into a state bordering upon distraction. But he bore 
the loss with Christian fortitude ; not a murmur escaped his lips — ^his 
confidence in God remained unshaken, and the language of his heart 
seemed to be, *' Though thou slay me, yet will I trust in thee." 

On this occasion, writing to his sister-in-law, he said, " I feel I am 
very frail, and must not trust to an arm of flesh. I have again been 
in the furnace, lift up your heart to God in prayer before yon read 
any further. Another change has taken place with me — how happy 
to be enabled to say, ' Thy will be done ! ' My little, but beloved, 
Benjamin is now with his dear mother . He died last night about five 
o'clock. Last Friday week he caught fire and was severely burned, 
but I entertained great hopes of his recovery until Friday, when he 
changed for the worse, and he is now no more. He had very great at- 
tention paid to him, which under my affliction is a little comfort to me. 
In what a world we live ! But God is my help. In God do I trust. 
I feel this is not my resting place. Come, dear sister, Christ was 
made perfect through suffering, and shall his followers complain ? No : 
Hannah ! ' we shall reap, if we faint not.' ' The end of all things is at 
hand, be sober and watch unto prayer.' Adieu. Pray for me that my 
faith fail not." 

About this time he had to endure many privations, and was mncli 
perplexed in his mind on account of the thoughtlessness of his house* 
keeper ; but God was his refuge in time of trouble. He was very fond 
of reading the 34th Psalm, particularly the 6th verse, ** This poor man 
cried, and the Lord heard him, and saved him out of all his troubles." 
When amongst his family on the Lord's day he frequently gave out 
and sung, with them, that beautiful hymn on the subject of trusting to 
Providence, commencing with :— 

" Tho* troubles assail, and dangers affright, 
Tho* friends should all fail, and foes all unite ;" 

By this practice he got great comfort to his mind, and an increased 
confidence in the blessed promises contained in the sacred volume. 

On August 17th, 1817. He thus wrote to his aforesaid sister-in- 
law. ** I often fear that while we and ours are enjoying health, we are 
too often unthankful for it. O Hannah ! every pursuit and every un- 
dertaking that has not God«and our salvation for its object is unworthy 
of us, as accountable creatures. However painful and trying, dear sister, 
our situation may now be, or has been heretofore, might it not have 
been worse ? I have for some time been thinking of and repeating a few 
verses of the 189th Hymn. They are very applicable to my situation : — 

'* Though waves and storms, go o'er my head, 
Though strength, and health, and friends be gone, 
Though joys be withered all and dead, 
Though every comfort be withdrawn ; 
On this my steadfast soul relies : 
Father, thy mercy never dies." 



Mmnoh of the late Mr. Thomas Fergie. 215 

" Such afflictions, as we have had to pass through, have been experi- 
enced by our brethren in this world, yet God's promises stand firm : in 
a humble way I can say, that I have been sorrowful, yet rejoicing. 
God k my helper, — he is my support" 

Nothing gave him greater pleasure than to observe his children 
under serioos impressions, and giving their hearts to God. Early 
in 1819 he wrote to his sister-in-law, sa3ring — " I am happy to hear of 
you all b^ng well. Thanks be to God, this leaves me and mine much in 
oor usual way, but I may say better of the two, for Charles seems to 
bave his mind exercised about eternal things, and last Sabbath, of his 
own acoordy he went with Mary his sister to class : may I be faithful and 
glad before the Lord." Many more extracts from his letters might 
be furnished, to shew his tender regard for his children's comfort, his 
deep solicitude for their spiritual and eternal welfare, as well as his 
own growth in grace and habitual heavenly mindedness, but the above 
Host suffice. 

Having a double charge upon him, and his family arriving at that 
age which requires maternal care being exercised towards them, he, on 
the 2nd January, 1820, again entered into the marriage state with a 
person who was worthy of the name of a mother to his children. It is 
bat justice to state> that a more affectionate woman could not have 
been found to replace the serious loss which he and his helpless family 
had sustained. Five children were the result of this union, four of 
whom are now living ; and it is worthy of remark that no distinction 
was ever made between the children of his first and second wife's, all 
living in that brotherly and sisterly afiection> as though they had all 
been bom of one mother. 

In October, 1838, he was attacked with inflammation on the 
lungs. In consequence of copious bleeding, he was reduced so low, 
that his life was despaired of; but his mind was in perfect peace, and 
in calm submission he resigned himself into the hands of his Saviour. 
Whfle he was surrounded by his weeping family, who were expecting 
his dissolution, an old acquaintance entered the room, and asked him 
" If all was well in the trying hour, and what were his prospects for 
eternity?" With a fervour that surprised those around him, and 
heavoaly joy beaming in his countenance^ he replied with triumph, 
" Ah I I know in whom I have trusted." It pleased God, however, 
that he should recover, and when he became convalescent, by the per- 
suasions of his family, he was induced to revisit his native country 
for the purpose of recruiting his health ; where he remained a few 
months, and returned home so much improved, that he was able to 
resume his usual employment. But his former sickness, and the 
copious bleeding, had so sapped his constitution, that he was unable 
to follow his employment beyond a few months : his natural vivacity 
in a great measure forsook him, but religion retained its lustre, and 
appeared to shine brighter than ever ; he was as a ** shock of com — 
ready for the gamer." 

In July, 1841, he was bereaved of one of his sons, a fine promising 
young man, possessed of excellent abilities. He lingered upwards of 
twelve months in a consumption, but died rejoicing in God his Saviour. 
His last words were, " peace I peace ! " This was another severe, trials 



216 Memoir of the laU Mr, Thomae Fergie, 

but he repined not at the loss, and rejoiced that another branch of his 
family had arrived safe on the heavenly shore. On leaving the scene 
of death, he said to his eldest son, " Oh Charles is safe ; and God will 
save you all ; none of you can be lost ; for you are the children of 
many prayers." 

In December, 1842, he experienced another bereavement by the 
death of his eldest daughter. She also lingered several months in a 
consumption, and then died, leaving behind her a bright testimony that 
she " had washed her robes, and made them white in the blood of the 
Lamb." This also was a heavy trial, but he bore it with pious resig- 
nation to the will of the Almighty, knowing that he had done that 
which seemed best unto him. 

After her death he appeared to have a presentiment that he should 
soon follow, and frequently expressed himself to that effect. In a 
letter making known her death to his sister-in-law, he observes : " I 
have six children in heaven, and Jane, (his former wife), and it will 
not now be long before I join them." But he was as clay in the 
hands of the potter, for he desired to be moulded after Christ's like- 
ness, and fitted for glory. 

On the Thursday evening previous to his death, he prayed vdth his 
family with great fervour and affection, noticing them individually, as 
was his wonted custom. The following day he complained of a diffi- 
culty in breathing ; but nothing serious was apprehended until three 
o'clock in the afternoon, when a great change was perceptible ; and at 
eleven o'clock the same evening the surgeon gave it as his opinion that 
he could not possibly survive beyond a few hours. After this he never 
spoke again, although he made several attempts, but continued in a 
state of stupor until ten minutes past three o'clock, p. m. on Saturday, 
when it pleased God to release him from his sufferings, and to remove 
him from earth to heaven. He has left behind him a wife and seven 
children, and eleven grandchildren to lament their loss. May they 
be enabled to tread in his footsteps, and at last meet him on the right 
hand of God, where pain and parting shall be no more. Amen. 

Few men, in his humble station of life, were more respected by all 
classes of society. He died deeply regretted by a host of friends and 
acquaintances, in the sixty-seventh year of his age ; having been a con- 
sistent Methodist upwards of forty years. He acted in the capacity 
of foreman to Barton Hugh, Esq. for thirty-six years, discharging the 
duties of his situation faithfully and conscientiously. During his sick- 
ness in 1 838, his employer caUed to see him, and gave his testimony 
before all that were present, to the effect " that he had been a faithful 
servant — a man rare to be met with, and one that was possessed of the 
most uncompromising principles." 

On the Thursday citer his decease, his mortal remains were carried 
to the family grave in St. John's church-yard, attended by our re- 
spected ministers, many members belonging to the Wesleyan Metho- 
dist Association, and several connected with the Conference Body; 
also by his employer, his clerks, and all his workmen. A deep serious 
impression was visible amongst the numerous assembly, and the 
tears of regret bedewed the cheeks of many of his former acquaint- 
uhcen. 



Memmr of the laU Mr. Tkonuu Pergia. 217 

He was remarkable for his conscientiousness. During his life he had 
KYcral opportunities, through the kindness of friends, to improve 
his condition by commencing business on his own account ; but could 
never be prevailed upon to do so, alleging that he could not conscienti- 
ously begin business with other people's money. One Christmas* eve, 
two gentiemen, who were accustomed to deal largely with his employer, 
waited upon him to present him with £5, but he refused to accept of 
it. They then pressed him to take half the sum, but he still refused, 
on the ground that it might have the tendency of biasing his mind 
in making purchases for his employer ; they then left him, declaring 
that they had never met with such an instance before. Truly it may 
be said of him, that ** he was a burning and a shining light." The 
following testimonials, from persons with whom he was most intimately 
acquainted, will further illustrate his character : — 

" I think, that, I have known our late dear brother Fergie from 
thirty-six to forty years. I came into the Methodist Connexion either 
near the end of 1801, or in the beginning of 1802. I think that he 
was in the Connexion before me, but this is of little consequence, I was 
in the Connexion with him from that time, until the separation in 1835. 
I shall simply relate, as far as my recollection will serve me, what 
I know of him. His character was that of a happy, simple, child-like 
Christian. I do not recollect to have heard a single word against him 
in the course of so many years ; and, whenever I met with him, his 
countenance inspired love, and I truly felt union of spirit with him. 
I have also been led to beUeve that he was the same upright character 
in the world as in the church ; a pattern of industry, carefulness, 
and sobriety ; to which, I believe, his employer can bear ample testi- 
mony. Since I left the Conference Connexion I have seen but little of 
him, but from what I did see of his steady walk, while in that body, 
I have no doubt of seeing him again where we shall rejoice together 
through the countless ages of eternity. Lamenting that I cannot 
give you more ample i^ormation/' I remain, &c. 

John Whittinoham. 
The next testimonial is from his leader. 

" I have been acquainted with our late lamented brother Thomas 
Fergie for twenty years ; during which time I always found him a pious, 
humble follower of Jesus Christ, both in public and in private ; and 
his conversation was such as becometh the Gospel, and savoured of the 
things of God. During my acquaintance with him I learned from 
him many profitable lessons respecting salvation. Whilst his health 
permitted, he actively laboured in the church of Christ, and nothing 
delighted him more than to be engaged in his Christian duties. At 
one time I said to him, * Brother Fergie, you have much affliction in 
your family. ' He replied, ' Yes, God has a deal of trouble with us, 
but he cannot err.' At another time, he said to me, ' Let us keep in 
the ranks as long as we are able, for we are labouring in the service of 
a good Master.' 

" In 1839 being, through affliction, rendered unable to lead his class, 
or labour as a prayer-leader, he joined my class, of which he continued 
a member until his death. He was sometimes much depressed in his 
mind, in consequence of his affliction; but he frequently used to 



218 Memoir of the late Mr* Thomae Fergie. 

observe, ' I hope I do not murmury my Father knows what is best for 
me ;' and he lamented that he could not wrestle with God and labour 
for souls as he formerly did. Yet all his experience was truly scrip- 
tural and edifying, for ' although he was cast down/ he ' was not 
forsaken.' He would say, * I know whom I have believed,' * Lord, 
thou knowest all things, thou knowest that I love thee/ He pos- 
sessed a large portion of that mind which was in Christ Jesus, he was 
meek and gentle, esteeming others better than himself ; and though he 
met in my class, I was not his leader, for he led me ; and in all things 
of importance, whether in the church or the world, he was my coun- 
sellor ; and during the long period of my acquaintance with him, I 
never met with his equal, either as a man or a Christian. He was 
truly ' an Israehte indeed, in whom there was no guile.* " 

William Heap. 

Our deceased brother Fergie was not more remarkable for sound 
Christian experience, and steady piety towards God, than for strict 
integrity, and a conscientious discharge of duty towards man. As he 
had been for many years the intimate friend of the late Mr. Henry 
Pooley, who was related to the writer of this Memoir, this gave the 
writer many opportunities, both by personal intercourse, and by report, 
of becoming acquainted with his character ; and he can truly say, that 
he never knew an individual who, in the situation in which Providence 
had placed him, possessed more the confidence and esteem of all with 
whom he was connected. Whilst faithfully discharging his duties to 
his employer, he commanded the thorough respect of the workmen 
over whom he was placed, and there was not heard the slightest 
whisper of calumny against his conduct or integrity. For a number 
of years he met in band with the late venerable John Russell, and the late 
Mr. Henry Pooley ; and in the interchange of their close communion 
of Christian friendship, they found comfort in affliction, encouragement 
in trial, and counsel in difficulty. Never was there a man more 
beloved in the immediate circle of his family and connections. Other 
men may have occupied positions of greater eminence, and exercised 
influence of a more extensive character, but of our departed brother 
Fergie, it may be said with truth, that the talent which was entrusted 
to him he diligently improved ; that it was the great object of his life 
to adorn the doctrine of Christ his Saviour in all things. His history 
is valuable, as shewing that to do good does not require eminence of 
station or splendour of talent. His opportunities for usefulness were 
few, and his life was one of constant trial ; but he was faithful over 
the few things committed to his charge, and has now entered into the 
joy of his Lord. His example powerfully enforces the exhortation of 
the apostle, ** That ye be not slothful, but followers of them who 
through faith and patience inherit the promises." 



219 



RELIGIOUS EDUCATION OF CHILDREN. 

A Sermon delivered before an American Methodist Conference, 
BY ELIAS BOWEN. 

(American Methodist Magazine and Quarterly Review.) 

" Trmn up a child in the ujay he should go : and when he is old, he will not 
depart from i^."— Prov. xxii. 6. 

This passage contains both a duty and a promise ; the one en- 
couraging the other. The duty here enjoined consists in the proper 
training of children : the promise, in the permanent benefits annexed 
to such a course. We shall, first, consider the duty enjoined; 
secondly, the promise by which it is encouraged. 

I. First, then, we are to consider the duty here enjoined ; which 
consists in the proper training of children, or the bringing them up 
in the way they should go. 

1. There are many parents, even among professors of religion, 
who bring up their children, not in the way they should go, but in 
the way they would go ; regarding the will of the child as the govern- 
ing rule of his conduct. In this case, however, the parents do not 
govern their children, but the children their parents ; reducing them 
not merely to the condition of servants, but to that of slaves. And 
the humble parents in this degraded state usually put in requisition 
all their resources to gratify the peevishness, the pride, the ambi- 
tion, the avarice of their children ; for they must not be crossed in 
any event, whatever may be the consequence. It is well known, 
likewise, that children of this description, accustomed to bear rule 
at home, aspire to the same pre-eminence abroad, especially when 
at school ; where, impatient of restraint, they never fail to manifest 
a spirit of insubordination and misrule. And as those whose pro- 
vince it is to govern do not feel at liberty to yield their authority, a 
quarrel consequently ensues, which the parents, the obsequious 
allies of their ruined offspring, are sure to espouse; thereby sup- 
porting their children in crime, and bringing themselves into dis- 
grace. There are others who bring up their children, not in the 
way they should go, but in the way they do go ; that is, in the way 
usually pursued by young people ; for, in this case, the prevailing 
custom is to be the standard of their behaviour. Hence, because it 
is fashionable, they must attend the party, — the dancing school, — 
the theatre. They must learn music, painting, and poetry. They 
must dash out in all the pride of personal embellishment ; exhibit- 
ing all those qualifications, however needless, or even hurtful, which 
are calculated to attract the giddy world. Should the above asso- 
ciation be thought to disparage the fine arts, we beg leave to say, that 
such is not our intention; only so far as they are substituted 
for the more solid branches of education, or even for religion 
itself. 

But the duty enjoined in our text consists in bringing np our chiU 



220 jReligioui Education of Children. 

dren, not in the way they would^ or do, go, but in the way they should 
go ; that is, in the way of righteousness— the way of life and salva- 
tion. St. Paul says on this point, ** Ye fathers, provoke not your 
children to wrath ; but bring them up in the nurture and admonition 
of the Lord." From which it appears, that we are not only to teach 
our children the elements and rules of good behaviour, bat that we 
are to train them up in the principles and duties of true religion. 
It is admitted we cannot change their hearts, or save their souls, 
by our own power ; but, surely, we are able to see that they observe 
the means of grace; abstaining from all outward sin, as profane 
swearing, breaking the holy Sabbath, and the various habits of in- 
temperance on the one hand ; while they attend to all the outwardJ 
duties of religion, as reading the Scriptures^ going to church, andi 
offering prayer to God, on the other. And if we oblige them to use- 
the <<form of godliness/' beginning with their infancy, they wit! 
scarcely fail, in a single instance, to enjoy " the power ;" for there 
is a vital connexion between the means of grace, and the ends foB 
which they are instituted. 

2. But a question arises here — " Is the duty we are considering 
practicable ? Can we bring up our children in the way they shonlc 
go ?" It is certain there are very few brought up in this way ; anc 
it generally turns out that delinquent parents, unwilling to bear th^ 
blame themselves, contrive to throw it on God, by saying, " He hms 
withheld from us the requisite qualifications for the proper training 
of our children. We have neither time nor talents ; neither wisdom, 
patience, nor influence for the undertaking.'* But this excuse for 
neglecting a plain duty is nothing else than the blasphemy of the 
slothful servant— "Lord, I knew thee, that thou art a hard man; 
reaping where thou hadst not sown, and gathering where thou hast 
not strewed.'' As many, however, have taken sanctuary under 
their supposed incapacity to bring up their children aright, it seems 
important to remark, that the practicability of a duty is implied in 
its very nature, since a command on the part of God necessarily 
pre-supposes a capacity on our part to obey ; while no performance 
above our capacity can be regarded as a duty. As, therefore, the 
proper training of children is viewed in the light of duty, it must, of 
course, be perfectly practicable. Besides, we would enquire whether 
it seems likely that our heavenly Father would place us ** under 
tutors and governors," during our minority, who are incapable of 
training us up in a proper manner? The l3are supposition would 
do great injustice even to an earthly parent, with all his imperfec- 
tions : how, then, can it be imputed to Him who is infinitely " holy, 
just, and good !" 

It is acknowledged, however, that with irreligious parents the pro- 
per training of children is impossible. And yet, strange as it may 
seem, their inability rather increases than lessens their guilt; for, 
while it is voluntary, and therefore can never absolve them from 
the obligation of bringing up their children as required, it involves 
the additional delinquency of neglecting their own salvation. The 
fact is, we need only maintain the character of genuine Christians 
in order to be capable of training up our children properly ; there- 



ReHgums Education of Children. 221 

fore we CAn all bring them up in this way, for we can all maintain 
the character of genuine Christians. 

3. The first principle to be observed in the proper training of 
children, is good government ; in which the wiU of the parent is made 
the rale of the child's conduct. It may seem too arbitrary with 
many ; but nothing is more certain, than that autJiority is the foun- 
clation of all improvement. Let this be wanting in a state or nation, 
fluid do you think such a nation would be likely to make much im- 
provement in the science of political economy ? Could we look for 
ler to make any advancement in wealth, in reputation, in power ? 
Or would she, through crime and ignorance, be sure to lose all 
means of self-preservation, and fall an easy prey to some foreign 
enemy, or sink in the vortex of self-destruction ? Let there be no 
anthority in a school or seminary of learning, and what improve- 
ment would the pupil be likely to make in his studies, however com- 
petent his preceptor may be in other respects ? And if there be no 
authority in a family, how is it possible the children should be train- 
ed up in the way they should go ? If they respect not our autho- 
rity, neither will they respect our instruction, our example, our 
fedings. Nay, they will treat our religious devotions with criminal 
indifference, if not with the most shameful contempt! And after 
they shall have wounded our affections, ^pierced us through with 
many sorrows," and overwhelmed us with ten thousand mortifica- 
tions, they will << bring down our grey hairs with sorrow to the 
grave." 

The truth is, parents are to their children, when young, in the 
place of God. Hence he has clothed them with supreme authority ; 
placing their children in absolute subjection to their will, on the one 
hand» and charging them with the duty of enforcing that subjection 
on the other. The absolute subjection of children to the will of 
their parents, is clearly enjoined in many passages of Scripture, par- 
ticnlarly the following : — " Children, obey your parents iu the Lord ; 
for this is right. Honour thy father and mother, (which is the first 
eommandment with promise,) that it may be well with thee, and 
thou mayest live long on the earth."— '< Children, obey your parents 
in all things ; for this is well pleasing unto the Lord." Filial obe- 
dience, as here set forth, is, first, universal in its extent; for the 
apostle says, *< Children, obey your parents in all things.** Second- 
ly, it is pious in its nature ; for the apostle says again, " This is 
right; thb is well pleasing unto the Lord" From which it appears, 
that as children are capable of no other obedience in early life, so 
this is all God requires at their hands ; as being sufficient, of itself, 
to give them a religious character or constitute them practical Chris- 
tians, and entitle them to all those blessings of the gospel covenant 
of which they are capable. Hence it is that the obedience of chil- 
dren coming to riper years does not change its nature in more direct- 
ly assuming the forms of piety, but merely takes in an higher object ; 
which transition is quite natural and easy. If, then, to obey our 
parents in childhood is to obey God, what vast importance is stamped 
upon filial obedience ! And what amazing interest should parents 
feel, in training up their ofispring under the influence of such a prin- 



222 Religuma SducaHon of Children* 

ciple I Thirdly, the obedience which children are required to render 
their parents is seen to be of great importance, at least in 6od*8 
account, as it " is the first commandment with promise ; ''—the ^rsi 
dutt/t both in order of time and in point of importance, to which a 
gracious promise has been annexed by way of encouragement* Bat 
we have said, that while children are placed in absolute subjection 
to the will of their parents on the one hand, the parents are charged 
with the duty of enforcing that subjection on the other. This will 
appear from the following quotations, viz. : *' Chasten thy son while 
there is hope, and let not thy soul spare for his crying/*—- << He that 
spareth the rod, hateth his son ; but he that loveth him, chasteneth 
him betimes." In the phrase, '< Let not thy soul spare for his cry* 
ing," the wise man must be understood to say in effect. Do not suffer 
thy sympathy to triumph over thy judgment when the child begins 
to cry ; and then exchange the rod, as many do, for flattery, deception 
or a promised reward. In the last mentioned text, he teaches a 
doctrine the very reverse of what is commonly held; for, while 
many ascribe the unbounded indulgence of children to love« and the 
correction of them to hatred, cruelty, and the want of '< natural 
affection," Solomon says, *' He that spareth the rod, haieih his 
son ; but he that hyveth him, citasteneth betimes." And I would ask, 
Who can be supposed to love his child moist ; he that saves him by 
timely correction, or he that ruins him, soul and body, for ever, by 
indulgence ? 

To perceive that the want of authority in parents is repugnant to 
the will of God, destructive to their children, and a source of great 
trouble to themselves, we need only read the affecting account which 
is given of Eli in the first book of Samuel, concerning the manage- 
ment of his family. From this account, it appears that Eli, hearing 
his sons were disorderly and wicked, said to them, " Why do ye 
such things? for I hear of your evil dealings by all this people. 
Nay, my sons, for it is no good report that I hear." In the estima- 
tion of most parents, no one is required to go beyond the example 
of Eli ; and there are many, it is to be feared, who fall far behind 
him, for he was not only sorry for tho wickedness of his children, 
but he gave them good counsel also ; and even went so far as to re- 
primand them with some degree of explicitness. Still, this was not 
enough, as we learn in the sequel ; where ** the Lord said unto 
Samuel, Behold, I will do a thing in Israel, at which both the eam 
of every one that heareth it shall tingle. In that day I will perform 
against Eli all the things which I have spoken concerning his house : 
when I begin, I will also make an end. For I have told him that 
I will judge his house for ever, for the iniquity which he knoweth ; 
because his sons made themselves vile, and he restrained them not. 
And, therefore, I have sworn unto the house of Eli, that the iniquity 
of Eli's house shall not be purged with sacrifice nor offering for 
ever." We see here that God required Eli to restrain his children 
from evil, not merely by counsel, admonition, entreaty, and the 
like, but by aulhoritt/. And it is certain he requires the same of all 
parents, whom he holds responsible for the due exercbe of that 
authority with which he has invested them, partly for domestic, bnt 



ReUgioua EduaUion of Children. 233 

chkfiy for religious purposes. There are not a few, it is well known, 
nrho attribute their want of parental authority to incapacity, the un- 
common obstinacy of their children, or the embarrassing peculiarity 
of their circumstances : thereby laying the blame on God, as if he 
Jbad rendered impracticable a duty required in his own word ; or on 
t;heir children, who, if particularly obstinate, have been made so by 
'themselves. But this effort to throw the blame on others will doubt- 
less recoil on their own heads with fearful consequence in the day 
of final retribution ; when the blood of those children they have tole- 
rated in vice shall be found in their skirts ; and they shall receive, 
at the hand of their righteous Judge, <' the things done in the body !" 
With these views of parental authority, many, I am aware, will 
be extremely shocked ; as if they were utterly irreconcilable with 
every dictate of humanity. And yet, however startling they may 
appear in the eyes of some, they are not only consistent with the 
most gentle treatment of our children, but are indispensably necessary 
to such treatment. Thb is, indeed, with me a main consideration 
in favour of that authority for which I so earnestly contend, since 
I feel a very tender sympathy for children, especially my own ; 
and would be among the last to advocate a frequent use of the 
rod. Nor will this ever be found necessary, if, in the first plac6, it 
be applied seasonably ; that is, *< betimes," as Solomon expresses it ; 
or by the time our children are a year old, according to Wesley. 
And, in the second place, effectually ; that is, so as to attain the end 
proposed, the entire subjugation of the child's will. For, the 
more peremptory our authority, the less occasion will there be for 
punishment; as children, properly governed, will seldom violate the 
instructions of their parents. As there is danger, however, of fall- 
ing into an error on either hand, in regard to the correction of our 
children, it is important to observe that the true medium lies between 
the extremes, so common in the world, of too many stripes on the 
one hand, and none at all on the other. 

But many parents, neglecting all other means for the proper train- 
ing of their children, rely on authority alone ; as if this were suffi- 
cient of itself. And these, generally speaking, are for ever beating 
their children, either for some real or supposed offence : at one time 
for doing wrong, without teaching them how to avoid it ; and again 
for not doing right, without informing them in what right consists. 
It is plain however that such a course, while it is at variance with 
the apostle's direction — ** Fathers, provoke not your children to an- 
ger, lest they be discouraged,"— is every way calculated to break 
the child's spirit, and harden him in a total disregard of all autho- 
rity, human and divine. And it is equally plain, that a course of 
this nature is not the use, but the abuse of authority ; since he who 
carries every point by prerogative, is neither a parent nor a governor, 
but a tyrant. 

4. We have said, to be sure, that authority is the first principle of 
family religion, but it is not the last. For, notwithstanding no other 
means will avail anything without authority, yet this in no wise 
supersedes the use of other means. The truth is, a just authority is 
to be regarded as the foundation, on which we are required to build 



224 ReUgious Education of Children. 

a regular course of instruction. For, as our children will receive 
no lessons of instruction in the absence o/'au/Aort'/^, so neither will 
they be rendered either virtuous or happy by authority^ without 
instruction. 

Perhaps the course of instruction to be given our children is no- 
where described more explicitly than by Moses, where he says, 
'< These words which I command thee this day shall be in thine 
heart ; and thou shalt teach them diligently unto thy children, and 
shalt talk of them when thou sittest in thine house, and when thou 
walkest by the way, and when thou liest down, and when thou risest 
up. And thou shalt bind them for a sign upon thine hand, and they 
shall be as frontlets between thine eyes. And thou shalt write them 
upon the posts of thy house and on thy gates." 

The plan *of instruction here set forth is systematic, habitual, and 
practical. First, it is a regular^ systematic course, and docs not 
consist in desultory, incoherent lessons ; for, by " these words,** Moses 
evidently means <' all the words of this life ; *' — the whole moral 
law — the sum of all true religion, which he had just recapitulated ; 
and must be understood as enjoining it upon aU parents to teach 
their children regularly the Holy Scriptures, as embracing all that 
is to be known, believed, or taught on the subject of human redemp- 
tion ; affording them, at the same time, as they are able, all those 
helps which are to be derived from commentaries, catechisms, sermon 
books. Sabbath schools, public preaching, and above all, private 
instruction. 

The instruction given our children is, secondly, to be habitual; 
for Moses goes on to say, " These words, &c.. shall be in thine 
heart ; and thou shalt teach them diligently unto thy children," that 
is, with steady application ; <' and shalt talk of them," not inciden- 
tally — not merely when they are dying, or thou art about to be 
called away thyself, to see them no more until the judgment of the 
great day, — but '* when thou sittest in thine house, and when thou 
walkest by the way, and when thou liest down, and when thou risest 
up." Thou shalt mingle thy lessons of instructions with the ordinary 
concerns of life, the affairs of every day; taking advantage of 
every circumstance to train thy children for the skies. But alas ! 
alas I how many parents belonging to the church, instead of teaching 
their children the way to heaven by a regular plan — a plan of 
daily use, habitually, either teach them not at all, or teach them, 
at least by their own miserable example, to neglect, if not de- 
spise, the duties of a holy life ! O ! how many there are who sel- 
dom, if ever, speak to their children on the subject of their soul's sal- 
vation, and consequently know nothing of their views and feelings, 
perhaps little of their behaviour, concerning the things of God ! It 
might be thought uncharitable to insinuate that they care as little as 
they know ; and yet we can hardly view the matter in any other 
light. The Lord have mercy upon them, and bring them into a better 
state ; lest they be weighed in the balance and found wanting," when 
their '^ souls shall be required of them ! " 

It appears, in the third place, that parental instruction is required 
to be practical; as nothing less than this is implied in the following 



ReUgiaus Education of Children. 225 

(/irectioD, viz. : " Thou shalt bind them, (the words which I command 

tiiee, &c.,) for a sign upon thy hand ;" that is, all thou doesi shall be 

done to the glory of God. " And they shall be as frontlets between 

tiiine eyes ;" that is, thy countenance, aspect, deportment, shall be such 

as becomes the Christian character. '< And thou shalt write them 

upon the posts of thy house, and on thy gate9 ;* that is, all thy purposes, 

interests, and transactions, shall be sanctified and governed by the 

word of inspiration. 

II. Having now considered the duty of training up children in the 
vay God requires, we shall proceed, secondly, to illustrate the pro- 
mise by which it b encouraged. 

1. And, first, it appears from the connexion which God has esta- 
blished between the duti/ ^nd benefits of properly training up children, 
that our character, whether physical, intellectual, or moral, depends 
almosi wholly on education. 

In regard to the body, we know that much depends, as to its 
stature, healthy and vigour, upon the climate, food, and exercise by 
which it has been formed. 

The mind is still more affected by education than the body ; and 
is either right or wrong, refined or vulgar, copious or contracted, as 
our education has predominated in favor of one or other of these 
features. It is hence that those who have risen to eminence in the 
▼orld might trace their elevation, in general, to the mental culture 
bestowed upon them in early life ; and not unfrequently to the faith- 
ful training of a pious mother. 

But while education (by which we mean the entire treatment of 
children and youth) affects the intellectual character more than the 
physical, it exerts a still greater influence upon the moral character 
than the intellectual. Of this we shall be very sensible by contrast- 
ing the heathen with the Christian world ; the irreligious part of the 
community with the pure church of Christ; those children who have 
been '* trained up in the way they should go," with those whose reli- 
gious education has been neglected. The influence of parents over 
their children is such, being little less than absolute, that if they were 
all perfect Christians, as they should be, bringing up their children 
in '* the nurture and admonition of the Lord,*' little else would be 
necessary to eradicate sin from the world, and establish the univer- 
sal reign of Messiah. In such a case, sin being destroyed in the bud, 
there would scarcely be an immoral person, perhaps not an irreligious 
one upon the earth I but '* all would know the Lord, from the least 
to the greatest." And now dear parents, seeing the character and 
destiny of your offspring are so far confided to your determination, 
I beg of you to consider whether you will bring them to heaven by a 
religious education, or leave them to perish everlastingly in their sins, 
through your neglect ? 

2. The reason why those who are " trained up in the way they 
should go " seldom if ever forsake it is, that this training grows into 
a confirmed habit; the force of which, you know, is prodigious, 
whether it be exerted in a good or a bad cause. Evil habits are 
seldom cured ; good habits are seldom abandoned. The force of 
evil habits is clearly set forth by the prophet Jeremiah, where he 

T 



226 Religious Education of Children, 

says, " Can the Ethiopian change his skin, or the leopard his spots ? 
then may ye also do good that are accustomed to do evil." And, 
indeed, we have oflten had occasion to observe with what difficulty 
the habitual offender is reclaimed. We have seen the tears and en- 
treaties of kind friends, the pains and penalties of a broken law, the 
promises and threatenings of God's eternal word, employed upon 
him in vain I And even the consideration of right and wrong, of life 
and death, of heaven and hell, has interposed but an ineffectual bar* 
rier to his mad career 1 On the other hand, we have been struck 
with the force of good habits. St. Paul, speaking of those who had 
become the habitual servants of God — those who were confirmed in 
the principles and duties of a holy life, exclaims, '* Who shall sepa- 
rate us from the love of Christ ? Shall tribulation, or distress, or 
persecution, or famine, or nakedness, or peril, or sword ? As it is 
written, For thy sake we are killed all the day long ; we are count- 
ed as sheep for the slaughter. Nay, in all these things we are more 
than conquerors, through him that loved us. For I am persuaded 
that neither death, nor life, nor angels, nor principalities, nor pow- 
ers, nor things present, nor things to come, nor height, nor depths 
nor any other creature, shall be able to separate us from the love 
of God which is in Christ Jesus our Lord." On this point, also, our 
text speaks volumes. And from all that has been said, we are 
doubtless prepared to receive, with its full force, that promissory 
declaration—*' When he is old he will not depart from it.*' I say 
promissory^ for though it be not a promise in form, it is so in fact to 
all intents and purposes ; since the grace of God to assist in the pro- 
per training of children, and to crown the undertaking with suC/Cess, 
is most clearly implied. 

Some, it is true, have appeared to fall away, whose piety had be- 
come habitual ; but, generally speaking, there is great reason to 
believe it was only in appearance. For, when you come to examine 
the apostate, it will be found, almost uniformly, that he fell a prey 
to some evil habit, or "easily besetting sin,'' from which he was 
never wholly free, at least for any length of time ; and, consequent- 
ly, he had never acquired the character of an habitual Christian. 
'The habit of true piety being formed, its practice becomes easy, as 
many are able to testify ; insomuch that it would bo altogether more 
difficult to ^^^a^e, than to pursue the way of righteousness. Indeed, 
a man of habitual piety, having been << trained up in the way he 
should go " from early infancy, is almost as sure of heaven as if he 
were there. 

3. But though the promise in our text depends on a religious edu- 
cation, so far as the means are concerned, yet, like all other pro* 
mises, in the Bible, it depends efficiently on the favour of God. Ac- 
cordingly our Saviour says, ** Without me ye can do nothing." And 
David likewise, " Except the Lord build the house, they labour in 
vain that build it: except the Lord keep the city, the watchmen 
waketh but in vain." And also St. Paul, " I have planted, Apollos 
watered ; but God giveth the increase. So, then, neither is he that 
planteth any thing, neither he that watereth ; but God that giveth 
the increase." Our helplessness, however, can be no cause of dis- 



jReHgioKS Education of Children. 227 

coaragement, since we are allowed to depend on Him with whom 
"ail things are possible." If we "lack wisdom," or any other quali- 
^cation to bring up our families aright, we have only to '* ask of 
God, who giveth to all men liberally, and it shall be given." The 
^[reat Parent of us all will surely teach us our duty as parents, and 
enaUe us to discharge it with good effect, if, while we use the ap- 
pointed means, we humbly rely upon his promised aid. Yes, if we 
look to the wise for wisdom, and to the strong for strength. He will 
lioth assist us in the blessed work of forming our children for glory, 
and reward us a thousand-fold for our •* labour of love." He will 
Teward a praying Hannah, consecrating her children to God from 
their birth, with a Samuel. He will reward a mother Eunice, and a 
grandmother Lois, teaching their offspring the Holy Scriptures from 
their childhood, with a Timothy. And he will reward a Susannah 
Wesley, training up her numerous family under the most wholesome 
discipline, with a prodigy among the great, and good, and useful. 
Or, if our children should not gain much distinction in the world, 
their bare cantinmnce " in the way they should go " would, of itself, 
be an infinite compensation for any expense we may have been at 
in giving them a religious education. Yes, the compensation would 
be infinite, and therefore cannot be fully estimated. Nevertheless, 
I must be allowed to glance at it by saying, that the world never 
saw anything to compare with a Christian family, in whose dwell- 
ing the spirit of lo*'e for ever reigns, uniting them to God and to each 
other ; and from whose altar the incense of prayer continually as- 
cends, morning and evening, before the Lord. It is here the father, 
as a patriarch, sits upon his throne, and sways an absolute but mild 
sceptre ; and, as a priest likewise, offers his daily sacrifice and gives 
instruction. It is here the mother is " a help-meet " in the Lord, 
guiding her fiimily aright, and " looking well to the ways of her 
household." And it is here, also, that the " children are like olive- 
plants round about their table." Or, as Solomon has it, << Our sons 
are as plants, grown up in their youth ; and our daughters as cor- 
ner-stones, polished after the similitude of a palace." This is a 
habitation you would love to visit ; for you must feel yourself very 
much at home in a family where all things put on the aspect of 
friendship, contentment, and prosperity. Nor can it be other- 
wise than that angels should delight, in shining groups, to hover 
round a family so much resembling their own order. And we 
have a thousand infallible proofs that the Deity himself looks 
down with complacency upon a family who constitute a " church " 
in themselves. 

But, to conclude, if we would be the instruments of saving our 
children, by " training them up in the way they should go," we must 
first be Christians ourselves, as we have already seen ; secondly, 
we must exercise the authority with which God has invested us as 
parents, especially for religious purposes; thirdly, we must give 
them, " line upon line, and precept upon precept," the same as in 
teaching them to read, or fitting them for the ordinary business of 
life ; and, fourthly, it is indispensably necessary that we enforce our 
inatructions by the influence of example; both in « abstaining from 



ftQS Reviews and Literary Noiieee^ 

all appearance of evil/' and doing *' those things which are right i n 
the sight of the Lord." 

Finally, to " train up our children in the way they should go," will 
make it pleasant living with them ; as they will be an honor to them- 
selves, to their parents, and to their God. And also it will be plea- 
sant leaving them at death ; for, relying upon the Divine assurance, 
that having been " trained up in the way they should go, they will 
not depart from it/' we shall be entirely consoled with the prospect 
of meeting them again in heaven, where the ties of grace and affec- 
tion which shall have united us together on earth, as a Christian 
family, will become indissoluble; and ail the tender endearments, 
so cordially reciprocated in time, shall be renewed and consummated 
in eternity. 



REVIEWS AND LITERARY NOTICES. 

WALKS ABOUT THE CITY AND ENVIRONS OF JE- 
RUSALEM. By W. H. Bartlett, 8vo. 224 pp. George Virtue. 

Jerusalem is the city, whose history is to those who believe in the 
Holy Scriptures, more interesting than that of any other ; either of 
ancient or modern times. It does not therefore surprise us that, it 
has been the subject of numerous typographical publications. 

Manetho, an Egyptian historian, who lived about 2150 years since, 
states, that Jerusalem was founded by shepherds, in an unknown 
period of antiquity. Joseph us states, that it was originally the Salem 
over which Melchizedec was king. The mount on which the Jewish 
temple was built, is believed to be the mount Moriah on which 
Abraham, in obedience to Jehovah, prepared to offer up Isaac his son. 
When the surrounding country had been taken possession of by the 
Jews, the Jebusites still held possession of Jebus, which was the 
original part of that city, afterwards called Jerusalem. The Jebusites 
were not altogether dispossessed until the time of David, who took it 
from them, and made it the capital of Judea. David greatly enlarged 
Jerusalem, by building upon mount Zion, the city of David ; and 
Solomon his son built the magnificent temple, called by his name, 
upon the adjacent mount Moriah; which is separated from mount 
Zion by a narrow ravine ; but was united by roads and a bridge 
constructed for that purpose. 

During the reigns of David and Solomon, Jerusalem attained to a 
state of extraordinary prosperity and splendour. But in the days of 
Rehoboam, ten of the Jewish tribes revolted, the kingdom therefore 
became divided, and the prosperity of Jerusalem began to decline. 
Four years after the division of the kingdom, Jerusalem was besieged, 
taken, and plundered, by Shisak king of Egypt, who carried away 
with him the shields of gold out of the temple. About one hundred 
and forty-five years after, Jehoash king of Israel fought against 
Amaziah king of Judah, took him prisoner ; destroyed four hundred 
cubits in length of the wall of Jerusalem, and took away the treasure 
out of the king's hoase and from the temple. One hundred and fifty 



Smews and LUertny NoHcei. 9S9 

jean afterwards, Jerusalem was taken by Esarhaddon, king of Assyria^ 
who carried Manasseh, king of Judah, captive to Babylon. The city 
ns again taken^ sixty-six years afterwards, by Pbaroah-Necho, king 
of Egypt, who slew Josiah king of Judah in battle ; then dethroned 
hk successor Jehoahaz, whose brother Jehoiakim he elevated to the 
throne, and also laid the kingdom under tribute. 

During the reign of Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon, Jerusalem 
was, by his troops, three times besieged and taken. On the last occa- 
sion the city and the temple were both destroyed, and the inhabitant^ 
were taken captives to Babylon. After seventy years, Cyrus gavQ 
permission to the Jews to rebuild Jerusalem, and the temple — the 
latter however was not completed until the second or third year of 
Darius, and the city was not properly restored until after a period of 
seventy years, when Nehemiah was sent by the Persian monarchy 
Artaxerxes Longimanus, to rebuild the walls of the city. 

The Persians held the Jews in subjection, and continued to appoint 
them governors and high priests, until the Persian empire was con- 
quered by Alexander the Great. This was two hundred and fifty-sif 
years after the commencement of the Babylonish captivity ; one 
hundred and eighty-six years after Darius gave directions for the 
completion of the temple, and one hundred and thirteen years from 
the rebuilding of the walls of Jerusalem by Nehemiah. 

After the death of Alexander the Great, Judea became the scene of 
frequent wars which were waged between the kings of Syria and of 
Egypt. Ptolomy Soter stormed Jerusalem on a Sabbath-day, and as 
the Jews would not fight on that day, he took it without resistance, 
and carried more than one hundred thousand Jews captives into 
Egypt. Antiochus Epiphanes, king of Syria, one hundred and 
seventy years before the coming of Christ took Jerusalem by storm, 
slew forty thousand Jews, sold as many more for slaves ; entered the 
holy of holies, and to insult the Jews, sacrificed a sow upon the altar 
of burnt ofiering; and plundered the temple of its gold and costly 
furniture. Some time after he sent an army of twenty^two thousand 
men, commissioned to put to death all the men of Jerusalem, and to 
make slaves of the women and children. This horrid massacre was 
perpetrated on the Sabbath-day. The temple was dedicated to 
Jupiter Olympius, the books of the law destroyed^ and the Jews were 
commanded to join in the worship of idols, and, upon refusing, many 
were put to cruel deaths ; mothers who were found to have had their 
children circumcised, were led through the streets with their children 
tied round their necks, and were thrown headlong over the steep parts 
of the wall of their city. 

Many of the Jews resolved rather to perish, in resisting their 
oppressors, than to obey their impious commands. Matthias, a 
priest^ with his five sons fled from Jerusalem to Mordin in the tribe of 
Dan, When the place of their retreat was discovered, Antiochus 
sent an officer to oblige them, and all the other inhabitants, to 
become idolaters ; offering Matthias great riches and honour if he 
would profess the idolatrous religion of the king. Matthias scornfully 
rejected the offer, and slew the first Jew that approached the 
idolatrous altar, and the king's officer and his attepd^^ts. H^ %\ieii 



*2aO RivUws and Literary If6He$9. 

collected all the Jews he could persuade to unite to attempt to 
effect their deliverance from the miseries to which they were reduced ; 
and soon found himself at the head of a sufficient force to repel the 
enemies of his religion and country. When dying, he urged his sons 
to complete the work he had commenced ; and one of them, Judas 
Maccabeus was entrusted with the command. By deeds of extraordi^ 
nary valour, the Jews recovered their freedom, destro^'ed the 
idolatrous altars, and restored the worship of God in the temple at 
Jerusalem ; and for about ninety years the Maccabees governed in 
Jerusalem. 

After the death of Alexander Jannaeus, one of the Maccabean 

?rinces, his queen Alexandra swayed the Jewish sceptre, and made 
lyrcanns, one of her sons, high priest ; and also appointed him her 
successor to the throne. After her death, Aristobulus, the brother 
of Hyrcanus, raised a rebellion, and sought to obtain the throne. 
Hyrcanus sought the assistance of Aretas, king of Arabia, and Arb- 
tobulus engaged the aid of Pompey, the Roman general. After some 
fighting, the brothers agreed to refer their disputes to the arbitration 
of Pompey. However, Aristobulus, finding that Pompey was likely 
to decide in favour of Hyrcanus, prepared to resist. Pompey, there- 
fore, summoned Aristobulus to appear before him, and to deliver up 
all the fortified places which he possessed. Upon this, Aristobulus, 
fled to Jerusalem. Pompey followed him with his army, laid siege 
to Jerusalem, and took it in the year 63, b. c. Hyrcanus was restored 
to the offices of high priest, and prince, but was not permitted to 
assume the title of king. Aristobulus, his two sons, and two of his 
daughters, were taken by Pompey, as captives to Rome, to adorn his 
triumph. Thus Judea became a Roman province. 

When Julius Caesar became emperor of the Roman empire, he 
treated the Jews with much kindness, and confirmed Hyrcanus in his 
offices. After the death of Julius Csesar, intestine wars raged in 
Judea until they were terminated by Herod, who was made king of 
Judea by Mark Anthony, the Roman emperor, 40 years b. c. Herod 
reigned over the Jews with great cruelty ; but rebuilt their temple 
with much magnificence. This Herod reigned in Judea when Christ 
was born ; he is also called Herod the Great, to distinguish him from 
one of his sons, of the same name. After his death, the Roman empe- 
ror divided his kingdom among his sons, but did not allow them to 
take the title of kings. Archelaus ruled over Judea Proper, Idumea, 
and Samaria ; Philip had Trachonitis, Batanea, and Aurantis ; and 
Herod Antipas, who beheaded John the Baptist, had Galilee and 
Paraea. 

Ten years after this division, Archelaus, on account of his cruel 
conduct towards his subjects^ was deposed by the Roman emperor ; 
and governors were sent from Rome to rule in Judea. About sixteen 
years after the birth of Christ, Pontius Pilate was appointed governor 
of Judea. His government was distinguished by rapine and cruelty. 
Philip the tetrarch died when he had ruled thirty-seven years; 
and the emperor, Caligula, appoined Herod Agrippa, the grand- 
son of Herod the Great, his successor, with the title of king, 
Caligula, shortly after, deposed and banished Herod Antipas, and 



Eifriews and Uterarif JSbikei. 281 

gBLYC his dominion to Herod Agrippa; to which Claudius added 
^Judea, and Samaria, the southern parts of Idumea, and Abilene. 
JSerod Agrippa'a character and conduct were similar to those of his 
^[randfather, and his death was dreadful. After his decease, Judea 
iras again made a province of the Roman empire. 

Herod Agrippa died a. d. 44. Twenty-three years afterwards the 
war broke ont, which terminated in the destruction of Jerusalem. 
The cruelties and oppressions of the Romans instigated the Jews to 
revolt. At the commencement of the war the Jews gained some 
advantages ; but these were succeeded by awful reverses. Vespasian 
▼as sent into Judea with an army of 60,000 men. Jerusalem, how* 
erer^ was not subjugated until after a five years' war, when Titus 
laid a powerful army to its siege, encompassed the city, and formed 
a wall or trench around it, to prevent egress and regress. The 
besi^ed were reduced to the greatest possible sufferings ; enduring 
all the horrors of famine, war, and intestine broils. At length Jeru-i 
niem was taken, and the temple was destroyed by fire. It is 
supposed that in this war a million and a half of Jews perished ; and 
Jerusalem was completely destroyed. 

Soon after Adrian became emperor of Rome, he began to rebuild 
Jerusalem, and erected there a temple to Jupiter Capitolanus. The 
dty he called ^lia. The emperor Constantine, who made a profes- 
sion of Christianity, improved the city, erecting therein churches and 
other edifices. Julian, designated, the apostate, out of hatred to 
Christianity, and to falsify the predictions of Scripture, purposed to 
rebuild the temple, and to restore the levitical sacrifices ; he com- 
menced the work, but was not able to accomplish his purpose. 
Historians afiirm that balls of fire bursting from the foundations 
prevented the progress of the work. 

In the year A. D. 616, Jerusalem was taken by the Persians; but 
it was shortly after retaken by the eastern emperor Heraclius. The 
treatmeDt which the Jews received from this professing Christian 
emperor was much worse than that they received from the idolatrous 
Persians. The Jews were obliged to quit the city and prohibited 
ooming within three miles of it. Jerusalem was besieged and taken 
by the Arabians in 637 ; who retained possession of it until 1099, 
when alter a siege of thirty-nine days, it was taken by the Crusaders ; 
who made Godfrey, their commander, king of Jerusalem. He and 
his successors retained it for eighty-eight years, when it was re- 
taken by Saladin, sultan of Egypt. In 1217, the Turks took posses* 
sion of Jerusalem, and it has ever since formed a part of the Turkish 
empire ; thus Jerusalem has been, and yet is, trodden under foot by 
the Gentiles. 

The Mohammedans, regarding Jerusalem as a place second in 
sanctity only to Mecca, the birth-place of Mahomet, have there 
erected some splendid mosques; the most splendid of which stands 
on the site of Solomon's temple. Besides these there are several 
churches, built by the Greeks and Latins, on the spots where tra- 
dition affirms the principal events of the history of Christ occurred. 
The population of Jerusalem consists of Jews, Arabians, Syrians, 
Turks, and persons from other countries. 



232 Reviews and Literary Noiiees» 

From the preceding brief sketch of the history of Jerusalem, it is 
obvious that there is no other place with which there are so many 
important and interesting historical relations. Who, therefore, can 
be destitute of a desire to acquire information respecting this city ! 
To satisfy this desire many have visited Judea, and have published 
the information which they thus obtained. 

The author of the volume entitled « Jerusalem and its Environs," 
visited Jerusalem in 1842, and having found himself *< unable to form 
any distinct idea of its appearance, from the works which had been pab- 
lished, on account of << the want of correct and well chosen views," he was 
induced to attempt to give a clear, connected, and accurate view of 
the city ; and to illustrate the connection between its past history, 
and present condition. This led to the production of the very 
elegant work now before us. From the following ** Table of Con- 
tents," and list of the *< Illustrations," our readers may form an 
opinion of the nature of the work. 

"Preface. iNTRODucTio^r. — Route from fiejrout to Jerusalem 
— Walk round the Walls, &c. — Ancient Jerusalem — Site — Time of 
David — Temple of Solomon — City, as besieged by Titus — ^Its Siege 
and Destruction— Subsequent History. 

Walk I. Mount Zion— Lower Pool of Gihon— Hill of Evil 
Counsel— En Rogel— Pool of Siloam — Tomb of David — Armenian 
Convent— English Church— Tower of Hippicus — Pool of Hezekiah 
—Line of the Second Wall. 

Walk II. Via Dolorosa — St. Stephen's Gate— Trench of Antonia 
— Mount of Olives — Gethsemane — Tomb of the Virgin— Bethany — : 
Valley of Jehosaphat— View from the North-east — Siege by the 
Crusaders — Tombs of the Kings. 

Walk III. Interior of the City — Jewish Antiquities — Ancient 
Bridge— Jews' Place of Wailing— Area of the Great Mosque, and 
its Antiquities. 

Church of the Holy Sepulchre — Holy Fire imposture — Inhabitants 
of Jerusalem— Jews, Christians, Turks — Conclusion and Appendix. 

Illustrations. Jerusalem as Besieged by Titus — Jewish 
Family— Map of Moden Jerusalem — Site of Jerusalem — Attack of 
the First Wall— Destruction of the Temple — Captive Jews Bearing 
Vessels of the Temple— Lower Pool of Gihon — Mount Zion— Thresh* 
ing Floor — Pool of Siloam — ^Aqueduct of Mount Zion — Tower of Hip* 
picus — Pool of Hezekiah — Diagram of the Second Wall— Mount of 
Olives — Garden of Gethsemane — Jerusalem from the Mount of Olives 
— Bethany — ^Valley of Jehosaphat — Well of the Virgin — Group of 
Tombs— Tomb of Absalom — Jerusalem from the North-east — Tombs 
of the Kings— Transverse Section of the Great Area and Bridge — 
Remains of Ancient Bridge — Jews' Place of Wailing — Enclosure 
of the Harem — Vaults under the Area of the Temple — Golden 
Gate, exterior and interior — Plan of the Temple Area — Longi- 
tudinal Section of the Temple Area, and Plan of Vaults— Church 
of the Holy Sepulchre— The Sepulchre— Christian Ladies — Bedouin 
Arabs." 

Some of these illustrations are very beautiful steel engravings; 
and the others are well ei^ecuted wood cuts on a small scale. 



jRmewM and Literary NcUcei. 283 

They are, however, well adapted to convey a clear impression to 
the mind of the plan of the city — its walls, public places, and of 
the different spots most celebrated in sacred history. For our- 
selves, we can say, that from this work we have derived a more 
distinct perception of the city of Jerusalem than we had ever before 
received. 

We have read the work before us with much attention and pleasure^ 
It is, however, our duty to enter our caveat against, the attempts 
made to account for Julian's workmen desisting from the rebuilding 
of the temple, and the troubling of the waters in the Pool of 
fiethesda, by the mere, usual, operation of physical causes. It is 
suggested that << perhaps " " Explosions from the subterraneous 
vaults of pent-up gas, terrified the workmen." This is too much in 
the mode of the Neologists, who attempt to explain miraculous occur- 
rences by attributing them to mere physical causes. We are not of 
opinion, that it could have been possible, for gas to have been 
generated beneath the rubbish of the temple, so as to have produced 
the effects which, according to the testimony of credible historians, 
did certainly occur; and if gas had been generated in pent-up 
subterraneous places, the cause of its existence could not have been 
then unknown. Our objections however are yet stronger against 
the manner in which the miraculous agency at the Pool of Bethesda 
is attempted to be disposed of. It is said, " that an angel, according 
to the popular tradition, troubled the waters, which were then sup- 
posed to possess a healing power." It is also added, " This receives 
some countenance from the fact, that there is a singular ebb and flow in 
the stream — but beyond this there is nothing to support the conjec- 
ture" ! ! We beg to say, that the word " conjecture " is here impro- 
perly used. The circumstances referred to are matters historically 
narrated as facts. We know that there are some versions of St. John's 
gospel in which those circumstances are omitted ; yet there are many 
others which record them ; and eminent biblical critics believe that the 
record of them is a genuine part of the original text. We think it 
right to add that we have not discovered any other passages in the 
work of a Neological tendency. The work bears evidence that the 
writer is a believer in Christianity, and also feels interested in the im- 
portant facts and circumstances connected with the history of the 
world's Redeemer. 

We should gladly proceed to lay before our readers an enlarged 
account of the contents of this valuable work ; but we have already 
extended this article beyond our prescribed limits. In conclusion, 
we have great pleasure in giving it our general and hearty commen- 
dation, it is a volume containing much important and interesting 
information, presented in a manner well adapted to instruct and 
please. This volume by the explicitness of its statements, and the 
clearness of its illustrations, seems to bring the reader, not merely to 
look upon Jerusalem from some distant point of view ; but takes him 
to its immediate locality, and produces vivid perceptions of its 
situation, form and extent ; and of the form and relative positions 
of the most important edifices, and celebrated spots. It is also 



934 Iteviewi and LUerary NoHeei. 

very elegantly got up, and will be richly ornameDtal to the table of 
any drawing-room, library, or boudoir. 



THE PULPIT CYCLOPEDIA; and Christian Minister's Companion. By 
the Author of *' Sketches of Sermons," jfc. Vol. II. Royal 12mo. 348 pp. 
HouLBTON and Stoneman. 

lliis volume is of the same excellent cbaracter as its predecessor, which we 
noticed in a recent number. It contains seventy-three original sketches and 
skeletons of sermons ; well adapted to assist young preachers, and those who 
have but little time, or facilities for composing sermons. Such persons may 
derive great advantage from studying these models. This volume also contains 
eighteen valuable essays, or extracts, from the works of able writers, on " The 
Composition and Delivery of Sermons." These, and also the sketches may be 
read with much advantage by all who are engaged in the work of the ministry. 

DEVOTIONAL LETTERS of the Rev, P. Doddridge, D.D. Affording 
Advice and Consolation tender FamUtj Bereavements, and ot/ier Trying Dispensations 
of Divine Providence, Demy 18mo. 218 pp. J. Snow. 

A choice collection of valuable letters written to various persons — amongst 
whom we find Dr. Watts — Dr. Samuel Clarke— Lady Russell — John Wesley, 
and other distinguished persons. Every Christian must admire these letters; 
they are distinguished by the spirit of ardent Christian devotion, enlightened 
candour, and seraphic love. They are worthy of the most extensive circn- 
lation. 

SACRAMENTAL MEDITATIONS, and Spiritual Experimce of the Rev. 
P. Doddridge, D. D. IBmo. 174 pp. J. Snow. 

These meditations were written, not for public use, but private profit. On 
that account they are the more valuable. They introduce us to the private 
musings of a mind holding sweet communion with God. They contain many 
touching and beautiful thoughts, suggested at the administration of the Lord's 
Supper. Ministers and private Christians will derive much profit from reading 
these meditations, both before and after they have been engaged in the sacred 
ordinance. 

TRUTH AND DUTY; an Appeal to British Youth on the Present Claims of 
Christianity ; beina the substance of Three Discourses to the Yoimg, recently de- 
livered in Abney CHiapely Stoke Newingion, By John Jefferson. 18mo. 67 pp. 
J. Snow. 

This neat little volume explains, illustrates, and enforces the Apostle's admo- 
nition — '' Beware lest any man spoil you through philosophy and vain deceit, after 
the tradition of men, after the rudiments of the world, and not after Christ." The 
paramount claims of Christianity are forcibly stated — the evils by which Chris, 
tianity is opposed are clearly exposed — and youth are earnestly and affectionately 
exhorted to devote themselves to the service of Christ. A work well adapted 
to engage the attention of youth, to guard them against the rampant errors of the 
present times, and to impress their minds with the importance of testing all 
religious opinions by the touchstone of God's word. Ii is clear, forcible, and 
affectionate. 

THE MINISTRY OF ANGELS, and the Nature of Invisible Influence. By 
Thomas Blundell. 12mo. 60 pp. Houlston and Stoneman. 

This pamphlet contains the result of much careful reading, and deep though^ 
on a very interesting subject. 

THE CELESTIAL RAILROAD. By N. Hawthorne, f Reprinted firm 
the Baptist Magazine, J Royal 18m o. 16 pp. Houlston and Stoneman. 
An impressive narrative of a journey by a railroad, the directors of which pro- 



Ckmgr^ffaikmid Singing. 295 

ktt to coDTey panengera to tbe celeitial city, so as to avoid the dangers and diffi- 
culties whicli John Bunyan's Pilgrim had to encounter— but which is found, to the 
cost of all who travel thereon, to carry them only to the river of death, and to 
dinppointment and confusion ! Thus proving that the old way is the only way 
toacttven. 

Ju8t Published, 

MEMOIRS OF DAVID NASMITH; his Labours and Travds in Great 
jKritam, France, the United States, and Canada, By John Campbell, D. D. 
J. Snow. 

We received this volume just as we were going to press. It will be reviewed 
next month. 



CONGREGATIONAL SINGING. 

Without entering on the question regarding the propriety of employing 
iDstrumental music, in celebrating the praises of God, under tbe sublimely 
simple economy of the Christian dispensation —I may with safety assert that 
no Musical Instrument, or combinations of them, is equal in solemnizing, 
arousing, exalting, or transporting power— to a large and well managed 
assemblage of human voices. 

This has been recentlv proved by fair and full experiment. Concerts have 
been given both by Huflah and Maiozer in which manv hundred voices have 
joined in full harmony ; and it has been admitted by auditors, who were 
competent judges, that they never before heard more sublime and imposing 
music, than was thus produced by the human voice alone. 

On the subject of music, a strange, injurious hallucination has overspread 
tbegreat mass of Christian worshippers. 

They have, with too much success, been taught to believe that Instrumental 
Music is superior to Vocal; and that, therefore the best Vocal Music is 
that which approaches nearest to good Instrumental Music. Hence, when 
tbey sing along with an Organ, or Violincello, they are almost afraid to let 
their voices be heard— they feel afraid of the sounds which they venture to 
emit. They try to conform themselves to the tones of the instrument ; and, 
if they ful of perfectly succeeding in the effort, they desist from singing 
adtogether. They cease to be singers. They become delighted listeners, 
it may be, but they join no longer in singing the high praises of God. The 
example is followed, till only a small fraction of the congregation are found 
engaging vocally in the praises of God. These diminish in number, until at 
tbe last it seems something savouring of presumption and immodesty to 
interfere with what is supposed to be the appropriate business of the organ 
and choir. A few whose old fashioned notions and practices resemble the 
feudal castles of a former age, which are ill in keeping with the verdant meads 
and flowery fields amid which they stand crumbling away — a few such, may 
indeed, practically assert their inalienable right to sing, but there is little 
sympathy felt with their opinions and feelings ; and even they become awed 
into comparative noiselessness by the supposed science and claims of the 
professional musicians — who by and by get matters very nearly all their own 
way. 

Now, I have the hardihood — some will doubtless deem it temerity — to 
assert that there is more conformity to true science, in the singing of the 
unperverted natural voice, than there is in the imposing tones of the pealing 
organ ; and that there is at least as much of what agrees with true science in 
such singing as there is in the varied notes of a complete orchestra. Most of 
our muncal instruments are imperfect. Their intonation, except in a few 
keys, Is fiilse. They seldom play in perfect tune, some of them never do so. 



286 Encouragement to come to Christ. 

Their tones only approximate to what they ought to be :— they dq Doteoincide 
with it. There is jarring discernible in their sounds. Many of the most 
expensive and admired among musical instruments, are laroentabW defective 
in this respect. They are tuned according to the rules of ** mutieal tempe- 
rament,** not according to the correct harmonical canon. Their tones are but 
tolerable, bearable violations of the rules which secure correct intonation. Our 
piano fortes and organs do not give correct sounds, they only give 
tempered notes. The intervals between the notes are incorrect, the great 
tone being assimulated to the small ; although it is easy to demonstrate, 
both auricularly and mathematically, that the great and small tone differ 
considerably in magnitude of interval. 

When a good singer finds a difficulty in uttering the same tones with an 
organ that is nearly in unison with his voice — the fault is in the organ whose 
tones are untrue. The fault of the organ 1 say — not the fault of the organist. 
If the organ is not enharmonic^ and very few, if any, yet employed in 
Churchcb or Chapels are enharmonic — no organist living can make the 
instrument give correct intonation in all keys. It is a rare thing to be able 
to give an organ perfect intonation in any key. Organ music is generally 
the music of ** temperament,** which is but a mechanical approximation 
to that superlatively true — that mathematically correct intonation which 
is easily produced by a good human voice, if it be well managed. 

Now this fact should be known. Our sacred vocalists should take courage. 
While they should avoid all offensive bawling — all revelling and braying— 
let them know that God has gifted the human race with musical instruments, 
in the larynx and mouth ; which for power and flexibility of application, are 
perfectly unequalled. Let them cultivate musical science and musical skill ; 
out let them not allow themselves to be shamed into silence by the profession- 
al, but truly unscientific pretence of those who are strangers to the compre- 
hensive views of the nature and use of sacred music. 

It were easy to establish the assertions made in this article by a reference 
to the now universally admired laws of melody and harmony ; but I 
forbear, as the reasonings and illustrations would necessarily assume too much 
of a scientific aspect ; but, if any of your correspondents choose to contest the 
matter, and if you can afford us a little room for a fair discussion, the proof 
shall be forthcoming. Meantime, permit me to advise your readers to leam 
to sing well — to sing with all the heart — to avoid faults in their singing— but 
never to be ashamed or afraid to sing with modest courage the high praises 
of our God and King. 

C. J. K. 



ENCOURAGEMENT TO COME TO CHRIST. 

Let those who feel their need of a Saviour come straight to him, without 
hesitation, doubt or delay. Let them venture immediately on the atoning 
blood. Calling to mind the gracious declarations of Holy Writ, let them 
have strong faith in the promises of God. Let them be encouraged from the 
fact that the mission of Christ was purposely to save their souls. What a 
fulness of meaning and encouragement there are in those words, ** Christ 
Jesus came into the world to save sinners.** 1 Tim. i. 15. What an errand ! 
Who but a being of the purest benevolence would ever have come on such an 
errand ? His coming might have been accounted for, if he had come to rescue 
the good from some evil to which they were exposed. But he came to *' gave 
sinners," who had rebelled against him, yea, to save the chief of sinners, the 
Tcry ringleaders in this apostacy and rebellion I In rebellions against eartblr 



Giohgy of the Bible. 237 

jwteotates, if a pardon is offered the ringleaders are generally excepted. Not 
80 with the King of Heaven, all are offered pardon, and for encouragement 
the Lord takes Saul of Tarsus, and saves him for a pattern, that none may 
despair. Oh, the love of Christ! "Its riches are unscLrchable." ** God 
eommendeth his love toward us, in that while we were yet sinners, Christ 
died for us.*' Rom. v. 8. Let it be told in every clime, and wafted on every 
breeze, and borne to the uttermost parts of the earth, '* That Christ Jesus 
eame into the world to save sinners'* And this is a '* faithful saying,** 
attested by angels, men, and devils, verified by the rent rocks, opened graves, 
torn veil, and hidden sun. Wonder O heavens, and be astonished O earth I 
Was there ever anything like it ? Was there ever any love like this ? Is it not 
worthy of universal acceptation ? And after all this love shall we refuse to 
ykld r Bather let every one say — 

"Nay, but I yieldV yield, 
I can hold out no more, 
I sink by dying love compelled^ 
And own thee Conqueror.'' 

Well reader, Canst thou not.believe that Christ will save thee ? That he will 
save thee now ? — this moment ? After all this love, will the Saviour turn any 
away empty ? Will he not have mercy, and abundantly pardon thee ? Will he 
not save to the uttermost, all that come unto God by him ? Be of good 
courage, the Saviour is ever saying, ** Him that cometh unto me, I will 
in 00 wise cast him out/' Feeling thy need of him, cast thy soul on his 
atoning blood, that blood cleanseth from all sin. ** Believe on the Lord Jesus 
Christ and thou shah be saved.*' Acts xvi. 31. 

B.G. 



GEOLOGY OF THE BIBLE. No. IV. 

At his first estate the life of man was insured to him not only by the 
I>ivinc promise, but by that which must be regarded as implied in that 
promise— the fitness of all things around him to its continuance. There was 
no rain, storm, or tempest : uniformity of seasons and exuberance of pro- 
duction prevailed. But a change came over the spirit of the dream ; a 
change passed on the human body, on the earth, and its productions. The 
earth became more abundantly productive of thorns, and thistles ; which does 
not imply that the land became absolute sterility, but adapted for one kind 
of crop rather than another ; and that this may not have sprung from only 
a change in the soil, appears from the fact, often witnessed in modern times, 
that a far more or less productive harvest is caused by a change of season, 
though the land, and the culture bestowed on it, shall have remained the 
same. 

From the age of Adam to that of Moses we have historical record of 
four principal epochs, and of three important changes in the constitution 
of the human race ; and it is important for us to remember that these were 
not a mere shortening of the duration of life ; but that all the relative 
periods of it, or those principal stages through which a man passes from 
rafancy to old age were proportionally accelerated. The stature was prob- 
ably altered with it, and certainly the degree and uniformity of health ; 
for it has been remarked by commentators, that before the flood of Noah, 
every person mentioned in Scripture arrived at the full years of his strength 
before he died, and no one was disappointed of seeing his heir survive him, 
except Abel who met with a sudden fate, and Enoch who was translated, 
and whose disappearance at the middle age of human life would thus attract 
greater attention. Now then, if those things were so, it must follow that 
with die change in man, to accomplish the intentions of the Deity^ there 



238 Geology of the Bible. 

must have occurred corresponding changes in the constitution of natural 
things, to accommodate them to his new nature : thej were not accidents, 
but intentions in the mind of the supreme disposer ; and consequentlj the 
conclusion is forced on us, that it does not involve any question of his moral 
attributes of government, if he has permitted races to become extinct, whose 
nature, as received at their formation, could not be supported within the 
greater range demanded by the new order of things. 

We are not at present able to obtain any adequate idea of the greatness of 
these natural changes ; but we are able to perceive that while it has reached 
the deepest portions of the solid globe, man has been able to penetrate, 
it has been stretched to the summit of the highest mountains. There is not 
a species of rock now known, of which we can be absolutely certain 
that it existed in the days of Adam ; and of by far the largest part there 
are proofs that they were consolidated at comparatively recent periods ; and 
this too with attendant circumstances, to shew, the great prooability, that 
among the revolutions which have occurred, the largest portion of the present 
known lands was once the bottom of the sea — and of the sea that it now 
covers what once was dry land. If the evidence of some of these particulars 
is not displaved in the Bible to the extent of what we suppose to be their 
importance, it can be accounted for by our knowledge that this book is 
not an history of the world nor of science — nor even of all the ocourrencei 
of Providence : but that it was intended by concentrating attention on some 
particulars of the mighty scheme of redemption, to afford us such grounds of 
faith as should be sufficient to satisfy an honest enquirer, rather than such an 
overwhelming accumulation of facts as might gratify the curiosity or leave 
nothing unexplained. We must be content then, on many occasions, with 
short references to circumstances, which were indeed of importance in their 
day, and were well known to the narrator; but whose chief importance, if 
now known in full, would be apprehended only by the man of science ; and 
which if detailed at length, would only prove, what other matters, more fully 
related, sufficiently attest. The following references are brought forward in 
corroboration of the views already advanced, and are to be taken, less for 
the sake of the simple facts related, than as implying much more that must 
be understood as accompanying them. 

Natural or instinctive habits received at the creation were at an early period 
changed. Man became subject to guilt and shame, and woman to great sorrow 
and suffering in child-bearing ; the serpent was made to adopt a new mode of 
progression and subsistence. Gen. iii. 7—16.; added to which ch. iii. 17. the 
earth was so changed, that the less valuable plants found the soil and seasons 
better fitted to their fertility, than those better adapted for human food ; and 
the soil was made to require cultivation, to assist the production of the desired 
crop. Gen. iii. 7 — 19. The rainbow which is mentioned as first appearing 
when the waters of the flood retired, should also be mentioned here ; for it 
could not have existed in the state of things implied by Moses, when the 
ground was onlv watered by a mist; and it mignt have been urged by a 
contemporary of Methuselah, who might choose to laugh at the building of 
Noah's ship in an inland country, that a flood of waters was philosophically 
impossible ; for according to the then present constitution and composition of 
the air, it could not take place. The next era of the shortening of tne natural 
term of human life was closely subsequent to the flood : at which time an 
alteration was made in the nature of human sustenance, which before was 
only vegetable, but now animal food was permitted, an important fact, in 
showing the change which had passed over man*s nature. The pro-creative 
powers of the human race were also increased in the same manner as we see 
among smaller animals, whose lives on the earth are short, that their powers 
of increase are more abundant than those of slower growth and longer life. 
Eains and showers are also now first recorded. 



Methodist Astoeiaium and Methodist New Connexion. 239 

Another era of important shortening of human life occurs in the time of the 
patriarch Abraham, and the last in that of Moses ; since which time the 
ooman race has continued the same both in stature and duration to the 
pesent day. An Egyptian that lived three thousand years ago is not of 
iarpr size, nor of greater age than a man of the reign of Queen Victoria ; 
as 18 evident from the mummies preserved in our Museums. 



THE WESLEYAN METHODIST ASSOCIATION, AND THE 
METHODIST NEW CONNEXION. 

To TMB EDITOR,--DBi.Il SiR, 

I shall feel much obliged if you will give insertion to the following 
remarks, in the Magazine for June. The subject, although somewhat 
different to the usual nature of the communications you receive, is highly im- 
portant, and is, I hope admissible in your columns. 
Leedi^ May, 1844. M. Johnson. 

SsYEN years have now past over, since a meeting of friends belonging, 
respeotivefy, to the '* New Connexion,*' and the *' Association,*' was held 
in Manchester, to consider how far it was desirable, and practicable, to make 
arrangements for an amalgamation of those two bodies into one religious 
community. 

It is not my intention to dwell upon the causes which operated to prevent 
a consummation, which, to many persons in both Societies, appeared so ex- 
ceedingly desirable ; suffice it to say, that the mode of effecting it proposed 
by the elder branch was, in my opinion, such as could at no period of the ex- 
istence of the '* Association " have been consistent with its numerical strength, 
its internal resources, or the principles of religious freedom, which from the 
first have influenced our entire Connexion. That the terms of union stated, 
on that occasion, on the part of the ** New Methodist Connexion, '* were 
scarcely sufficiently generous, would, I am persuaded, be now admitted by any 
member of that Connexion, who has made himself acquainted with all the 
circumstances of the case : and indeed it is not too much to say, that a 
dispassionate, and unprejudiced view of the subject from the very commence- 
ment, could only have contemplated the possibility of union between two 
such bodies, on terms which would have involved no serious sacrifice either 
on the one side or the other. 

Time and events however, when well improved, can hardly fail to make 
us dl wiser, and better ; and I am inclined to the opinion, that, were the 
subject of an union between the two Connexions to be again discussed, much 
less of personal feeling would be permitted to obtrude itself into the con- 
sideration ; and what was unreasonable either from one quarter or the other 
would, I trust, as much as possible, be avoided. If ever there were a period 
when such an union was desirable, I venture to say — looking at the times 
in which we live, and the circumstances by which we are surrounded — that 
the present is that period. Union among Christian communities, based upon 
right principles, is at all times important and desirable ; but for an union 
of the interests of liberalized and enlightened Methodism, a consolidation 
into [one enlarged and vigorous body of congenial elements, which at pre- 
sent are separated and comparatively ineffective— there never existed more 
numerous, or stronger reasons, than at this moment. 

We cannot shut our eyes to the fact, for it is one which experience has 
taught us, that religious communities suffer in their general interests, and 
more especially in 3ie loss of members, in proportion to the limited extent 
of their borders. Nay, I hesitate not to say, that both the New Connexion 



240 Methodiit Association and Methodist New Connexion. 

and the Wesleyan Methodist Association, owing to the comparative paucity 
of their circuits, sustain a much greater relative loss from removals to dif- 
ferent parts of the kingdom, than is experienced by the Conference Con- 
nexion ; the latter having a Society in almost every moderate sized town 
throughout the country. One thing is therefore evident, that a corresponding 
degree of ministerial success, in proportion to numbers, which would exhi- 
bit the Conference Connexion in a high state of prosperity, might, by severe 
losses from removals, be scarcely sufficient to preserve either of the other 
Connexions from decline, and ruin. It is true that an amalgamation of the 
two bodies would not in this respect, place them upon an equality with the 
much larger Wesleyan Community, but it could not fail considerably to 
lessen the amount of loss, from this source. For, on looking at the Minutes 
of the two Societies, I find that the New Connexion has twenty-three 
Circuits, including many large populations, and extensive manufacturing 
Districts, where the Association has no Societies ; and that the latter has 
thirty-six Circuits in England, besides several in Scotland and Wales, in 
which the former have no interest, covering a large extent of country, and 
including a vast number of souls. Then each have their separate Mission 
Stations, in different parts of the world ; the new Connexion extending 
itself through sixteen Circuits in Ireland, and sixteen in Canada; whilst 
our own body, in addition to a nucleus in Ireland, has its Missions in Hamburg, 
and the West Indies : the number of members connected with the Association 
on its Foreign Stations, amounting to about the same as in the foreign 
Missions under the care of the New Connexion. Now it must be evident, 
that the strength gained by a consolidation of the two bodies would not be 
merely in proportion to the increased number of members — although even 
that would be far from small, or unimportant, amounting as they would 
then to near fifty- thousand persons — but would be derived also from the 
increase of Circuits, and a corresponding decrease in the loss by removals. 

Besides, there is reason to know that a number of respectable, and influen- 
tial persons in various parts of the kingdom, who love Methodism in its doc- 
trines, and agency, but who are greatly in advance of the principles of Church 
Government of the community with which they are connected, have only 
been retained in their present position by the want of what appeared to them 
a sufficiently strong, and permanent Connexion, and the formation of Circuits 
in their respective localities ; who in case of such an event, would gladly 
augment the united numbers. And althouc^h I would be one of the last to 
look to proselytism, on matters of church polity merely, as a desirable source 
of increase to any religious body, yet if we believe our principles are those 
most conformable to the Word of God, and desire their extension, it must 
be a legitimate source of congratulation to find them existing where such 
opposite views are so strenuously taught. The progress of general events, 
the dissemination of correct knowledge in relation to church government, and 
an increased, and increasing liberality of views on the Scriptural rights of 
the people, all point out the present as a suitable period to accomplish objects 
of union and co-operation. 

There is another view of this subject which in my mind adds considerably 
to the argument in favor of union. There never was a time during anv 
part of the last two centuries, when the Church of England was so powerful, 
or wielded such vast resources both of mind and wealth, or pernaps had 
such a prospect of increase and extension, as at the present moment. With 
a zeal which emulates the industry of the Roman Catholic priesthood — and 
with a perseverance which no difficulties can apparently retard ; the clergy 
of the English Episcopacy are employing all the influence and instrumenta- 
lity which they can bring to bear upon the population of this country, with 
the view of attaching it to the Established church. Smiles and friendships 
arc offered to the more elevated part of the community — the price of the 



MeAoditt Assoda^cn and MeAodUt New Connexion. 241 

tradesman is patronage and custom, urbile the poor and dependent arc plied 
with even more substantial marks of good- will, in being made the exclusive 
recipients of donations^ left by the charitable of former ages, or bestowed by the 
conUribations of the charitable of the present day. But it is with the younger 
partof socie^ that the clergy are evidently most anxious to cultivate acquaint- 
ance, and am>rd instruction ; calculating most reasonably, that the possession 
of die juniors of the present day, would be likely to secure^ to the Church of 
England, both the old and voung of the next generation. 

To the Christian philosopher and philanthropist, there is nothing in con- 
templating this view of the subject, and in marking the zeal and assiduity of 
a body of Christian teachers, in their calling, but what is calculated to afford 
pleasure and satisfaction ; were it not, but too well known, that the great body 
of the clergy of that church are '* teaching for doctrines the commandments 
of meUy" and leading back the people to the times of darkness and ignorance. 
They have, in fact, adopted a system subversive of the Christianity of the 
New Testament— are disseminating dogmas as dangerous as the deadliest 
errors ever promulgated by the " mother of harlots," and are seeking to bring 
Ae entire country under a domination as thoroughly papal in every thing 
but the name, as though it had come direct from the Vatican. 

I have said that the clergy are directing their attention more particularly 
to the young. It is impossible to look at the voluntary efforts which have 
been made by members of the Establishment within the last twelve months^ 
and at the large amount of contributions which has been raised for the pur- 
pose of affording, by means of the Anglican church, education to the chil- 
dren of the poor, without admiring the munificence of the noble and 
dignified of the land ; as well as the zeal and liberality of the less elevated 
in society, in promoting this highly important object. But even that which 
we so much admire in the abstract, proclaims with a voice which is not to be 
misunderstood, that, unless other religious communities follow, it may be at 
a humble distance, the example thus so nobly set, their days of prosperity and 
success are numbered ; and that even their very existence will soon have 
only to be reckoned among the things that have been. The truth is now 
felt and admitted by all — that churches must in future, seek, much more 
than they have previously done, for converts and members among the rising 
generation. These are to be enquired after, taken by the hand and instructed. 
An agency proportioned to the importance of the subject, and the magnitude 
of the object, roust be established by every section of the church which seeks 
to retain its present position, and extend its legitimate influence. This is 
evidently the view which lias been adopted by the larger sections of Chris- 
tians in this country — the Conference Methodists, and the Independents — and 
sufficiently accounts for the generous and extraordinary efforts made by them 
for raising adequate means for extending denominational education. And 
I candidly confess, there never was a moment during the seven years which 
have passed since the abortive attempts at union between the New Connexion 
and the Association, when the regret upon my mind was so strong, or the 
feeling of sorrow so deep, at that failure, as when contemplating it in connec- 
tion with the all-important subject of education. It was evident to my mind, 
that neither ourselves, as a body, nor the New Connexion, as far as I had the 
means of judging, would be able separately to take the position which both 
would ardently wish to occupy in relation to this interesting question ; whe- 
ther united they would be fully equal to their situation, and the claims which 
would be consequent, is perhaps matter of doubt ; but no one, I presume, 

will hesitate to believe, that combined, far more might be accomplished, 

than both are likely to effect in their isolated and separate capacities. 
On every ground Uien, which ought to influence the mind and determine 

the course of both communities, I beg respectfully to suggest, that the 

lalgect of union— on some equitable and satisfactory basis, to be mutually 



242 ReKgious Intelligence. 

arranged — is worth the serious and immediate consideration of the New 
Connexion, and the Wesleyan Association. I do not think it too much to 
assert, that the practicability of this measure has not been sufficientlj 
examined ; or investigated with that calmness, and freedom from prejudice, 
which its vast importance to both Societies demand. At all events, let the 
insuperable difficulty, the irremoveable bar to union — if such really does 
exist — be ascertained, and made apparent to all ; and when it is so made out, 
men's minds will then be brought quietly, and resignedly, to acquiesce in 
the inevitable result of continued, and perpetual separation. Mv hope, 
and belief, however is, that if the question be approached on both sides, 
under a sufficiently impressive belief of its real importance, and a sincere 
desire be evinced to remove as far as possible, every obstacle to the desired 
consummation, that no insuperable difficulty does, or can exist, to a mutually 
beneficial and lasting union, of the two communities. 

The New Connexion being about shortly to hold its Annual Conference, 
I hope I may be allowed to say, that it will, in my opinion, reflect the 
highest credit upon the Conference, if it should cheerfully, and promptly, 
take the initiative in this affair, by expressing in general terms its approval of 
such a measure, and the appointment of a Committee with powers to enter 
upon the consideration of the question of union. 

In conclusion, I think it proper to add, that for what is contained in this 
communication I alone am responsible. That I have written simply as an 
individual member of Society, anxiously desirous of promoting the object 
it advocates ; and that I have not conferred with any person whatever, upon 
the expediency, or otherwise, of discussing this important subject. 

M. JOHNSON. 



RELIGIOUS INTELLIGENCE. 

BRITISH AND FOREIGN BIBLE SOCIETY. 

The fortieth anniversary of this Society was held in Exeter Hall on the 
30th of April. Lord Bexley, President, in the chair. 

The Rev. A. Brand ram read the report, which gave a statement of the 
operations of the Society in different parts of the world. The receipts for the 
past year were — subscriptions and donations £46,563, this added to tne amount 
received for sales made the total receipts £98,359. The issues of copies of the 
Scriptures were for the year 944,031 ; since the formation of the Society 
15,965,025. The meeting was addressed by the Marquis of Cholmondeley ; the 
Earl of Chichester ; General Sir C. Bathurst ; the Bishops of Cashel and Wor- 
cester; the Archdeacon Wilberforce ; the Hon. and Jtlev. B. W. Noel ; the 
Revds. Mr. Trefit, of New York ; J. Mc Lean, Dr. Morrison ; T. Marzials, 
of Lille, Dr. Wilson and A, Brandram. The meeting we regret to state was 
not numerously attended. 

CHURCH MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

This Society held its forty-fourth anniversary on the 1st of May in Exeter 
Ilall. The Right Hon. the Earl of Chichester in the chair. The report was 
read in portions by the Rev. R. Davies, and the Rev. J. Venn : from which 
it appeared that during the past year the financial embarrassments of the Society 
had been removed. That although the Society had not been favoured with any 
large and striking instance of success, it had not experienced any adverse 
occurrence or peculiar trial ; and that many of the Missions indicated cheering 
promise of success. The committee also reported, that it had engaged two 
clergymen, who were about to proceed to China to commence a Mission, The 



Religioui InUlligence. 243 

iooome, for the year, amounted to £104,323, which exceeded the expenditure 
io the past year by £4,318, besides paying an outstanding debt of £1000. 

The resolutions were moved and seconded by the Bishops of Chester, and 
RipoD; tbeRevds. J. W.Cunningham; Professor Scholetield; Dr. Marsh; 
Hugh Stowell : Sir H. Inglis, M. P. and J. P. Plumptre, Esq. M. P. 

BRITISH AND FOREIGN SCHOOL SOCIETY. 

The annual meeting of this Society was held in Exeter Hall oo the 6th of 
May. The Right Hon. Lord John Russell, M. P. in the chair. His lordship 
in opening the business of the meeting stated and commended the catholic 
priDciples on which the society is founded. Seeking to provide a Scriptural 
and secular education for all, apart from any sectarian design ; and co-operating 
for tliis purpose with the benevolent of all religious persuasions, who ac- 
knowledge the authority of the holy Scriptures ; and who are willing to aid in 
carrying on schools from which sectarianism is excluded. He also made just and 
honorable reference to the virtues of the former treasurer, the Jate William Allen ; 
and stated that Prince Albert, had conveyed through his hand, a donation of 
£lOO, and that his brother the Duke of Bedford, had, as usual, transmitted a 
like amount. 

The report was read by the secretary H. Dunn, Esq. After giving a general 
view of the proceedings of the Society, it stated that immediately after the with- 
drawment of the factories bill, the committee determined to enlarge the oper- 
ations of the Society, by engaging additional agents, promoting school inspection, 
increasing the number of teachers, and rendering aid in originating new schools 
where such were required. That a special subscription had been opened for the 
payment of the debt upon the normal schools. Eight members of the committee 
bad offered to give £100 each, and several others had engaged to raise from £50 
to 100 each, if sufficient to remove the whole debt were shortly procured. The 
number of teachers admitted during the year into the normal schools, for 
training, had been 288. 

S. Gurney, Esq. presented the accounts for the past year. The gross receipts 
were £lO,081. 

The meeting was then addressed by Lord Monteagle ; Sir C. Lemon, M. P. ; 
Sir E. Codrington, M. P. ; D. Barclay, Esq. M. P. ; W. Tooke, Esq. ; and 
the Revds. G. Clayton; Wm. Arthur ; J. A. Schurman ; and J. Burnet. 

ANTI-STATE CHURCH CONFERENCE. 

This important conference commenced its sittings in the large room of the 
Crown and Anchor, Strand, on the morning of the 30th of April. Preliminary 
devotional services were held in Eagle Street chapel. Between seven and eight 
hundred representatives were deputed to attend. The conference lasted three 
successive days, and sat morning and evening each day. Each sitting had its 
respective chairman. The chairmen were, the Revds. J. Burnet ; Dr. Andrew 
Marshall ; Dr. Young ; J. Ackworth ; Dr. Cox ; and J. Dunlop, Esq. of 
Brochloch. 

Immediately after the opening of the conference. Dr. Cox, brought up the 
report of the executive committee. At the different meetings several very im- 
portant papers, illustrative of the evils resulting from the alliance of the church 
and state, were read : these had been written by the Rev. Dr. Wardlaw ; Mr. 
Miall, Editor of the Nonconformist; Rev. M. Massie; Rev. J. P. Mursell; and 
by a Barrister, whose name was not given. 

Several important resolutions were proposed and adopted ; and a Society 
formed — to be called '^ The British Anti-State Church Society.^' 

It is intended to take legal and peaceful measures for enlightening the public 
mind on the civil, and religious evils, resulting from state establishments, so as 
to prepare the way for the separation of the church from the state. This we 
beUere to be absolutely requisite to the spiritualityi puiity^ and uavH«t«d\ %^^n«l 



944 Religiaus Intdligence. 

of Christianity. State establishments of religion , occasion the corruption of 
truth, and engender the spirit of persecution. We hope therefore that the 
proceedings of this important Society will be directed by the spirit of grace and 
of wisdom, and be ultimately crowned with success. 

SUNDAY SCHOOL UNION. 

The annual meeting of this Institution was held in Exeter Hall, on the 2nd 
of May. C. Hindley, Esq. M. P. in the chair. 

After a few introductory remarks from the chairman, the report was read by 
W. H. Watson, Esq. It stated that during the preceding year, fourteen 
grants, amounting to £430, had been made in aid of erecting or enlarging 
Sunday schools. Another grant of £40, had been made to promote the 
extension and improvement of Sunday schools. Depositary book grants had 
been made, amounting to near £200. There had also been granted 115 
libraries, at a loss of £276. The sale of publications at the depositary 
amounted to £8,703, being a decrease of Jt125 on the year. Donations 
amounting to £200, had been received ; the total receipts of the benCTolent 
fund, during the past year had been £1,747, and the expenditure £l,677. 
The report also referred to the controversy respecting the sale of denomina- 
tional catechisms, and stated that the committees of the four London auxiliaries 
contained 800 members, of whom only 137, had voted for the discontinuance of 
the sale of catechisms. 

The adoption of the report was proposed by the Rev; J. Sherman, and 
seconded by the Kev. H. Richards — the second and third resolutions were 
moved and seconded by the Rev. Mr. Frazer; Dr. Morrison; Mr. Groser; 
and Wm. .^ones, Esq. Mr. Hooper stated that the committee of the society 
was self nominated and in effect self elected ; and proposed that this should be 
reformed ; but his proposition was not seconded. After the resolution appoint- 
ing the committee, was carried, the Rev. J. Carlile, who at an early part of the 
meeting had given notice of his intention to propose an instruction to the com- 
mittee, moved the following proposition. 

*' The committee for the last year having left undecided the question relative 
to the continued sale of denominational catechisms, this meeting, of the con- 
stituent body, hereby recommend the committee now chosen to discontinue, at 
the earliest practical period, the publication, and sale, at the Society's repository 
of all denominational formularies.'' 

Mr. Christopherson seconded the proposition. 

After some discussion it was carried by an immense majority. We presume 
that the committee will now feel itself required to discontine the sale of the 
church catechism, and all other denominational formularies. 

LONDON MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

The fiftieth anniversary of this society was held in Exeter Hall on the 9th of 
May. Wm. Evans, Esq. M. P. in the chair. The Rev. A. Tidman read the 
report, which gave a condensed account of the state of the Society's missions in 
the South Sea Islands, — China, India, South Africa, Madagascar and the West 
Indies. The receipts during the year having been £81, 812, and the expenditure 
£83,525. The meeting was addressed by the Revds. J. A. Schurroan ; J. 
Blackburn; J. A.James; J. Ely; J. Hamilton; J. Aldis; J. Stoughton; R. 
Young; H. King; T. Smith: and Capt. Gambier. 

PEACE SOCIETY. 
The Annual Meeting of the subscribers and friends of this Society was held 
in Finsbury Chapel on the 21st of May, C. Hindley, Esq. in the chair. The 
Rev. J. Jefferson read the report, which stated, that during the year numerous 
public meetings had been held to make known the principles of the Society, 
and that 2300 persons had, in cousequence, signed the declaration that| war 



Beligiaui InkUigenct. 



245 



is inconsistent with the spirit of Christianity; and 1500 tracts had been dis- 
tributed. From the Treasurer's account it appeared that the receipts for the year 
had been £l, 796, and the expenditure £l,717. The meeting was addressed 
by the Chairman ; the Revds. J. Stock ; U. Richard ; C. Stovel ; J. Jefferson ; 
Professor Wright: and by J.J.Gurney, Esq.; J, S. Buckingham , Esq.; 
and G. Thompson, Esq. 

BAPTIST MISSIONARY SOCIETY. 

The Anniversaiy of this Society was held in Exeter Hall on the 25th of 
April, W. B. Gumey, Esq. in the chair. 

After an opening speech from the Chairman, the Rev. J. Angus read the 
report, from which it appeared that the income of the past year had been 
£21,840, and the expenditure £22,831. In India a greater number of converts 
have been added to the Churches than in any previous year ; and the educa- 
tional establishments are in a prosperous state. In Jamaica the number of 
members is 33,664 — in the Bahamas 521 persons have been added to the 
churches, and the schools have greatly increased. Additional missionaries are 
soon to be sent to Trinidad and Hayti, and a new mission has been commenced 
at Morlaix, in Brittany. 

The meeting was also addressed by the Revds. W. Brock ; J. Mc Lean ; J. 
Sprigg ; Dr. Wilson ; F. F. Newman ; C. Morris ; — Stephens : and by J. Trit- 
ton, Esq. ; S. M. Peto, Esq. ; and T. Thompson, Esq. 

BRITISH SOCIETY FOR PROPAGATING THE GOSPEL AMONG 
THE JEWS. 

The first anniversary of this society was held in Freemason's Hall, on April 
26th. J. Deane Paul, Esq. in the chair. The report was read by Dr. Hender- 
son, one thousand copies of the epistle to the Hebrews have been printed, by 
the premission of Mr. Bagster, from his Hebrew stereotype plates of the New 
Testament. An edition of our Lord's sermon on the mount has also been printed 
in English. Quarterly prayer meetings, and lectures, have been established. 
Four agents are employed, three of whom are of '<the stock of Israel.*' One of 
the agents had declined receiving any remuneration. The total receipts were re- 
ported to amount to £921, and the expenditure to £634. The meeting was 
also addressed by the Revds. Drs. Bennett, Morrison, and Wilson ; the Revds. 
J. J. Freeman, J. Crowther, E. Hoole, O. Clarke; and T. Farmer, Esq. 



WESLEYAN ASSOCIATION. 



WORCESTER. 

To THE EniTOR. — 

It is \iath much thankfulness and 
gratitude to God, that I am enabled to 
•end you a cheering account concern- 
ing this circuit. From the commence- 
ment of my labours here, we _ have 
been blessed with peace and unanimity. 
Our congregations are very attentive 
and increasing; and there are indica- 
tions amongst the members of a general 
breathing after holiness. Eight indi- 
viduals, impressed with the import- 
ance of giving themselves to God, have 
recently joined the Society. The meet- 
ings generally are well attended ; our 
hopes are excited, and our faith is in 
lively exercise. 

Thus you will spe, Sir, the great 



cause we have to be thankful, and to 
urge on our way with redoubled energy, 
in confident hope, that this is but the 
earnest of what is to come. We are 
one and all praying for the teeming 
shower. May God grant our petition, 
and to His name we will ascribe the 
glory. 

John Mathers. 

EDINBURGH CIRCUIT. 

The annual services of the Edin- 
burgh auxiliary of the Wesleyan Metho- 
dist Association Missionary Society, 
commenced on Sunday, April the 7th, 
when two impressive discourses were 
delivered, by the Rev. J. Watson, and 
the Rev. W. Innes. On Monday 



246 



Religious InUttigence. 



evening a public meeting was held, 
when several interesting addresses were 
delivered. On Tuesday evening u 
Missionary service was held in the 
Calton convening room. After tea, 
the meeting was appropriately and 
eloquently addressed by the following 
speakers: the Rev. Dr. Ritchie, the 
Rev. G. Johnson (United Secession), 
the Rev. T. Stevenson, the Rev. G. 
O. Campbell (Relief Church), and 
Mr. Gregory. The attendance, espe- 
cially of friends from other churches, 
was highly encouraging, and indicated 
the cordiality and affection which pre- 
vail among the Christian denominations 
of this city. The whole of the proceed- 
ings were highly interesting, and the 
collections exceeded our expectations. 



PENZANCE CIRCUIT. 

On Sunday, April 25th, three ser* 
mons were preached on behalf of our 
Missions, in Queen Street chapel. Pen- 
zance ; those in the morning and even- 
ing by the Rev. William Mills, of the 
Methodist New Connexion; that in 
the afternoon by the Rev. John Foxell, 
Independent minister of this town. 

On the following Monday evening 
a public meeting was held, Michell 
Thompson, Esq. in the chair. After 
an appropriate address from the chair- 
man, the secretary. Rev. James Ward, 
read the report, from which it appearea 
that the whole sum raised by the cir- 
cuit, including £3 toward the liquida- 
tion of the Connexional debt, amounted 
to £20 17s. 8d. The meeting was ad- 
dressed by Mr. Thomas Hickens, of 
Fairfield, and by the Revds. C. New, 
now supplying the Baptist church in 
this town, Henry Williams, of Redruth, 
William Mills, of Truro, and John 
Foxell, 

The meeting afforded much satisfac- 
tion to the friends of our Missions. The 
collections have exceeded those of the 
past year. 

Missionary services have also been 
held at Goldsithney, Treskow, Trevar- 
non Moor, Newlyn, Sancreed, and 
Hayle. Those services were conducted 
by the Revds. James Dennis, Henry 
Williams, and James Ward: and 
bv Messrs. T. Hickens, W. Rodd. J. 
Wallis, and W. E. H. Card. 

J. Ward. 



STOCKTON CIRCUIT. 
To THE Editor.— 

It is with feelings of ardent gratitude 
to the Head of the church, that I sit 
down to give you a brief sutement of 
God's goodness towards us. On my 
arriving in this circuit, appearances 
were of the most cheerless character. 
But I was happy, on having intercourse 
with the members, to find that piety 
and devotion to the cause were deeply 
rooted in many of their hearts; I 
therefore took courage, trusting in the 
strength of the Almightv. Near the 
close of the year we had Indications of 
the Divine presence, manifested in the 
conversion of a few souls. 

On the entrance of the new year, 
two individuals determined to devote 
a quarter of an hour each day to special 
prayer, for the outpouring of the Spirit 
on the church and the world. Others 
were induced to join in the same good 
work. A quickening and deepening of 
the work of grace were soon perceived 
throughout the society. Inquiries began 
to be made— when shall we hold pro- 
tracted meetings ? 

On Easter Sunday evening the pre- 
sence of God was powerfully felt, and 
at the prayer meetmg four souls were 
able to testify that ** Christ Jesus hath 
power on earth to forgive sins." We 
then appointed special services for the 
ensuing week, when four men were 
brought into the liberty of the Gospel. 
Addresses were delivered during the 
following week, when sixteen more 
were enabled to rejoice in the liberty 
wherewith Christ made them free. 
Since then, nearly every week, we have 
had tokens for good in the salvation of 
thinners. Evenr member of our society 
enjoys God's favour, and is rejoicing in 
the hope of glory. 

The work has spread among the 
families of our members, and the Sab- 
buth school teachers. Several cases 
were of a remarkable and yery interest- 
ing character ; especially one relating 
to a captain, whose vessel was detained 
in the river from scarcity of coals. He 
returned to his own port rejoicing. 

We are relying on God for the con- 
tinuance of the work. The spirit of 
prayer and supplication is poured out 
from on high, and our people are 
hoping for yet greater things than these. 
On the 19th of May we held our 
Missionary services; Mr. Beswick, 
from Scarborough, preaching on the 
Sabbath ; in the evening of which two 



OUiuary. 



247 



souli were savingly conyerted to God. 

Tbe Missionary meeting was held on 
the Monday, and addresses delivered by 
tbe President, Mr. Peters, Mr. Beswick, 
and Messrs, Townend and Harley, of 
Darlington. Tbe meeting was of a de- 
Ugiitful character ; but in consequence 
of tbe depression of trade, tbe proceeds 
were not equal to former years. Tbe 
Stockton trade is considerably depen- 
dent on the mining districts, which are 
now inactive, and this, doubtless, af- 
fected our collections. 

It is to be hoped that shortly our 
finances will improve, as it is princi- 
pally the ability that is wanting, and 
not the will. God is giving us the 
salvation of souls, and no doubt he will 
send the means necessary for the still 
forther promotion of his cause. To 
Him who liveth and reigneth be ascribed 
all power and praise. 

T. H. 



STOCKPORT CIRCUIT. 

MISSIONARY SERVICES. 

Wealofan MethodUt Association Home 
and Foreign Missions, Hyde, — On Sun- 
day, March 3rd, 1844, two sermons 
were preached in the Cross Street 
school room, by the Rev. Jabesh Harris, 
of Stockport. On the Monday even- 
ing the Missionary meeting was held in 
the above place ; Mr. John Leese Buck- 
ley in the chair. The meeting was also 



addressed by the Rev. Mr. Calvert* 
Independent minister, Hyde, the Rev. 
R. Chester of Glossop, the Rev. N. 
Parkyn, of Manchester, the Rev. A. 
Weston, of Oldham, Mr. S. Crompton, 
and Mr. R. Crompton, of Hyde. The 
services were well attended ; and this 
was the first Missionary meeting we 
have held in this place. The collec- 
tions were equal to our expectations, 
and we trust that the seed sown will 
bring forth an hundred fold. 



On Sunday, April 21, 1844, the Rev. 
N. Parkyn, of Manchester, preached 
Missionary sermons in the Wellington 
Road chapel, and on Monday evening, 
the 22nd, a public Missionary meeting 
was held, Robt. Lowe, Esq. of Man- 
chester, in the chair. The Rev. J. 
Harris read the report. The meeting 
was addressed by the Rev. J. Thoniton, 
the Rev. J. Waddington, Independent 
ministers, Stockport, the Rev. C. 
Baker, Baptist minister, the Rev. N. 
Parkyn, the Rev. W. Reed, of Man- 
chester, Messrs. Maginnis, E. Mills, 
and R. Williams, of Manchester. The 
services were well attended, particularly 
the public meeting. Tbe addresses 
were very interesting, and we trust 
produced a greater interest in the minds 
of the people, in behalf of our Home 
and Foreign Missions, than has hitherto 
been manifested. 

J. Harris. 



OBITUARY. 



Died, May 21, 1843, at Edgeley, 
near Stockport, William Bennett, in 
the 54th year of his age. He was 
born in Manchester, where his parents 
were for many years members of the 
Wesleyan Methodist Society. At an 
early period of his life, he with much 
pleasure accompanied his father to the 
^rious means of grace ; and, while 
yet a youth, obtained a sense of the 
pardoning love of God, and was ena- 
bled to testify that he had ** peace 
^iih God through our Lord Jesus 
Christ." 

When he had arrived at man's 
estate, he went to reside at Ashton- 
onder-line. There he united himself 
^ith the people of God; and was 



soon called to take the charge of a 
class as its leader ; and shortly after 
was requested by the church to engage 
in the important work of calling sin- 
ners to repentance. With much fear 
and trembling, he laboured as a local 
preacher, and had the satisfaction to 
know that he did not labour in vain. 
Sometime after this he came to reside 
in Stockport : and continued those la- 
bours in which he had before been 
employed. Here circumstances oc- 
curred, which occasioned him to 
leave the Conference society, and 
become united with the Wesleyan 
Association. He was an ardent 
admirer of Sabbath schools, and, 
whenever his other duties permit- 



248 



Poetry. 



ted, was invariably found engaged 
therein. In order to show the deep 
interest he took in the welfare of the 
rising generation, the following cir- 
cumstance may be recorded. A vil- 
lage, distant three miles from Stock- 
port was destitute of the means of 
grace, such as the ministry of the 
word, and Sabbath school instruction. 
Having by some means become ac- 
quainted with the circumstances of the 
case, he repaired thither, and found 
the situation of the people such as had 
been described. He accordingly can- 
vassed the village, and found a dispo- 
sition in the people to accept of those 
services which he ofiered to them. 
He therefore took a room in the village 
then unoccupied ; and being a carpen- 
ter by trade, he 6tted up the place as 
a school and preaching-room, t^ere 
be commenced his labours, and was 
soon gratified in witnessing, that the 
efforts he had made were not in vain. 
For betwixt two and three years he 
continued his labours there, when he 
was obliged to relinquish his charge ; 
and the place was accordingly given 
up. After this, he resumed his labours 
in the Brinksway Sabbath school ; in 
which he laboured with considerable 
acceptance. In the month of Decem- 
ber 1842, the long and dreary affliction 
commenced, that terminated in his 
death. No serious consequences were 
apprehended for some time. But at 
length his disorder, which proved to 
be an affection of the heart, together 
with water upon the chest, began to 
assume a fearful aspect. His consti- 
tution began to decay, and after the 
lapse of a few weeks he was confined 
to bis house. The writer, together 
with others of the friends, frequently 



visited him in bis affliction, and were 
invariably gratified to witness with 
what calmness and resignation he bore 
his afflictions. On being interrogated 
with respect to the state of his mind ; 
he calmly replied, **For me to live 
is Christ, and to die will be gain/' He 
expressed satisfaction in having made 
choice of religion, which now afforded 
him those consolations, which were not 
to be derived from any other source. 
Two or three weeks before his death, 
he sank very rapidly. But it was 
evident, that, *' As his outward man 
decayed, his inner man grew stronger, 
day by day." As he. approached the 
confines of the grave, his path was as 
that of the just, ** shining more and 
more unto the perfect day.*' On the 
afternoon before he died, whilst en- 
gaged in conversation upon the rest to 
which he was hastening — he clasped 
his hands and lifted up his eyes, and 
appeared to be wrapped in devout 
meditation. 

Being extremely weak, he was not 
able to converse much ; but he gave 
sufficient evidence of the internal 
composure of his mind. Being asked 
whether he was suffering much pain, 
he replied, that he had no pain what- 
ever : and remarked that the Lord was 
very good in not laying more upon 
him than he was able to bear. 

About seven o'clock he retired to 
bed, apparently not much worse than 
he had been for a day or two previous ; 
but about midnight he was much 
worse, and ere the clock had struck 
one, his happy spirit departed to its 
rest. He died without a struggle or a 
groan. ''Mark the perfect man, and 
behold the upright, for the end of 
that man is peace.*' S. Sadler. 



POETRY. 

THE SOURCE OF HAPPINESS. 



Opprest'd 'with sorrow, grief, and woe, 

We shed the fruitless tear ) 
Is there no better lot below, 

For us poor mortals here ? 

If ought can cool this burning brow, 
Or ease this troubl*d heart; 

O that some pitying spirit now, 
The secret would impart I 



An angel form appear*d in sight. 
And spake in accents mild; 

** I come to guide thy steps aright. 
Poor sinful erring child. 

Think not to find substantial bUss, 
On sin's enchanted ground j 

For true and real happiness. 
In Christ alone it found." 

R. P.J. 



No, 18. 
WESLEYAN METHODIST ASSOCIATION 

JUNE, 1844. 



Thb solemn obligation which devolves upon all, to whom the Gospel 
is made known, to obey its commands and accept the blessings it offers, 
is not more clear and authoritative, than that which devolves upon all 
Christians to exert themselves, employing the means placed by the 
providence of God at their disposal, for bringing men every where to 
the knowledge of the truth that they may be saved. Yet, it must be 
confessed, that, there are not many who properly acknowledge this 
solemn obligation ! To try to awaken sinners from their guilty slum- 
bers, and to bring them to know Him whom to know is eternal life, 
is, however, our duty to God, to Christ, to all our fellow-men, and also 
to our own souls. For accomplishing this work our best energies 
oaght to be exerted, our most fervent and increasing prayers offered, 
and our cheerful and liberal contributions bestowed. 

It is cause of encouragement and of thankfulness, that, from the com- 
munications which we have received from those who are employed in 
preaching the Gospel of Christ in our various Mission Stations, both at 
home and abroad, it appears, God has owned his word, as preached by 
them, to the salvation of souls. 

We beg to remind our friends, that our Connexional year is rapidly 
drawing to a close, and that it is of great importance, they should 
immediately complete their subscriptions and collections, for the year, 
and transmit their accounts and money to the general Treasurer. 

The communications which follow will, we are sure, be read with 
much interest. Several of them we have, through want of room, been 
obliged to abridge, and for the same reason other communications 
have not been inserted, 

HAMBURGH. 
To THB Editgb,— Dear Sm, 

In reporting to you the affairs of our Hitherto I have refrained from giving 

cburch and Mission in this place, it is a detailed account of my proceedings, 
with feelings of gratitude to Almighty fearing to make a parade of my labours, 
God, that I acknowledge his continued and not wishing to convey the idea 
goodness in vouchsafing his presence that more was being accomplished 
and blessing in all our religious ser- than was actually the case; however, 
vices ; I may truly say that our assem- as it may be satisfactory and agreeable 
blies, both public and private, are cha- to the friends generally, I shall add a 
racterized by very gracious manifesta- brief sketch of operations during the 
tions, — the church and congregation quarter. 

being invariably, to a greater or less Sunday, March 3rd. Preached as 

extent, edified, blessed, and refreshed. usual twice ; after the morning service 
Impressions are made upon the minds administered the sacrament of the 
of some, in reference to whom we have Lord's Supper; all the services were 
reason to hope that they will soon very delighcful. 

yield themselves to the changing power Tuesday 5th. Met the class ; the 

of Divine grace, join the church below, members appear to be growing in 
and become prepared for eternal union grace, 
with the church triumphant above. Sunday 10th. The room was well 



250 



CARRICKFBROUS, IRELAND. 



1844. 



filled both morning and evening; had 
a good prayer meeting at the close. 

Tuesday ]2tb. Very happy in 
meeting the class ; I think the members 
are fixed in holy purpose. 

Wednesday Idth. Preached this 
evening on board the Hull Steamer, 
" Queen of Scotland; ''—a good atten- 
dance, and marked attention. 

Saturday 16th. Visited the ship- 
ping, leaving notices for the services of 
the Sabbath, and distributing religious 
tracts. 

Sunday 17th. Preached twice to 
good congregations • God was with us, 
manifesting himselt as he does not unto 
the world. 

Tuesday 19th. We bad a profit- 
able class meeting ; how greatly ought 
we to prize such means of grace. 

Sunday 24th. In addition to the 
services at the room, held a prater 
meeting on board the "Navy** which 
was well attended. 

Thursday 28th. Preached this 
evening on board the " Navy ; " the at- 
tendance was good, and the season 
refreshing. 

Saturday 90th. Distributed about 
400. tracts, which in every instance 
were cheerfully and gratefully received. 

Sunday 31 st. Preached to large 
and deeply affected congregations in 
the room ; Afternoon exhorted on board 
the " Navy." 

Wednesday, April 3rd. A good 
meeting on board the ** Queen." 

Good Friday 5th. This morning 
I met the members of Society, and 
delivered an address enforcing Christian 
experience and practice ; a very solemn 
and impressive time. 

Sunday 7th. Administered the 
sacrament of the Lord's Supper after 
the forenoon service ; a season of great 
folemnity. 

Thursday 11th. Preached on board 



the ** Navy ; " a very excellent meet- 
ing ; several sailors engaged in prayer. 

Sunday 14th. Graciously assisted 
in the discharge of my duties; God 
grant that the word preached may be 
productive of much fruit. 

Tuesday 16th. Held a public 
prayer meeting which was well at- 
tended, and proved a time of refreshing 
from the presence of the Lord. 

Wednesday 17th. Preached to a 
goodljT number onboard the *' Queen ;'' 
attention and seriousness were manifest 
throughout the service. 

Saturday 20th. Visited the ship- 
ping, distributing notices and tracts as 
usual. 

Sunday 21st. Another blessed 
Sabbath ! blessed indeed ; for the Lord 
has been with us of a truth in all the 
services, as well in the harbour as at 
the room. 

Tuesdajr 23rd, A very delightful 
class meeting. 

Sunday 28th. Two excellent con- 
gregations at the room, and a very 
good meeting on board the ** Yacht," of 
Sunderland. 

Wednesday, May 1st. Conducted 
service on board the "Queen;** the 
large cabin was full, and a gracious 
influence was felt throughout. 

Sunday 5th. Had a remarkably 
happy time together while commemo* 
rating the dying love of the Lord Jesus 
Christ ; closed the services of the sanc- 
tuary with a good prayer meeting. 

Tuesday 7th. Found the class 
meeting a very profitable means to all 
our souls. 

Sunday 12th. ^ Have felt much 
freedom in declaring the truth ; in the 
evening especially, as I preached from 
" Quench not the Spirit, the influence 
of the Holy Ghost seemed to be speci- 
ally vouchsafed. 

W. H. Walker. 



CARRICKFERGUS, IRELAND. 



To THE Editor,— Dear Sir, 

It would be tedious to give my 
journal in full, I have therefore ex- 
tracted such portions as are best cal- 
culated, to give correct ideas of the 
nature of my labours, and the real 
state of our cause in Ireland. 

Sunday, Dec. 31, 1843. We held 
our watch night— the chapel was filled, 
and a solemn feeling prevailed. 

My labours for 1844, had a serious 
commencementi having had to con- 
duct a funeral service. Previous to 



the interment, I attended the house 
where the corpse la^; many people 
were gathered, and while I spoke of the 
event that had called us together, the 
tears stole down the cheeks of several. 
O that the impressions may be lasting. 
Sunday, Jan. 7. The members of our 
little church, covenanted afresh with 
God ; the attendance was good, and the 
season refreshing. During the week I 
visited the jail in this town, but was 
not allowed to give spiritual advice. 



1844. 



C4ABIGKFSR0US» IRELAND. 



251 



Went also topreacbin a dwelling-bousey 
only three persons were present; the 
reason of the small attendance was the 
death of a near neighbour, and the 
people were gone to the wake. We ad- 
journed to the house where the corpse 
lay ; it was quite filled ; I conducted 
divine service, and many appeared 
deeply affected. Attended a prayer 
meeting conducted by a pious sergeant. 
It was good to wait on the Lord. 
While there, a near neighbour breathed 
her last. 1 had visited her many 
times, and had good hope in her end. 

Sunday 14th. In addition to my 
usual work in which I was greatly 
blessed, I attended the wake of the 
deceased woman mentioned above. 
Spoke to the people on the subject of 
death and prayed with them, for which 
they appeared thankful. 

This was a good week with us, and I 
■ ' encouraged to go forward. 



I met witn a person who professed to 
have got good under my ministry. She 
has been made happy and joined our 
society. Met with a family of Roman 
Catholics who allowed me to read the 
Scriptures and pray with them; and 
when I was leaving, asked me when I 
would call again ? On the Wednesday 
of diis week, the sergeant above referred 
to, held a special prayer meeting in our 
diapel. The Lord of hosts met with 
US. Bless his name. 

Sunday 21st. I had abundant labour, 
but as my day is, so is ray strength. 

During the week attended to my 
duties with delight. 

Sunday, 28th. Besides preaching in 
our chapel, held divine service in a 
farm-house two miles from town. This 
week I preached in dwelling houses, met 
three classes, assisted at a teetotal 
meeting; visited many of my little 
flock, and others. 

Sunday Feb. 4th. Preached twice, 
attended the school, and examined the 
children. This week I proffered to 
meet the member's children once a week 
to give them spiritual advice; which 
met with a hearty approval. 

Had some difficulty in getting permis- 
lion to see a dying woman. But in 
opposition to the wishes of the neigh- 
bours, who thought I should be insulted, 
I went in, and was kindly received by 
the husband of the dying woman. The 
woman was insensible, so all I could do 
was to commend her to God in prayer, 
and warn those present to prepare to 
meet God. 

Sunday 11th. By request I preached 
in the Independent Meeting House ip 



this town. It was a refreshing time 
from the presence of the Lord. 
Preached at night.in our chapel, and gave 
an address to the members of society. 

Monday 12th. The poor woman last 
mentioned expired this day. After 
preaching in a dwelling house, I at- 
tended the wake, and remained about 
an hour and half, singing, praying, and 
exhorting the people to prepare to die. 

Sunday 18th. It was good to wait 
on God in his house. This week com- 
menced my labours among the children 
of our members. Was also present at a 
wake, the house was filled with people, 
and they were very attentive while I 
spoke on the subject of death. 

Sunday. 25th. God made the place 
of his footstool glorious. This week, 
in addition to my regular duties, I had 
occasion to visit Belfast ; while there 
preached to several hundreds in the 
open air, and by request in the Primi- 
tive Methodist Chapel. The best of 
all, God was with us. 

Thursday night in Carrickfergus, at- 
tended a wake, was well received, and 
all seemed serious. 

Sunday, March Srd. Laboured hard 
in the vineyard — hope and believe with 
success. Wednesday attended a house 
of mourning, a member of the family 
having been brought home dead. The 
deceased was a sailor, twenty years of 
age, who met with his death by filing 
from the rigging of the ship. I tried to 
console the family, and endeavoured to 
improve the event for the good of aJl 
present. 

Sunday 2'lth. Many of our friends 
having gone to hear a stranger, our 
chapel was thinly attended, but the 
Lord met with us. 

Monday 25th. A painful affair took 
place. I went, by request, to visit a 
dying young man : when entering the 
house, the Dean of Carrick was coming 
out, and a very unpleasant conversation 
took place between us. After enquir- 
ing with all possible authority who I 
was, and whence I came ? he said he 
would *<not subscribe to Metho- 
dist doctrine." I told him, then he 
would ** not subscribe to the New Tes- 
tament." He then said, that he and his 
curate would attend and instruct the 
young man, in the discipline and doc- 
trines of the established church. After 
further conversation he became more 
courteous, and introduced me, to the 
young man, as one who wished to do 
him good— and also said, that he 
wished to live on good terms wiUi aU. 
parties, I conveTse^ 9xv^ ^t«^^^ ^\^ 



252 



CARRICKrSROUSi IRELAND. 



1844. 



the young man ; two days ufter he ex- 
pired. I attended the wake, and en- 
deavoured to improve his death. 

The following will give some idea of 
my labours since the date of my last 
communication, 

Sunday, April 7th, was a very pre- 
cious day to our people, being the day 
appointed, for the celebration of the 
Lord's Supper ; the presence of Christ 
was so manifest that we were con- 
strained to say, " Master, it is good to 
be here. " 

Monday 8th. Held a church meeting, 
when the necessity of having a chapel 
of our own, in order to give stability 
to thccause, was the subject of anxious 
consideration. I am convinced that, 
unless we have a chapel here, the So- 
ciety will ever be a burden to the Con- 
nexion ; for although our Missionaries 
may be extensively useful to the people, 
yet we cannot get a proper hold of that 
support we otherwise should obtain. 
The following facts will substantiate 
this opinion. 1. The nlace in which 
we now worship, is badly situated, and 
its outward appearance is anything 
but inviting. 2. We know not how 
soon we may be ejected, the pre- 
mises having just fallen into the 
hands of a new landlord, who 
intends to take them down. 3. The 
inhabitants of the town are aware of 
these things, therefore those stand 
aloof who might and would greatly 
assist if our cause were properly esta- 
blished. So that unless a chapel is 
built, we shall never get the confidence 
of the respectable portion of the people ; 
and the consequence will be, as it has 
ever been, we shall lose their support. 
I spent the remainder of the week in 
my usual way; obtained some tracts, and 
used them to introduce myself to fami- 
lies not before visited. 1 find this an 
excellent plan. I also opened a new 
house for prayer, which was well at- 
tended. The service of Godis perfect 
freedom. Sunday 14. About an average 
number present at public worship. It 
waB good to draw near to God. In the 
week I visited many families ; one poor 
soul rejoiced greatly at my visit, having 
been for a long time confined through 
sickness; she had a well grounded hope 
of eternal life. Assisted also at a 
meeting of the friends of total absti- 
nence. Friday, the 18th. Sergeant 
Baker, referred to in a former letter, held 
a prayer meeting in our chapel, it was 
well attended, about six souls professed 

to find peace, one of whom wai a 



private soldier. Lord, ride on pros* 
perously till all are subdued. 

Sunday 21st. In addition to our 
usual sermons, the sergeant held a 
meeting, at 4, p. M. the place was 
filled, many wept, and several rejoiced 
in the great salvation. During the 
week I attended to the usual duties of 
the Mission, visited many families, 
and distributed religious tracts. 

Sunday 28th. Besides preaching 
twice, I attended the school, examined 
the children, and was pleased to find 
they make great proficiency in Scripture 
knowledge. Generally I am well 
received in my visits ; but this week I 
met with a cross grained old woman. 
Upon asking her to come to a prayer 
meeting, her reply was, ** I belong 
to the established church, and I wiU 
go to none of your prayer meetings.** 

Sunday, Mav 5tb. In addition to 
preaching in the chapel. I preached in 
the open air in the harbour, and had 
a few mockers, but there were also 
many attentive hearers. May the seed 
sown bear fruit. This week I met 
with two cases of importance. 1. 
An old disciple (member of our church) 
tempted to despair ; but the exhibition 
of God's promises revived her greatly. 
2. A dying young man who eagerljr 
listened to the truth as it is in Jesus. 
How true and how encouraging, •* My 
word shall not return unto me void." 

Sunday 12th. It was good to wait 
upon God in his house, morning and 
evening. In the afternoon I preached 
in the open air, to a good company. 
One wanderer from our fold was led to 
pay us a visit at night. Praise theLord* 

This was the most solemn week of 
my life, and in fact seriousness pre- 
vailed through the town. Wednesday, 
the 15th, being the day appointed for 
the execution of John Cordney, for the 
murder of Sergeant Dodd. I was per- 
mitted to pay him a visit the night 
before his execution. I was much 
pleased to find him prepared for his 
approaching end. He had repented of 
his sins, and sought and found the sin- 
ner's Friend. Peace sat upon his coun- 
tenance. In addition to this personal 
interview, 1 saw three of his letters, 
which quite convinced me that he 
had been translated from the kingdom 
of darkness into the kingdom of God's 
dear Son. On the day of his execution 
I attended Divine service in the iaih 
It was truly affecting. The culprit 
engaged heartily in the devotional exer- 
cises. Such a scene I nerer before, 



im. 



WINCHB8TBR. 



253 



and never expect again to witness. 
He sbooli hands one bv one with his 
fellow prisoners, and bid them an affec- 
tionate farewell. Ob the power of 
saving grace. Nothing else could have 



so supported the deeply fallen Cording. 
He bad the same support to the last 
moment, and entered the eternal world 
praying, Lord Jesus, receive my spirit. 
M. W. Beadny. 



WINCHESTER. 



To THB Editob,— Dbab Sib, 

Some time since you stated, in the 
Magazine, that it was expected that 
information from all circuits receiving 
assistance from tbe Mission, should be 
sent for publication in the Magazine 
and Quarterly Notices. 

I felt at the time the reasonableness 
of this, and as this Circuit has bad con- 
siderable aid from the above source, I 
found my situation to be somewhat 
painful, reeling as 1 did the difficulty of 
sending you a truthful statement worthy 
of publication. I will however endea- 
vour to furnish a true accoant. 

In November last we opened our little 
Chapel at Up-Somborn, on which occa- 
sion we expected a number of old 
friends from tbe surrounding villages, 
who bad promised their presence and 
their aid ; but unfortunately, it proved 
a thorough wet day, so that we were 
disappointed of the pleasure and profit 
of their company, and I was thereby 
deterred from sending you an account of 
the opening services. It is however 
but justice to the Rev. W. Thorn, 
Author of Tracts on the ** Errors and 
Evils of the Church of England," to 
state, that notwithstanding the unfa- 
vourable state of the weather, he rode 
over in a spring cart and gave us his 
acceptable service. Mr. Spencer, our 
kind friend, of whom mention is made 
in my former communication in refe- 
rence to this chapel, has continued his 
services as a collector among the more 
respectable persons in the neighbour- 
hood, and nas nearly succeeded in 
clearmg off the debt ; £8 only remain- 
ing, and that he expects shortly to make 
up. Since the opening of this place of 
worship, God has given to the labours 
of his servants two souls ; who appear 
to have been soundly converted and 
made partakers of the Divine nature; 
and I have good hope of a great im. 
provement in this infant society from 
the removal to its neighbourhood of a 
judicious and zealous brother, who will 
become tbe leader of the class. 

Houghton — Eleven miles from 
Winchester. This village was once tbe 
Goshen of this Circuit, but during the 
last three years it had been in a very 
low statei the ^^class having dwindled 



away to about eleven, and the congrega- 
tion was proportionably small. However, 
about three months ago some of our 
brethren here got their souls revived, 
and agreed to set apart a week to 
pray for a revival of tne work of God 
m the village ; I renewed the covenant 
with them, and held a prayer meeting 
afterwards, and the good brethren con- 
tinued their extra prayer meetings with 
occasional preaching for up\vards of 
two months, four times a week; the 
result of these meetings was soon 
visible, the Lord poured out his Spirit 
upon them, the old members were 
abundantly quickened, eight souls were 
savingly brought to God, and several 
others brought under deep concern for 
their salvation. The congregations were 
doubled, deep seriousness sat upon 
every countenance, handkerchiefs were 
often seen wiping away the flowing 
tears from eyes that bad |)erhap8 never 
wept before, while hearing the glad 
tidings of a crucified Saviour. 

KiNG-SoMBOBN — Two milcs from 
Houghton, and nine from Winchester. 
Here we have a chapel that will contain 
about 200. From my first coming into 
this circuit the congregations began to 
increase, and we have, on almost all 
occasions, a full congregation. This 
society has also held revival meetings, 
attended with evident manifestations of 
the Divine approval. It was agreed to 
pray that the Lord would bring the 
whole village under a Divine influence, 
and the Lord appears to be answering 
their united and fervent prayers ; for 
some who bad in former days ** drawn 
water from the wells of salvation," but 
had grown weary, have been seen 
among their old friends again seeking 
the Lord that bought them, and have 
returned to the table of the Lord and 
joined themselves to Him, and his 
people. Many that had never attended 
a Methodist Chapel are now seen there 
regularly on the Sabbath day ; some of 
these are above the ordinary class of 
our country hearers, persons in com- 
fortable circumstances in the world, and 
who would some time back, have 
thought it a disgrace to have been seen 
in a Methodist Chapel ; some of them 



364 



WINCHXBTBR. 



1844^ 



give evidence of their friendly feeling 
towards us bv their liberal contribu- 
tions. But the most interesting fact 
in this village is, the marked scriptural 
character of the cases of conversion; 
experience so deep, clear, and scriptural, 
I have rarely met with ; and it is highly 
gratifying to add, that their brethren, as 
well as the world, bear testimony to the 
consistent uniformity of the Christian 
walk of these new converts. 

MiTCHELDEVER, scvcu milcs from 
Winchester. Here we have a Society 
but no Chapel — the land being in the 
bands of one man who will not let us 
have a spot for a chapel. . Some of our 
local brethren in this circuit, about 
twenty years back, preached in this 
village with great success. But, for 
some years past, the influence of high 
church principles has here been as the 
deadly night shade to the cause of spiri- 
tual religion. Although, here, I nave 
always had good congregations, yet, 
until very recently, there were no con- 
versions — no increase. Last Sunday, 
however, two souls were brought to 
God after the evening service ; one of 
them had been a backslider for years, 
the other a poor drunkard ! two other 
persons have also joined the Society. 

WoETHY — Two miles from Winches- 
ter. In this place we have a small 
chapel and a class of poor but faithful 
souls, who have stood during a cloudy 
and dark day. O 1 that the day of their 
visitation may be near. O Lord, revive 
thy work. 

TwYFOED— Three miles from .Win- 
chester.— A little faithful band has long 
borne the burden and heat of the day 
in this place — they have had many 
revivals, and some remarkable conver- 
sions. Many who have been here 
brought to God are scattered in various 

directions. Mr. now a Missionary 

to the Ashantees, was brought to God 
in the humble dwelling of one of our 
friends in this place — yet none but 
themselves can tell the amountof oppo- 
sition and persecution with which they 
have had to contend. Some remarkable 
and awful providences have overtaken 
persecutors; but they still persecute 
those who venture to offer them sal- 
vation through Christ. 01 that the 
salvation of God would come out of 
Zion! 

Winchester.— This city is a barren 
soil, church influence is great, and 
the present tactics of the church is, 
I am informed, to render the charities, 
wbit^ are Jiuiiierouf , a means of holding 



back the poorer inhabitants from at* 
tending dissenting places of worBhip, 
The size, situation, and incommom- 
ousness of our chapel, is also against 
us. We cannot report more than 
twelve persons added to the Society 
here during the last eighteen months. I 
am happy, however, to be able to say, 
that the congregation has recently im- 
proved. We have peace among our* 
selves, and a Divine influence rests on 
our assemblies. 

Missionary Oferationb. I was gra- 
tified in seeing the late circular, in re- 
ference to Local Missionary Commit- 
tees. It has always appeared to me 
that in reference to Missionary exer- 
tions we are seriously defective. I have 
travelled in five circuits, in none of which 
have the Missionary exertions been what 
they ought to be, and would be. with 
proper Christian zeal for the glory of 
Christ and the increase of his kingdom. 
We have commenced our Missionary 
meetings for the present year in com- 
pany with our brother Chesson from. 
Gosport, and have been highly gratified 
as far as we have gone. Last year we 
more than trebled the amount collected 
the previous year, in all our country 
places ; but being fully aware that the 
Mission fund can never be brought to 
meet the increasing demands of a Con* 
nexion by annual appeals to Missionary 
meetings and preparatory sermons; I 
have endeavourd to get our friends to 
work with weekly collecting booka, 
but regret to say, I have not been able 
to succeed in getting the societies to 
work, except in one village. There 
is generally, such reluctance felt by our 
friends to attempt, what to them are, un« 
tried means, especially when the meana 
proposed present any real or imaginary 
difficulties ; and doutless, Missionary 
collecting requires no small share of per- 
severence and holy courage ; especially 
in those districts where Methodism is 
in disrepute, and church influence runs 
high. However, I am happy to state, 
that we have succeeded better this year; 
our country Missionary meetings pre- 
sented a most cheering aspect ; brother 
Chesson was highlv delighted with 
what he heard and saw among our 
Hampshire villagers. 
In Houghton we had a large attendance 
and deep attention through the service} 
and at the meeting and afterwards we 
urged some of our friends tocommenee 
the collecting scheme by weekly and 
monthly contributions ; two excellent 
sifters comnienced the fc^wing i 



im. 



STOCKPORT. 



255 



iiig, and that day obtained twenty-eight 
Sobscribera of a half-penny or a penny 
per week, making an aggregate of about 
». per week : now, supposing these 
l^ood sisters were merely to keep up 
tlieirlist through the year without any 
increase, it will produce £5 4s, by the 
end of the year ; and I am persuaded 
that instead of injuring the collection 
at the yearly Missionary meeting, it will 
rather tend to increase it, by the ad- 
ditional interest that will thereby be 
excited during the year. 

King Sombom chapel exhibited a 
pleasing sight on the evening of the 
Missionary meeting, some youths were 
so struck with the crowded state of the 
dupel, that they counted the people as 
they retired, and found them to be 206 1 
yoa might have walked on the people's 
heads ; here also two friends have con- 
menced with collecting books, and I 
am quite satisfied that they may, with 
ease, raise £5 in the coming year. 

Our Tw3^ord friends have done 
noUy, they^ are about fourteen in So- 
dety, and in this village Methodism 
meets with much oppositon ; yet they 
set to work immediately after our last 
year's Missionary meetings, and the 
result of their labour of love and zeal 
will be £5, at the close of the Mis- 
sionary year. 

The Winchester Missionary meeting 
and sermons produced one-third more 



than those of last year; and I am 
happy to add that eight of our dear 
Sunday school children came forward, 
after the Missionary meeting, for Col- 
lecting Books, and are going round 
among their friends and neighbours so- 
liciting contributions. 

The result of my observations and 
calculations are as follow. This circuit 
raised £8 is. Id, for Missionary pur- 
poses the year previous to my appoint- 
ment, last year we raised, including the 
amount for the Connexional debt £16, 
or about double the former year ; what 
the present year will produce remains 
to be seen, I will not venture to conjec- 
ture, but hope when this paper is sent 
back to this circuit, through your Mag- 
azine, the zeal of our Twyford friends 
will provoke to emulation the other six 
societies in this circuit, and not allow it 
to be said that Twyford raised one-half, 
or one-third of the whole amount of 
Missionary money for the year 1844, 
from the Winchester circuit. 
My own conviction may be somewhat 
startling to some of our good friends 
here, but I say it in sober seriousness, 
that, this circuit could with ease, raise 
for Missionary purposes, by a well 
organized and efficient Missionary com- 
mittee ^30 per annum ; we have the 
proof in what Twyford has done, and 
in what Houghton is doing. 

R. Abercbombie. 



STOCKPORT. 



To THB EOITOB, — DbA& SiR, 

I FEEL much pleasure in forwarding 
you the following account of the cause 
of God in this circuit. 

In Stockport our Sabbath school is 
increasing weekly. In September last 
there were only fiftv-six scholars ; now 
there are 120. The teachers are la- 
bouring zealously for the eternal wel- 
&re of the scholars. Three of them 
have obtained " peace with God, 
through our Lord Jesus Christ," and 
give pleasing evidence of their con- 
yersioQ. The congregation is much 
improved, several additional pews and 
sittings are taken, and a number of 
persons have joined our classes. 

In Hazel Grove our congregations 
are good, the society closely united, 
and looking for the conversion of 
ibners. Some few have been snatched 
as brands from the burning; and we 
trust that ere long a saving work will 
Vreak out amongst the young persons 
who regularly attend the ministry of 
the won* 



In October last, Messrs. Bancroft, 
Wild, and myself, commenced a mis- 
sion in Hyde. I preached in the open 
air morning and afternoon; and as I 
concluded my sermon in the afternoon, 
a woman came to me, and kindly 
offered us her house to preach in. At 
six o'clock the house was crowded, and 
I preached from Acts v. 1 — 11. The 
word was made a blessing, and one 
person ' * obtained mercy. " We preached 
several times in this house, and then 
Providence opened to us a more suit- 
able place— the Cross Street school 
room. On the 17th of December, 
Mr. Richard Williams, of Manchester, 
preached the opening sermons, and, 
already, some good has been done; 
more than thirty persons have given 
their names to meet in class, many of 
whom are "turned from darkness to 
light, and from the power of Satan 
unto God, that they may receive for- 
giveness of sins, and an inheritance 
among them that are sanctified by i»x^ 



256 



LOUTB. 



that is in Christ." The Sunday school 
teachers have also voluntarily agreed 
to relieve the Society from the expenses 
connected with the place. The follow- 
ing are extracts from ray journal : — 

Jan. 7th, Sunday. Stockport. — In 
the morning I preached from Heb. viri. 
10. In the afternoon we renewed our 
covenant with God, and afterwards 
partook of the sacrament of the Lord's 
Supper. It was a solemn, searching, 
humbling, sin-pardoning, and soul- 
cleansing season ; and in the evening 
I preached a sermon to young persons 
from 1 Chron. xxix. latter part of ver. 
5. The Holy Spirit was present to con- 
vince and save. At the prayer meeting 
after preaching, three were enabled to 
'* believe on the Lord Jesus Christ," and 
" rejoice with joy unspeakable and full 
of glor)'; " eight gave their names to 
meet in class. 

8th, Monday. Visited several fami- 
lies, and in the evening, at seven o'clock, 
met my class — three new members. 

9th, Tuesday, Walked to Hyde, 
and visited the members. Brother 
Worsley and I went round the neigh- 
bourhood to invite persons to the 
preaching, — subject, ** So run, that ye 
may obtain." Several appeared con- 
cerned about their souls, and promised 
to go to class next evening . 

10th, Wednesday. Visited several 
families at Brinksway, and preached at 
eight o'clock in Mrs. Spencer's house, 
but few present. Subject, ** This year 
thou shalt die." 

11th, Thursday. Preached at Wel- 
lington Road chapelj Stockport, from 
1 Cor.vi. 19, 20. 

Idth, Saturday. In the evening at- 
tended the band meeting, fourteen 
present, all spoke. It was good to be 
there. Six of our sisters agreed to 
take a district to visit and invite per- 
sons to come to the chapel. 

LOUTH. 
To THE Editor,— Dear Sir, 

Upon review of the past quarter 
we find abundant cause to raise our 
*'Ebenezer" and exclaim "hitherto 
hath the Lord helped us." 

It will be grateful to the lovers of 
Jesus to know that a few sinners have 
been ''plucked as brands from the burn- 
ing,'' and added to our Redeemer's 
church. 

In the Alford part of our circuit, 
the Lord has been graciously pleased 
to pour out of his Spirit. For some 
time our society there appeared to 
langubh, we were reduced to only one 



14th, Sunday. Exchanged w 
Rev. J. Molineux. Preached 
morning at Bury Street chapel, i 
and in the evening at Stockpioi 
Psalm Ixxxiv. 4. At the prayei 
ing several were seeking the Lot 
spoke as having received a knc 
of salvation by the remission of 

15th, Monday. Called on 
of the members, visited two si* 
sons, one of whom is now d 
hope she is gone to glory, 
evening, at seven o'clock, n 
"blass. All the members preM 
five new ones came. 

17tb, Wednesday. Preaehed 
zel Grove, in brother Adshead's 
it was crowded ; and, whilst sing 
last hymn, a hawker of earth 
fell on his knees, crying for 
The Lord blessed his soul. 

18th, Thursday. Preached 
Wellington Road; v€ 



chapel, 
present. 
19th, 
visited 



Friday. 



Brother Wild 
of seventy o 
Many of the people were glad 
us, and promised to come to 
and send their children to schoo' 
21st, Sunday. Preached at 
afternoon from Jer. xxviii. 16, 
the evening from 1 Chron. i 
The school was well attended 
prayer meeting; many were 
Lord have mercy upon me. Tt 
is beginning ; eight gave their in 
meet in class. For the first 
this place we commemorated th 
of our dear Redeemer.* 

J. Ha 

^ We have abridged the accoui 
not having room for the whole, 
letter which we have recently n 
we are happy to find that our S 
in the Stockport circuit continue 
prove. 



class which only occasionally n 
the small spark seemed ready to 
It however pleased the all-wise y 
ciful God, to remove to that res 
remains for the people of God, 
hand of death, our late high 

Sected and most deeply lamente 
lason. This event has led 
revival of the work of God. i 
class has been formed — our co 
tions are improving, and the 
preached is made the power c 
unto salvation. 

T. Vi 



T. G. JOinitt TMMTl&i ««A Um C«wt, FtoM SIMM. 



THE 

WESLEYAN METHODIST ASSOCIATION 

MAGAZINE, 



JULY, 1844. 



MEMOIR OF THE LATE MR. JOHN RANDLE. 
By Mr. J, B. Sheppard. 

The subject of this brief sketch was born in Manchester, the 6th 
of June, 1779 ; but as his parents removed to Bury, when he was only 
four years of age, he afterwards principally resided there. He had 
not the advantages of parental religious instruction, nor of attending a 
Sabbath school. When he was about eight or nine years of age he 
felt the strivings of the Spirit of God, but not having any kind friend to 
instruct him to love and serve God, he unhappily conformed to the sinful 
customs of the ungodly. After he arrived at manhood he took much 
delight in wrestling, and in other exercises which evinced physical power 
and agility ; and, for the maintenance of what he thought to be justice 
and his own rights, frequently engaged in pugilistic conflicts. He 
was also passionately fond of dancing and running races. His conduct, 
in these respects, was afterwards to him the occasion of continued regret. 

It was not until some years after his marriage that he became a 
changed man. A short time after he was married he removed to 
Clithero, and commenced business, on his own account, as a tin-plate 
worker ; but not succeeding as a master, he was obliged to re-commence 
working as a journeyman. To failure in business was added family and 
personal affliction. When his wife was in her confinement with her 
fourth child, one of his children was, by accident, nearly burned to death, 
and he was afflicted so as to be unable to work. He now began to think 
upon his ways, and turned unto the Lord. He felt that he was a sinner 
under the displeasure of heaven ; he cried to the Lord in his distress ; 
and he was led to believe in the Lord Jesus Christ as his Saviour. On 
one occasion, shortly after he turned to the Lord, when he had been 
earnestly praying, his mind was deeply impressed with Jehovah's 
promise to Abraham, " In blessing I will bless thee !" He then felt 
all his doubts removed as to the supply of his wants, and had 
full confidence that a gracious providence would direct and provide 
for him. 

Shortly after his conversion he returned to reside in Bury, and again 
commenced business on his own account. The spirit of monopoly was 



250 Memoir of the laie Mr. John Randle. 

here, as before in Clitbero, aroused to oppose him; but by industry, perse- 
verance, and the Divine blessing he prospered. The promise formerly 
impressed on his mind was fulfilled to him, " In blessing I will bless 
thee !" and he found the faithfulness of the words of Christ, " Seek ye 
first the kingdom of God and his righteousness, and all these things 
shall be added unto you." This passage he often quoted as having 
been illustrated and fulfilled in his experience. 

Having by industry, frugality, and the blessing of God upon his 
honest endeavours, realized a competency, he retired from the cares of 
business and devoted himself to visiting the sick, relieving their dis- 
tresses, instructing and praying with and for them. He was also very 
diligent in attending the means of grace. His delight was in the house 
of God, and the children of God were his choice friends and com- 
panions. 

About seven years before his decease he had a slight paralytic stroke, 
which confined him for some weeks to his room, and nearly deprived 
him of the use of some of his fingers. Some time after this he rup- 
tured a blood vessel, and also became afflicted with asthma, which ren- 
dered his breathing difficult. It was not^ however, until about ten or 
eleven months before his death that he was afflicted with water in the 
chest, which was the complaint that terminated his mortal life. 

During his affliction his soul was happy in the enjoyment of the love 
of God ; hence he was enabled to bear his acute sufferings with much 
Christian patience and fortitude. For about sixteen weeks he got little 
rest night nor day, but was literally gasping for breath. Upon a person 
saying to him, " Your nights are very tedious, not being able to sleep ;'* 
he replied, " Yes, rather so, but I have Jesus with me, and that makes 
me happy ; he makes all my rest in my sickness." Then bursting into 
a fiood of tears, he said, " These are tears of joy. My Lord is so good 
to me, that I am astonished at his goodness. Oh ! that I had loved 
him more and served him better while possessed of health ; yet, not- 
withstanding my unfaithfulness, God has prepared for me a seat in 
heaven ; praise God, I know he has !" At another time he said, " Oh 
that I had wings, I would fly through Bury and proclaim salvation for 
and to every one, as loud as I could shout." Thus he continued to 
recommend Jesus and his salvation to all who called to see him. He 
was particularly concerned for the salvation of his children. Addressing 
them, he said, " If I have erred as to my duty to you, I have been over- 
indulgent." He then added, " All I now want is, that my children 
would follow me to heaven and meet me there ;" and with great feeling 
and earnestness said, " Will you every one follow me ? Promise me 
that you will, and then I shall be satisfied to die ! It only seems a few 
days since I was a lad ; now I am about to leave you, and in a few 
days you too must die. O live to God now, and all will be well 
at last !" 

On the Sabbath before he died he was visited by nine young women 
belonging to his Sunday school class ; to them he said, •' You are 
come to see a dying man ; remember it is a solemn thing to die. Take 
care to walk circumspectly ; many snares will be laid for your destruc- 
tion : keep looking to God for wisdom and strength that you may be 
delivered from the dangers to which you are exposed, and may over- 



Memoir of Oe kite Mrs. GriffiA. 251 

come yomr spiritual enemies. I have instructed you as well as I have 
been able ; now I am going to die, but I hope to meet you in heaven. 
Religion is of the greatest value ; you do not know its worth. When 
I was in health I thought I prized it, but I find it to be especially 
precious now. I have a bright prospect of a glorious meeting with 
those with whom I once worshipped God on earth ; there I shall see 
John Dawson, Joseph Hacking, William and Richard Wild, and my 
dear wife. You are highly privileged with advantages connected with 
tbe Sabbath school, and the other means of grace, and you know that 
nothing that is unholy can enter into heaven." 

On the following day the writer of this account called upon him, 
and conversed with him respecting his past and present experience. 
His soul was truly humble, thankful, and happy— patiently waiting for 
an entrance into that rest that remaineth for the people of God. On 
the following Wednesday, November 9th, 1842, his happy spirit quitted 
its mortal tabernacle ; and, as a trophy of redeeming grace, went to 
appear before the throne of God and the Lamb. He had been a mem- 
ber of the Methodist fiamily nearly forty years, and a Sabbath school 
teacher thirty years ; and at the time of his death he filled the office of 
circuit steward. His house and his heart were freely opened to the 
people of God, of various denominations ; and he was ever ready to 
relieve the poor, and to contribute to the support of the cause of God. 
It is hoped that his children and other relatives will follow him as he 
followed Christ. 

His funeral sermon was preached by the writer, in Brunswick chapel, 
Bury, to about 900 persons, from 1 Cor. xv. 42 — 44. 



MEMOIR OF THE LATE MRS. GRIFFITH. 
By Tier Husband, 

My late dear wife was bom at Middlewich, in the Northwich circuit, 
Becember 27th, 1805, of parents who, though not decidedly pious, 
were strictly moral in their conduct; and who, with their children, 
regularly attended the Wesleyan chapel of that place. Thus she was 
led to form an early attachment to the sanctuary of God ; and was 
thereby restrained from those vanities and follies in which the simple 
pass on till they are punished. The remembrance of the way in which 
the Saviour had led her, frequently constrained her to acknowledge, that 
8he was a child of many mercies. 

She became the subject of the converting grace of God during the 
time of a powerful revival of religion which broke out among the youth 
of the school and congregation connected with the above chapel. She 
was then awakened to a sense of her guilt and danger under a very 
alarming sermon, preached by the Rev. J. Reynolds, who was then 
travelling on that circuit, from Matt. iii. 27., " Who hath warned you 
to flee from the wrath to come," From that time cihe eatixesbVll^ ^\x!^\. 



252 Memoir of the late Mrs. Griffith. 

the Saviour, until she found him to the joy of her soul. The speedy 
falling away of the young people brought to God in this revival was 
predicted, by some who, instead of aiding in helping forward the revival 
referred to, discouraged the work, by saying, that its good effects would 
not be lasting ; but, praise the Lord, time has falsified those predictions. 
Many who were then brought to know the Lord continue consistent 
members of the church to this day; some are employed as mes- 
sengers of grace to guilty mca ; and, already, a few have been faithful 
until death, and are now wearing crowns of life. 

In the year 1834 — 5, the Northwich circuit was agitated by the dis- 
sensions which then prevailed in the Methodist societies, and I, with 
others, was expelled for opposing the unjust and unscriptural authority* 
over God's heritage, which was then assumed and practised by the 
Conference preachers. Brother G. Feram, my wife's leader, remained 
with the Conference Society ; and as he was a pious and devoted man, 
who watched over his members like a true shepherd of souls, strong 
attachment to him caused her for some time to halt between two 
opinions. Consequently her mind became perplexed, and spiritual dark- 
ness followed. She found that decision was essential to prosperity, and 
therefore cast in her lot with us. 

When I was called into the itinerancy, and appointed to the Tod- 
morden circuit, she felt the importance of renewing her covenant with 
God, and ever after manifested an ardent desire to see Christ's cause in 
great prosperity. I scarcely ever returned home from my appointments, 
without her enquiring, whether I had been happy in my work, and if 
good had been done ? If Zion languished, she mourned : but if sinners 
were converted and believers multiplied, she rejoiced. As a Missionary 
collector she was active and persevering. 

For the salvation of her relatives she offered up many fervent pe- 
titions at the throne of grace, especially for her eldest brother, whom 
she loved as her own soul ; and when she heard of his conversion she 
wept for joy. When speaking of him, afterwards, she said, " O how 
happy I shall be to see him !" But that happiness was not granted 
upon earth. Oh, may they meet in heaven ! 

Having been connected with Sabbath schools from her childhood, 
she felt a lively interest in their welfare ; hence she considered it her 
duty, so far as the claims of her family would admit, to engage as a 
teacher in our schools at Burnley and Worksop ; and to her scholars she 
was much attached. 

She was particularly fond of reading good books, especially the me- 
moirs of holy men, as Bramwell. Stoner, and Smith ; but the Bible was 
her chief book. Asa Christian she was warm and sincere ; the law of 
kindness was on her heart, and those who knew her best, respected her 
the most. 

For several years before her death she was often afflicted, but was 
divinely supported, and enabled to rely on the goodness of God. Her 
last affliction was typhus fever. On Thursday, September 28th, medical 
aid was called in, and we were desired to keep her as quiet as possible : 
this was carefully attended to. On the Tuesday following she called 
me to her bedside, and wished to have some spiritual conversation. 
While I WSLB directing her mind to the atonement of Christ, she raised 



Menwir of the laU Mrs. Griffith. 253 

herself up, and with rapture exclaimed, " Hallelujah ! Hallelujah ! 
Praise the Lord ! Oh, how happy I am, how happy I am. Bless the 
Lord, he does indeed comfort me ! Fetch all my dear children, and 
let them see how happy their mother is before she goes to heaven !" 

Feeling afraid that the excitement and exertion would injure her, I 
desired she would compose herself a little. But she replied, ** O help 
me to praise the Lord. If I had strength I would sing * Praise God 
from whom all blessings flow/ *' Some time after this Satan tried to 
destroy that peace and confidence she had in God, and for several 
hours her soul was in an agony; but the atonement was her only 
refuge — the blood of Christ her only plea. During this conflict she 
frequently exclaimed, — 

" Arise, my soul, arise ! 

Shake off thy guilty fears ! 
The bleeding sacrifice 

In thy behalf appears." 

" None but Christ to me be given, 
None but Christ in earth or heaven." 

At length the snare was broken, and " the sun of righteousness arose 
with healing in his wings." Feeling that the time of her departure was 
at hand, she said to one present, " I shall leave many pious friends 
behind. Yes, all my earthly bonds will shortly be dissevered." Then 
referring to her grandfather and mother, and to her leader before men- 
tioned, and others who had left this world in the triumph of faith, she 
added, ** But I have many pious friends in heaven, and when we meet 
we will sing Hallelujah — we will shout Hosanna !" On one occasion 
when I asked how she felt ? she replied, " At times my mind is distressed 
at the thought of leaving you ; it is hard work to give you up ; but I 
feel no condemnation, no fear." A few days before she died, she sang 
in a manner truly astonishing, — 

*' Glory, honour, peace, and power 
Be unto the Lamb for ever." 

** And when to that bright world I rise, 
I'll join the anthems of the skies; 
Above the rest this note shall swell, 
My Jesus hath done all things well." 

On the evening before she died, while the three eldest children were 
taking their leave of her, the scene was truly solemn and affecting, 
"he was much moved while looking at them for the last time ; she 
'■^quested me to engage in prayer, and whilst I prayed that the valley 
^ death might be enhghtened by the Saviour's presence, and that his 
blessing might still be with us as a family, she fervently responded to 
®^h petition, and the room was filled with the power of God. After 
this, her utterance failed, and her mortal frame began to sink rapidly 
*^to the arms of death. The day following she looked round the room, 
^Oiiled, and then, without a struggle or a groan, expired, Oct. 23, 184;^, 



354 Lm €f HuAandi to Oeir Wim. 

aged thirty-seven years and ten months. Her mortal remains restt by 
the side of the late wife of the Rev. J. W. Gilchrist, in sure and certain 
hope of a glorious resurrection. 

Her death was improved at her native place by the Rev. 6. Sellers, to 
a crowded assembly. Many of her old friends from the Conference 
chapel were present; several, in tears, responded to the. facts recorded 
in the account which was read. In her youth she had been a popular 
singer ; therefore many of her former singing acquaintances were present, 
and sang <* Vital Spark/' and appeared deeply affected. 



LOVE OF HUSBANDS TO THEIR WIVES. 

*' Husbands love your wives, even as Christ also loved the Church, 
and gave himself for it ;'^ So ought men to love their wives as their 
own bodies, ne that loveth his wife hveth himself.** 

Eph. V. 25—28. 

CoxJUOAL and domestic happiness, principally, depend upon 
rightly understanding, and properly discharging, the duties connected 
with the relations subsisting between husband and wife, parents and 
children. Where those duties are properly regarded peace reigns, 
and the richest earthly blessings are enjoyed. The following remarks, 
are on the love which husbands owe to their wives, and are princi- 
pally taken from an excellent work by the Rev. J. A. James. The 
duties of wives to their husbands, will probably form a subject for 
our next number. 

In the text on which our observations are to be founded the 
apostle prescribes two rules for the regulation of a husband's affection : 
the first directs, that a man should love his wife as Christ has loved 
his Church ; the second, that he should love his wiferas much as he 
loves himself. We therefore consider, — 

I. The properties of Christ's love, and the way in which the affec- 
tion of a husband should resemble the love of Christ. 

The love of Christ was sincere. He did not love in word 
only, but in deed and in truth. In him there was no dissimulation ; 
no epithets of endearment going out of feigned lips ; no actions var- 
nished over with a mere covering of love. A husband must be like 
him, and endeavour to maintain a principle of true regard in the 
heart, as well as a show of it in the conduct. It is a miserable thing 
to have to act the part of love without feeling it. Hypocrisy is base 
in everything ; but, next to religion, is most base in affection. Be- 
sides, how difficult it is to act the part well, to keep on the mask, and 
to support the character so as to escape detection ! Oh, the misery 
of that woman's heart who at length finds out, to her cost, that 
what she has been accustomed to receive and value as the attentions 
of a lover, are but the tricks of a cunning dissembler I 



Lomof MuMbanditoihdr Wivet. 255 

The love of tbe Redeemer was ardent. Let a man, if he would 
form a correct idea of what should be the state of his heart towards 
the woman of his choice, think of that affection which glowed in the 
breast of the Saviour, when he lived and died for our salvation. He can 
possess, it is true, neither the same kind nor the same degree of 
regard ; but surely, when he is referred to such an instance, if not 
altogether as a model, yet as a motive, it does teach him that no 
weak affection is due, or should be offered to the wife of his bosom. 
We are told by the Saviour himself, that if he laid down his life for 
us, it is our duty to lay down ours for the brethren ; but how much 
more should a husband be willing to lay down his life for his wife* 
And if it be our duty to lay down our life, how much more to employ 
it while it lasts, in all the offices of an affection, strong, steady, and 
inventive. She that for our sake has forsaken the comfortable home, 
and the watchful care, and the warm embrace of her parents, has a 
right to expect in our regard that which shall make her <* forget her 
father's house," and cause her to feel that, witli respect to happiness, 
she is no loser by the exchange. Happy the woman, and such should 
every husband strive to make his wife, who can look back without a 
sigh upon the moment when she quitted for ever the guardians, the 
companions, and the scenes of her childhood ! 

The love of Christ to his Church was supreme. He gives to the 
world his benevolence, but to the Church his complacency. ** The 
Lord thy God in the midst of thee," said the prophet, '* is mighty ; 
he will save thee, he will rejoice over thee with joy ; he will rest in 
his love ; he will joy over thee with singing.'^ So must the husband 
r^rd his wife above all beside ; he must '* rest in his love." He 
should regard her not only above all without his house, but above all 
within it. She must take precedence both in his heart and conduct, 
not only of all strangers, but of all relatives, and also of all his chil- 
dren ; he ought to love his children for her sake, rather than her for 
theirs. Is this always the case ? On the contrary, have we not often 
seen men, who appeared to be far more interested in their children 
than in their wives, and who have paid far less attention to the latter 
than to grown up daughters ? How especially unseemly is it, for a 
man to be seen fonder of the society of any other woman than that 
of his wife, even where nothing more may be intended than the 
pleasure of company* Nor ought he to forsake her, in his leisure 
hours for any companions of his own sex, however interesting might 
be their manners or their conversation. 

The love of Christ is uniform. Like himself, it is the same yes- 
terday, to-day, and for ever. Conjugal affection should have the 
same character ; it should be at all times and in all places alike ; the 
same at home as abroad— in other persons' houses as in our own. Has 
not many a wife to sigh and exclaim, <* Oh, that I were treated in 
my own house with the same tenderness and attention as I receive in 
company." With what almost loathing and disgust must such a 
woman turn from endearments, which, under such circumstances, she 
can consider as nothing but hypocrisy. Home is the chief place for 
fond and minute attention ; and she who has not to complain of a 



256 Love of Hushands to their Wives. 

want of it there, will seldom feel the need or the inclination to com- 
plain of a want of it abroad : except she be one of those silly women, 
who would degrade their husbands by exacting not merely what is 
really kind, but what is actually ridiculous. 

The love of the Redeemer was practical and laborious. He 
provided everything by his mediation for the welfare and comfort of 
the Church, and at a cost and by exertions of which we can form no 
idea. It has been already declared, that both parties are to assist in 
the cares of life. A good wife cannot be an idle one. Beautiful is 
her portraiture as drawn by the wise man : ** Who can find a virtuous 
woman ? for her price is far above rubies. The heart of her hus- 
band doth safely trust in her, so that he shall have no need of spoil. 
She will do him good and not evil all the days of her life. She layeth 
her hands to the spindle, and her hands hold the distaff. She stretch- 
eth out her hands to the poor; yea she reacheth forth her hand to 
the needy. Her husband is known in the gates, when he sitteth among 
the elders of the land. She openeth her mouth with wisdom, and in 
her tongue is the law of kindness. She looketh well to the ways of 
her household, and eateth not the bread of idleness. Her children rise 
up and call her blessed ; her husband also, and he praiseth her. Many 
daughters have done virtuously, but thou excellest them all. Favour 
is deceitful, and beauty is vain ; but a woman that feareth the Lord, 
she shall be praised. Give her the fruit of her hands, and let her 
own works praise her in the gates." Proverbs xxxi. This exqui- 
site picture, combining, as it does, industry, prudence, dignity, meek- 
ness, wisdom, and piety, cannot be too frequently or minutely studied 
by those who would attain to high degrees of female excellence. The 
business of providing for the family, however, belongs chiefly to the 
husband. It is yours, my brethren, to rise up early, to sit up late, to 
eat the bread of carefulness, and to drink, if necessary, the waters of 
affliction, that you may earn by the sweat of your brows comfortable 
support for your domestic circles. This is probably what the apostle 
meant, when he enjoined us to give honour to the wife, as to the 
weaker vessel ; the honour of maintenance, which she in consequence 
of the weakness of her frame and the frequent infirmities which the 
maternal relation brings upon her, is not so well able to procure for 
herself. In most barbarous countries, and in some half civilized ones, 
the burden of manual labour falls upon the female, while her tyrant 
lord lives in indolence, feeding upon the industry of the hapless being 
whom he calls a wife, but treats as a slave. And are there no such 
idle tyrants in our age and country, who, so as they can live in indo- 
lence and gratify their appetites, care not how they oppress their 
wives ? — wrecthes, who do little or nothing for the support of the 
family ? How utterly lost to every noble and generous sentiment 
must that man be, whose heart cannot be moved by the entreaties or 
tears of an interesting woman ; and who can hear in vain, her pleadings 
for his child at her breast, and his child by her side ; and who by 
such appeals cannot be induced to give up his daily visit to the tavern, 
or his habits of sauntering idleness, to attend to his neglected business, 
and to stay the approaching tide of poverty and ruin. Such a crea* 



Lave of Husbands to their Wives, 257 

ture IS worse than a brute, he is a monster ; and it seems a pity that 
there is no law, and no convict ship, to bear him away to a land, 
where if he will not work, so neither could he eat. 

In general, it is for the benefit of a family that a married woman 
should devote her time and attention almost exclusively to the ways 
of her household : her place is in the centre of domestic cares. What 
is gained by her in the shop is oftentimes lost in the house, for want 
of the judicious superintendence of a mother and a mistress. Com- 
fort and order, as well as money, are domestic wealth ; and can these 
be rationally expected in the absence of female arrangement ? The 
children always want a mother's eye and hand, and should always 
have them. Let the husband, then, have the care of providing ; the 
wife, that of distributing to the necessities of the family ; for this is 
the rule both of reason and revelation. 

And as Christ laboured for his Church not only during his abode 
upon earth, but made provision for its welfare when he departed from 
our worlds in like manner should the husband take care of his wife. 
We never could understand the propriety of that custom, which is but 
too common, of men's providing by their wills so much better for the 
children than they do for the mother. Does this look like a supreme 
love ? Every man who raises a woman to the rank of his wife should 
take care, however inferior she might have been in circumstances be- 
fore their marriage, to leave her in the situation into which he brought 
her: for it is indeed most cruel, to leave her to be deprived at once, 
not only of her dearest earthlj' friend, but of her usual means of com- 
fortable subsistence. 

Practical affection to a wife extends, however, to everything ; it 
should manifest itself in the most delicate attention to her comfort, 
and her feelings; in consulting her tastes; in concealing her failings; 
in never doing anything to degrade her, but everything to exalt her 
before her children and servants ; in acknowledging her excellencies, 
and commending her efforts to please him ; in meeting, and even in 
anticipating, all her reasonable requests ; in short, in doing all that 
ingenuity can invent for her substantial happiness and general 
comfort. 

Christ's love to his Church was durable and unchangeable. 
"Having loved his own, he loved them to the end," without abatement 
or alteration. So ought men to love their wives, not only at the be- 
ginning, but to the end of their union ; when the charms of beauty 
have fled before the withering influence of disease ; when the vigorous 
and sprightly frame has lost its elasticity, and the step has become 
slow and faltering; when the wrinkles of age have succeeded to the 
bloom of youth, and the whole person seems rather the monument than 
the resemblance of what it once was. Has she not gained in mind 
what she has lost in exterior fascinations? Have not her mental 
graces flourished amidst the ruins of personal charms ? If the rose 
and the lily have faded on the cheek, have nof the fruits of righteous- 
ness grown in the soul? If those blossoms have departed on which 
the eye of youthful passion gazed with so much ardour, has it not been 
to give way to the ripe fruit of Christian excellence ? The woman is not 
what she was ; but the wife, the mother, the Christian, are better than 



258 Jjm of Htuibands to their Wipes. 

tbey were. For an example of conjugal love in all its power an d 
excellence, point me not to the bride and bridegroom, displaying 
during the first month of their union all the watchfulness and tender- 
ness of affection, but let me look upon the husband and wife of fifty, 
whose love has been tried by the lapse and the changes of a quarter of 
a century, and who through this period, and by these vicissitudes, 
have grown in attachment and esteem ; and whose affection, if not 
glowing with all the fervid heat of a midsummer's day, is still, like the 
sunshine of an October's noon, warm and beautiful, as reflected 
amidst autumnal tints. 

IL We must now advert to another rule of a husband's regard, 
which is laid down for him by the apostle—*' So ought men to love 
their wives as their otan bodies ; he that loveth his wife, loveth himself." 

A man's children are parts of himself; but his wife is yet more 
closely allied to him, for God hath said " they two shall be one flesh." 
If therefore a man loves himself, the rule of his duty is so plain, that 
nothing need be added concerning his demeanour towards his wife. For 
what mighty care does he take of his body, he uses it with a deli- 
cate tenderness, cares for it in all contingencies, and watches to 
keep it from all evils, and studies to make for it fair provision, and is 
very often led by its inclinations and desires ; and never contradicts 
even, its evil appetites, without some trouble and sorrow. So let a 
man love his wife as his own body. 

Can it be necessary to apply the force of motives to produce an 
appropriate attention to such a duty ? If so, I appeal to your sense 
of honour* Husbands call to recollection the wakeful assiduities and 
the tender attentions, by which you won the affections and the con- 
fidence of the woman who forsook her father and her mother, and the 
home of her childhood, to find a resting place for her heart in your 
attachment; and will ye falsify the vows ye plighted, and disappoint 
the hopes ye raised ? Is it accounted a disgraceful stigma on a man's 
reputation to forget the ])Iedges of a lover ? Oh ! how much more 
dishonourable, to forget those of a husband ! That man has disgraced 
himself who has furnished just occasion to the partner of his days to 
draw, with a sigh, a contrast between the affectionate attention she has 
received as a lover, and as a wife. 

I urge affection to a wife, by the recollection of tluit sokmn moment^ 
when, in the presence of heaven and earth, before God's minister and 
in God's house, you bound yourself, by all the deeply awful formalities 
of a kind of oath, to throw open and keep open your hearty as the 
fountain of her earthly happiness, and to devote your whole life to 
the promotion of her welfare. 

I appeal to your regard to justice. You have sworn away yourself 
to her, and are no longer your own. You have no right to that indi- 
vidual, and separate, and independent kind of life, which would lead 
you to seek your happiness, in opposition to, or neglect of her's. 
** You twain are one flesh." 

Humanity/ puts in its claim on behalf of your wife. It is in your 
power to do more for her happiness or misery than any other being 
in the universe but God himself. An unkind husband is a tormen- 
tor of the first class. His victim can never elude his grasp, nor go 



BmmqfSuOamUloaeirWkes. S59 

beyond tlie x^aeh of his cruelty, till she is kindly released by the king 
of terrors, who, in ibis instance, becomes to her an angel of light, and 
conducts her to the grave as to a shelter from her oppressor. For 
such a woman there is no rest on earth : the destroyer of her peace 
has her ever in his power, for she is always in his presence, or in the 
fear of it; the circumstances of every place, and every day, furnish 
him with the occasions of cruel neglect or unkindness ; and it might 
be fairly questioned, whether there is to be found on earth a case of 
greater misery, except it be that of a wretch tortured by remorse and 
despair, than a woman whose heart daily withers under the cold looks, 
the chilling words, and repulsive actions, of a husband who loveth 
her not. Such a man is a murderer, though he escapes in this world 
the murderer's doom ; and, by a refinement of cruelty, he employs 
years in conducting his victim to her end, by the slow process of a 
lingering death. 

If nothing else can prevail, interest should ; for no man can hate 
his wife without hating himself; for *< she is his own flesh." Love, 
like mercy, is a double blessing ; and hatred, like cruelty, is a double 
torment. We cannot love a worthy object without rejoicing in the 
reflex beams of our own affection. Next to the supreme regard we 
cherish towards God, and which it is impossible to exercise and not 
bold communion with angels in the joys of heaven, connubial love 
is the most beatifying passion; and to change this into unkind- 
ness, is to open at the very centre of our soul, a source of poison, 
which, before it exudes to torture others, torments ourselves. 

Mr. Jay puts into the lips of married women the following exquisite 
and touching appeal to their husbands. — ** Honour us ; deal kindly 
with us. From many of the opportunities and means by which you 
procure favorable notice, we are excluded. Doomed to the shades, 
few of the high places of the earth are open to us. Alternately we 
are adored and oppressed. From our slaves, you become our tyrants. 
You feel our beauty, and avail yourselves of our weakness. You 
complain of our inferiority, but none of your behaviour bids us rise. 
Sensibility has given us a thousand feelings which nature has kindly 
denied you. Always under restraint, we have little liberty of choice. 
Providence seems to have been more attentive to enable us to confer 
happiness, than to enjoy it. Every condition has for us fresh mortifi- 
cations ; every relation new sorrows. We enter social bonds ; it is a 
system of perpetual sacrifice. We cannot give life to others without 
hazarding our own. We have sufferings which you do not share, 
cannot share. If spared, years and decay invade our charms, and 
much of the ardour produced by attraction departs with it. We may 
die. The grave covers us, and we are soon forgotten ; soon are the 
days of your mourning ended ; soon is our loss repaired ; dismissed 
from your speech, our name is to be heard no more — a successor may 
dislike it. Our children, after having a mother by nature, may fall 
under the control of a mother by affinity, and be mortified by distinc- 
tions made between them and her oion offspring. Though the duties 
which we have discharged invariably be the most important and 
necessary, they do not shine ; they are too common to strike ; they 
procure oo celebrity; the wife, the mother, fills no historic page. 



260 Reviews arid Literary Notices. 

Our privations, our confinements, our wearisome days, our interrupted — 
our sleepless nights, the hours we have hung in [anxious watchings 
over your sick and dying offspring, all bespoke your kindness." 

Good wives will be willing to conclude by saying— We shall Cheer- 
fully bear our trials and sufferings, and be contented and happy with 
our lot, how humble soever that may be, if our husbands will manifest 
that they love us as Christ loved the church, and as they love them- 
selves ; and the man who is worthy of a wife will'ever endeavour to 
make her happy ! 



REVIEWS AND LITERARY NOTICES. 

MEMOIRS OF DAVID NASMITH ; His Labours and Travels 
in Great Britain, France, the United States, Canada, By John 
Campbell, D.D., Author of the ^^ Martyr of Erromanga,*' Sfc. 
Royal 12mo, 476 pp. J. Snow. 

The subject of these " Memoirs " was a truly extraordinary man ; 
entitled to distinguished honour for his greatjmoral worth, enlarged 
philanthropy, Christian zeal, and disinterested, ardent, persevering 
exertions for the benefit and salvation of mankind. Few biographers 
have had the honour and felicity of recording the history, delineating 
the character, and perpetuating the memory of one so worthy to be 
imitated, eulogized, and had in everlasting remembrance. 

David Nasmith was born of pious parents in the city of Glasgow, 
on the 21st of March, 1799. In his seventh year he was sent to the 
City Grammar School, where he spent four years, but did not there 
make much progress in learning. From the age of six years he 
regularly attended a Sabbath school. When he was fourteen years 
of age he, with others of the scholars, formed a Society for the dis- 
tribution of Bibles among the poor ; and David was appointed to 
the office of Secretary. This brought him to become acquainted 
with a number of pious young men ; and he was led, by conversing 
with them, to reflect upon the truths revealed in the scriptures. He 
soon found that he was guilty before God, and by searching the 
scriptures was made wise unto salvation through faith in Christ. When 
he had completed his sixteenth year he was admitted to church 
membership. He was now employed as a Sabbath school teacher ; 
and, about twelve months after he had become united to*the church, 
he felt a strong desire to devote himself to the work of the ministry. 
Having opened his mind to his pastor, he was proposed for admission 
into the Theological academy, but was not admitted. This was 
to him a severe trial ; but he bore it with exemplary meekness and 
resignation. Referring to this, his biographer, justly, remarks as 
follows: — 

" David's meek deportment under this mortifying disappointment 
presents an example which will not be without its use to young men 
under similar circumstances. Here there was no rising of heart either 



Reviews and Literary Notices. 261 

against God or man; nothing but calm, devout submission. The 
gentlemen who composed the committee, while they acted upon the 
convictions of their own judgments, little knew the real character 
of the trembling lad who stood before them a candidate for their 
favour. Had David, as he desired, been sent as a Missionary to 
Africa, he would probably have combined in that character the 
principal excellencies of Vanderkemp and of Moffat, and have given 
to the church of Christ a pattern of apostolic zeal which has not 
been surpassed since apostolic days. It was, however, otherwise 
determined in the councils of heaven ; and, of course, wisely 
too ; for the loss of Africa was gain to Europe. Other work^ as the 
event proved, neither less arduous nor less honourable, was reserved 
for the youthful aspirant to missionary usefulness." 

When David was only about nineteen years of age he was actively 
engaged labouring for the good of others. His " Memoirs " present 
a most delightful view of his unwearied exertions for the welfare 
of souls. Besides labouring in Sabbath schools, he was then 
" secretary to the Bridewell Association for the moral and religious 
improvement of the male prisoners." He also visited the Glasgow 
prison; and an interesting account is given of his visits to, and 
intercourse with, two young men under sentence of death. A most 
touching account is also given of " Mary Watt," a Negress, to whom 
David extended his Christian sympathy and instruction, and to whom 
his labours were greatly blessed. 

The " Memoirs" record some instructive particulars respecting more 

than one tender attachment formed by Mr. Nasmith . The two first, after 

a short time, were brought to a termination. These occasioned him 

much perplexity, and one of them excited an injurious influence upon 

his spirituality of mind. The history of these attachments is very 

judiciously treated by Dr. Campbell ; who justly condemns the 

^niprudence with which Mr. Nasmith involved himself in the first 

«f them, and from which he afterwards found it to be his painful 

^ut imperative duty to free himself. In his second suit he was refused 

^y the lady to whom he made an offer of himself. Several letters 

^'hich passed between them are recorded in the ** Memoirs," and they 

^^e highly creditable to the good sense and piety of the writers. 

In the autumn of 1821, Mr. Nasmith became assistant secretary 

^o the religious societies connected with the Institution -rooms, Glass- 

*^rd-street, Glasgow. At this place twenty-three societies held their 

Committee meetings ; and Mr. Nasmith undertook to serve all of 

^^^em at the salary of sixty pounds for the year; being the sum 

Offered by the committee having the general management of the 

^f)om8. An intimation was however given, that the committee 

i^oped, by the success of the establishment, to be obtained by Mr. 

^^asmith's exertions, to be enabled to augment his salary the 

Allowing year. Dr. Campbell forcibly and justly remarks upon the 

insufficiency of the salary thus offered for the amount of service 

Required. However, his income, from salary and domestic arrange- 

^nents was increased, until it was not less than £300 per annum. Mr. 

Nasmith in this office became acquainted with the most distinguished 

^en in the City of Glasgow, and moved in a high sphere of religious 



Sewiewi and LUerary No&eu. 

and philanthropic activity ; and thus acquired that knowledge and 
experience which eminently qualified him for the important services 
in which he afterwards engaged. 

Mr. Nasmith was married to Miss Frances Hartridge, in March, 
1826. His biographer states, — *< She was truly a help meet to her 
husband ; with a heart as large and a zeal as ardent as those which 
marked the philanthropist himself." 

His laborious duties occasioned the decline of his health in the 
beginning of 1828. This, and some other circumstances, occasioned 
him to resign his arduous situation. His resignation was regarded by 
many as a calamity to the societies with which he had been connected. 
He was now without any plan for future operations. He had offers 
to go into business ; but he desired to be entirely engaged in the work 
of the Lord. Providence directed his steps to Dublin, where he was 
welcomed by the Rev. Mr. Carlisle, who introduced him to other 
friends. Here, by his exertions, a City Mission was formed. Shortly 
after he visited England, and resided for a short time at the house of 
his wife's father. His sojourn here, his biographer states, occasioned 
him much pain ; because God was not duly honoured. Prior to his 
departure, he drew up a letter addressed to his father-in-law, in which 
he expressed his gratitude for the kindness he had received, and, with 
great fidelity and becoming respect, expostulated with him on the 
necessity of seeking the salvation of his soul, and devoting himself 
to the service of God. This letter is recorded in the " Memoirs." 

At this time opportunities were offered to him of becoming asso- 
ciated with religious and benevolent societies in London ; but he did 
not embrace any of them. After a short visit to Scotland, he returned 
to Ireland, and heartily devoted himself to the service of the Dublin 
City Mission. He remained in Ireland about two years, labouring 
with great success in establishing town missions, and other benevolent 
and religious societies. The account of his proceedings during this 
period, as given in the " Memoirs," is truly interesting. 

Zeal for the glory of God, and ardent benevolence for the welfare 
of mankind, constrained Mr. Nasmith to purpose visiting America. 
Having made arrangements for this purpose, he, with his wife and 
infant son, set sail from Greenock on the 27th of July, 1830, for New 
York. During the voyage he laboured in his Master's service; con- 
ducting family worship in the cabin night and morning, and in the 
steerage every afternoon when the weather permitted. On arriving 
at New York he issued the following Address, which is justly charac- 
terised by his biographer as " modest, but manly." 

" TO THE CHRISTIANS OF AMERICA. 

"An individual has just arrived in New York from Britain, who from an 
early period of life has been engaged in seeking the good, temporal and 
spiritual, of his fellow creatures, and who, for a period of nearly seven years, 
acted as secretary to an establishment in which the routine business of various 
religious and benevolent institutions was transacted. The number connected 
with the institution at the time when, from ill health, he resigned his situa- 
tion, was twenty-three. From the facilities he had in that situation, and 
otberwiBe^ of perceiving the advantages and disadvantages of the Various 



Bmmm md lUefwy Notices. 268 

plans puTBued for the benefit of mankind, and feeling that it was his'duty'to 
glorify God with the experience which had been given to him, he gave him- 
self up aboat two years ago (the period referred to above, when he left his 
situation) to the work of a general moral agent Since then, that department 
to which his attention has been principally directed was, the preaching of the 
Gospel to the poor. This he has engaged in, not so much by preaching 
personally, as in calling the attention of Christians to the obligation that rests 
upon them, as individuals and bodies, to adopt measures beyond those that 
have hitherto been adopted for this end. He spent about twenty months in 
the metropolis of Ireland in organizing and superintending the City Mission 
of that place, and in promoting various benevolent plans that were there en- 
tered upon. He spent also thirteen weeks in visiting about sixty towns in 
Ireland, in upwards of one-half of which weekly prayer meetings or local 
missions were formed. And, having visited the principal towns of Ireland, 
be considered it his duty to visit America, for the purpose of rendering him- 
self of some use in that land also. He comes as a friend of the Lord Jesus 
Christ and of mankind, not in the spirit of dictation or authority to his 
brethren, but as a fellow-helper. He purposes visiting the principal towns in 
America, and privately to confer with those in each place whose names may 
be given to him as worthy ; submitting to their consideration those plans 
which he has known to be useful, and leaving all to adopt them, in whole or 
in part, as they may see cause. lie comes simply as a member of the body 
of Christ, attaching himself to no sect but that which in Christian fellowship 
i*eceives all whom Christ has received, and refuses such as fail to give 
evidence that they are Jesus*s disciples. He believes that the divisions that 
exist in the church of God are of the devil — must be most displeasing to 
<yod, whose will is, that his people should be one, not only in spirit, but in 
visible union ; and that they are the greatest barrier that exists to the spread 
C3f the Gospel in the earth. Of this he has had the most ample and painful 
evidence. How long shall it be till the glorious era come when Christians, 
^ho expect to sit down at the same table in heaven, shall be found sitting 
together at the Lord's table on earth ; and not be making that which they 
cafi the Lords table their own, and not Jesus Christ's, by erecting fences 
"which the Master never erected, or throwing it open to the world, and allow- 
ing all indiscriminately to come in, and eat and drink judgment unto them- 
selves ? Happy day I then shall the world again say, * See how these 
Cbristians love one another 1* Then shall the church arise from its obscurity ; 
Wuse then the inquiry will be, 'Lord, what wilt thou have us to do ?* And, 
instead of sitting down to discuss the relative merits of sects, and thus 
foniishing Satan with an opportunity of dividing that he may destroy, the 
cbarch will be found walking in love. Not every brother endeavouring to 
convert his brother to his opinions, but rejoicing tnat they are each adopted 
into Uie same familv; and mourning over the remaining prejudices arising from 
^ bad education, tney will walk together in those things in which they are 
greed ; and taking the word of God as their only rule, and praying in the 
Holy Ghost for his teaching, they will speedily come at a further knowledge 
of his will. When the church is in arms by the holy lives of its members, 
^nd by their united and persevering efforts to commend the truth, in love, to 
^e conscience and heart of every man— yes, when every church shall be a 
missionary body, and every member a missionary, then may the angels afresh 
strike their harps and smg, * Glory to God in the highest, and on earth peace 
>nd goodwill to men I ' 

** In coming hither, he conferred not with flesh and blood in the matter ; 
but conceiving it to be his duty, he announced his determination to his 
bretbren, many of whom kindly met to commend him and his intention to 
^ in prayer. May he entreat an interest in the prayers of American 
^^brisdans, and humbly call their attention to the consideration of the im- 
portant duty of preaching the Gospel to every creature, beginning at homel'^ 



264 Reviews and Literary Notices. 

On the 4tb of September Mr. Nasinith landed at New York, and 
such was his activity, that he, although a stranger, got a meeting held 
on the 13th of that month, at which the subject of forming the New 
York City Mission was discussed, and in the following week the 
Society was formed. As soon as he had got the committee actively 
engaged in the work, he proceeded to other places, and visited 
Newark, Jamaica on Long-Island, Newport, Providence, Boston, Mid- 
ford, Andover, Bradford, Salem, Marblehead, Newburyport, Ports- 
mouth, and Portland ; and returned to New York on the 6 th of 
November. The accounts given of his labours prove that it was with 
no ordinary zeal, activity, and success, that he laboured in the work 
of the Lord. 

After remaining at New York about five weeks, he again went 
forth to introduce his plans of usefulness to other places. For this 
purpose he sailed for New Orleans. Upon his arrival he set about 
the work of forming a City Mission. Having effected this purpose, 
he proceeded to visit Mobile, Montgomerie, Augusta, Savannah, 
Charleston, Princeton, Trenton, Philadelphia, and other places. 
In Philadelphia he met with a most cordial reception, and formed six 
young men's societies and six City Missions. Mr. Nasmith then returned 
from the Southern States of America to New York, and proceeded 
to Canada in the second week in August, 1831. He visited Quebec, 
Montreal, St. Andrew's, Fox's Point, New Glasgow, Kingston, Buf- 
falo, and York, and formed fifteen societies. 

Considerable expense was necessarily incurred by Mr. Nasmith in 
his extensive labours and travels. Yet the economy which he practised 
was most astonishing; and although he never possessed much pro* 
perty, the little he had was cheerfully devoted to the cause of God. 
The accounts given by his biographer as to his labours, travels, 
economy, and liberality, excite our astonished admiration. 

Having finished his work in America, he returned to Scotland the 
latter end of 1 831, or the beginning of 1832, having expended £232 14s. 
of his own money, nearly all he possessed. In May, 1832, he again 
visited Dublin, and succeeded in forming several religious and beneficent 
societies. He afterwards returned to Glasgow, but did not remain 
there. For some time he had formed the design of visiting Paris, and 
he now resolved to carry this purpose into effect. On the 80th of June, 
1833, he arrived at Boulogne, where he was both amused and annoyed 
by the examination to which his person, papers, and luggage were 
subjected by the government officers. Having arrived at Paris, be 
sought out the chief religious persons, and communicated to them his 
plans of usefulness, and got them to establish a City Mission ; which 
before he left had three agents employed, lieturning, he came to 
Havre, and there formed a City Mission and a young man's society ; 
and then proceeded back to Glasgow. 

After an unsuccessful attempt to establish an Institution in Glas- 
gow, as a place of business for religious and philanthropic persons and 
societies, he directed his attention to a purpose which he had for some 
time cherished, but had not been able satisfactorily to effect, which was, 
to remove to London, and make it the centre of his operations. Seve- 
ral oi his friends put down their names as subscribers to a fund for 



Reviews and Literary Notices. 265 

bis support for three years, in order that he might be freed from 
pecaoiary embarrassment while engaged in forming societies in the 
British metropolis. In March, 1885, he left Scotland and came to 
London. 

Upon entering upon his arduous labours in the metropolis, he did 
not seek an exclusive alliance with any section of the church, but the 
co-operation of all Christians, regardless of their sectarian pecu- 
liarities. Hence both churchmen and dissenters, at first, were un- 
willing to aid him in his efforts. He, however, resolved to abide by 
his plans and persevere in his purpose. At length he found a few 
men of piety willing to join with him in seeking the salvation of their 
fellow men. They commenced their work, and God smiled upon 
their endeavours. A City Mission was formed, of which Mr. Nasmith 
was the gratuitous secretary and manager; and in six months after 
his arrival in London, the Society had ten agents employed ; and at 
the end of twenty-two months the number of agents was sixty-three, 
and d&4,000 had been received. In addition to the formation of the 
City Mission, Mr. Nasmith had then founded several other societies in 
London ; among which may be mentioned, the Metropolitan Monthly 
Tract Society ; The Young Men's Society ; The London Female Mis- 
sion. Some persons connected with the City Mission then became 
alarmed at the number of societies originated by Mr. Nasmith ; and 
the Rev. Mr. Ainslie addressed a letter of remonstrance, to the Com- 
mittee of the London City Mission, in which he strongly and severely 
animadverted upon what he regarded as the imprudence of Mr. 
Nasmith, in originating so many societies, and declared his intention 
of withdrawing from the London City Mission. The Hon. and Rev. 
B. W. Noel, who had been one of the supporters of the Mission, also 
wrote to Mr. Nasmith, expressive of his dissatisfaction at the consti- 
tution of the Committee, and that so large a proportion of the agents 
were dissenters, and he resigned his connexion with the Society. To 
remove objections, the Committee determined to submit the consti- 
tution of the Society to revision, and that the Committee should con- 
sist of an equal number of churchmen and dissenters. To this Mr. 
Nasmith decidedly objected, as an improper concession to party spirit. 
In this be was right. If it were admitted that the Committee ought 
to be constituted of the members of different religious bodies, why 
should it be required that the members of the state church, which is 
only one of the many sections of the church, should constitute one half 
of the Committee ? Surely this was an undue proportion I Mr. Nasmith 
resolved, however, not to recognise either the proportion prescribed, 
or the distinction made. His object was to co-operate with Christians, 
as such : and not to regard their party distinctions. Consequently he 
resigned his connexion with the London City Mission. The circum- 
stances connected with his resignation are luminously brought out to 
view in the Memoirs, and the conduct of Mr. Nasmith is by Dr. 
Campbell forcibly vindicated, and completely justified. 

It was in March, 1837, that Mr. Nasmith resigned his connexion 
with the London City Mission, of which he had been the founder 
and gratuitous secretary. His active mind immediately struck out 
a new plan of beneficent operation ; and he established another 



266 Reviews and LUerarp NoHees. 

society of a more comprehensive character, but which was not de- 
signed to interfere with the operations of the London City Mission. 
It was on the 8th of March that Mr. Noel's letter, before referred 
to, was sent; before the 17th of that month the Committee had 
decided on the new constitution of the society, Mr. Nasmith had 
resigned, and had commenced a new society, designated '' The British 
and Foreign Mission." This society was formed for the purpose of 
forming city and town Missions wherever they did not exist, and 
maintaining correspondence with all existing city and town Missions. 
Mr. Nasmith forthwith entered upon the work, and proceeded to 
Cambridge, Ely, West Bromwich, Birmingham, and Manchester, and 
formed four town Missions, and several young men's societies, and 
a maternal society. He then returned to London and took measures 
for strengthening the interests of the " British and Foreign Mission." 

Mr. Nasmith remained in London during the months of June and 
July, and in the beginning of August went to Leeds, where he had 
interviews with the principal dissenting ministers and other friends* 
He afterwards convened a meeting and formed a town Mission. He 
then proceeded to Bradford, Halifax, Huddersfield, Wakefield, and 
York; in all those towns he formed Missions and young men's societies. 
From Yorkshire he proceeded to Scotland, to form branch societies 
in aid of the British and Foreign Mission. While engaged in those 
arduous labours his exchequer was sometimes reduced very low. 
When writing to his wife in the month of September, 1837, he states 
as follows : — << Yesterday morning my stock was sixpence. I have 
been bare enough repeatedly on this journey. No one has known it 
but my Father in heaven ; and he has provided just as I required it, 
so that I have not known want. I have dined upon three pence, and 
not been the worse for it, day after day in Yorkshire." From Scotland 
he returned to England, and laboured in advancing the interests and 
extending the usefulness of the Mission. 

The year 1838 appears to have been one of greater trial to Mr. 
Nasmith ; he was in labours more abundant, and in much necessity. 
He visited both Wales and Ireland, and up to the 3rd of October 
reported the formation of aeverUy-three societies! The expenses 
which he incurred were astonishingly small ; he must have exercised 
the most rigid economy ; yet he was often reduced to great straits, 
in consequence of not having sufficient means. He feared lest he should 
injure the cause in which he was engaged, if he pressed, or even, 
to many persons, made any reference to his own want of support ; 
and many persons were too willing to suppose that he was possessed 
of sufficient funds, and therefore did not render him the assbtance 
which he required. His labours, successes, and personal privations 
were continued until the end of his course, as will appear from the 
following letters and extract from his diary. The first was to Mr. 
Mayo, a faithful and affectionate friend, and was written about sue 
months before Mr. Nasmith's death, and the other to Miss H. Read, 
a true and zealous friend, who had frequently rendered him important 
assistance, and was written less than three months before his decease, 
as was also the extract from his diary. 

"Bbloymd Bbotheb,— Yout remarks to me, on Tuesday of last week, led 



Reviews and Literary Notices. 907 

topnyer^ to Belf-examinatton, to a revision of plans ; and the conclusion of 
the whole is, that I prosecute the work of forming City and Town Missions ; 
and, at the same time, do good unto all as I have opportunity. This satisfies 
my own conscience before God ; it is based, I think, on the Divine will ; and 
if I must, for conscience sake, suffer the loss of much co-operation that would 
be valuable, and to me desirable, and very pleasant, I must bow. I cannot, I 
will not, for one moment think that, however much it might please you to see 
me rise in popular estimation, and in unfettered usefulness, as vou suppose, 
yon would wish me to give up conscience. No ; I have a difterent, a very 
different opinion of you. 

•< If you think I am in error, pray for me ; and whenever you get any fresh 
light, throw it on my path : it is just possible that I may see as you see ; at 
present it is not at all probable. That you may form a correct estimate of my 
work, allow me to invite you to accompany me, in the month of July, to 
Lancashire, and see what opportunities the Lord gives of usefulness ; and 
after that tell me whether I am at libertv to neglect them ; or, if you please, 
start with me for two weeks, next Thursday, when I leave for Chatham, 
Canterbury, Dover, and other places. This week I formed a mission in 
Gravesend, to which an agent has gone down thb evening ; also a mission for 
Boche8ter> Chatham, and Stroud. The former was formed on Monday and 
the latter on Wednesday. 

** You speak as if I was drawing my confidence of being in the right path, 
from sufferings and privations. I am not aware that I do. I desire to find 
the right path and walk in it, by day and by night, in sunshine and cloud, 
in storm and calm. I have not spent forty years in the wilderness without 
seeing the pillar of clond and of fire, and learning that the God of Elijah is 
not dead. Trust him 1 will, while I have a being ; and praise him in sweeter 
and better songs ere long, than Uiese imperfect warmings that are now 
presented," 

" Mt tbbt DBAS Friend,—! have gratefully to acknowledge the receipt 
of your kind letter and money, received sometime ago. 

** I long to hear how your health is, and how all your beloved sisters are, 
including Sister Hunter, and her little one. 

** I have had no communication from Dublin for many months ; but no 
wonder — I treat all as I treat you, and I can neither blame myself for want of 
iotereftt nor for sitting idle. 

" The Lord, in the aboundings of his grace and mercy, is still employing 
me as an instrument for good. I cannot now sufficiently estimate the privi- 
hg^ ; in heaven we shall have wonderful discoveries. 

*' The British and Foreign Mission is, as usual, poor, so that I cannot take 
long or distant journeys. Last week I returned from a tour of ten days, 
daring which I travelled between two and three hundred miles— addressed 
about 3000 individuals— attended 27 meetings, public and private— formed 
three town missions, four female missions, four young men's societies, 
ODe servant's home and one children's branch ; and I had some important 
conversations with saints and sinners in private. Pray, pray, pray for me I'' 

Bis diary of September 6th, 1839, runs thus : ** For several days I have 
been in great agony of spirit from want of money. I had given my wife, at 
the close of last week, every fraction of money in my possession ; so that I 
have not had one half-penny in my pocket ; and my dear wife has had her 
trial of faith, anxious with myself to pay every man, and not being at all 
bclined to have people asking for money when due, without the power of 
givmg it. We have both been several times in prayer ; but the answer is 
delajred. Our faith is put to the test. Yesterday, after walking several miles, 
1 returned home not a little fatigued. I called during the day upon several 
peraooB, font could not tell them all that was in my mind. I let theia know 



268 Retfietifs and LUerary Notices. 

that the British and Foreign Mission was in want of money, and I got twenty 
shillings from an individual. To that individual I said I was often tempted to 

five up my work, and seek a living in some other way. He replied, that he 
new I never would. I called and borrowed iO/. of brother W. It was my 
last resort. I did it with reluctance and pain, but was thankful there 
remained one to whom I could go to borrow. I do fear to hurt the cause. 
But my Lord had nowhere to lay his head, and to get money to pay a tax he 
wrought a miracle. Can I then, in following my master, conscientiously 
murmur and complain, because my Father in heaven, for some wise and good 
end, sees meet to delay supplies, and makes me to feel my entire dependence 
on him ? To-day brother S. has informed me, that at the end of this month 
he will leave my house in the garden, and thus my 8/. towards rent from this 
source will be taken away ; and lately, 16/. more was removed. I must now 
wait and see the salvation of the Lord. He will show us his face. '* 

We now approach the closing part of the history of this eminent 
Christian philanthropist. On Saturday the 16th of December, 1839, 
he went to Guildford for the purpose of forming a Town Mission. 
For some time he had been in a feeble state of health ; and his wife 
urged him not to go there on account of his health and the unfavour- 
able state of the weather. He, however, thought the journey might 
do him good ; and proposed returning on the following Tuesday. 

Having arrived at Guildford, he began to call upon persons whom 
he thought to be likely to aid in the formation of the Mission. 
While engaged in this work, he was seized with a complaint in 
his bowels, which occasioned intense agony. He was removed to 
an inn, medical advice immediately procured, and every means 
was employed for the purpose of arresting the disorder. All, how- 
ever, was in vain, for the next day he finished his course, and his 
spirit entered into that rest that remaineth for the people of God. 
When dying he exhorted those around him to consecrate themselves 
to the servicq of his Lord. Thus, living, and dying, he was the 
Lord's. 

As his widow and children were left without the means of support, 
a committee was formed to raise a fund as a testimony to the worth 
of the deceased, and as a debt owing to the family of him who had 
sacrificed his own and their worldly interests to the cause of God 
and the good of souls. For this purpose, we are happy to state, 
£2,420 were subscribed, and put out to interest upon proper 
securities. 

We have thus briefly sketched the outlines of the principle features 
in the interesting and eventful history of this most extraordinary, 
devoted, and useful man ; and must now refer our readers to the 
valuable volume from which we have drawn this sketch, in order 
that they may be instructed, edified,* and delighted with the com- 
plete portrait, so admirably delineated, filled up, and finished by the 
writer of the •* Memoirs." 

The biographer has not sacrificed fidelity, to avoid expressing 
disapprobation, where it appeared to be called for by any instance 
of mistake or indiscretion. Yet he most successfully proves that 
what some men counted madness, in the conduct of Mr. Nasmitb, 
proceeded from nobility of mind, and clear and comprehensive views 
of Christian duty, in reference to the wants of man, and the glory of 
God. 



Reviews and Literary Notices, 269 

Our admiration of the character and labours of Mr. Nasmith has 
made us desirous that he should be known to all our readers : and as 
some of them will be unable to afford to purchase his " Memoirs/' we 
have given more particulars concerning him than we otherwise should 
have done. But those of our readers who can afford the outlay of 
ten and six-pence, ought assuredly to possess themselves of so 
valuable a work. 

We regard this, both as to subject and authorship, as no ordinary 
biographical volume ; but as a truly important addition to the trea- 
sures in the archives of the church. It is a rich record of burning 
Christian zeal, kindled by the fire of Divine love. A suitable monu- 
ment, more valuable and appropriate than sculptured marble, com- 
memorative of those extraordinary, unwearied, self-sacrificing, phi- 
lanthrophic. Christian labours, which ought to excite our admiration 
aDd stimulate our exertions for the glory of God and the welfare of 
men. A volume well adapted to instruct the mind, and delight and 
improve the heart of every Christian reader. From its intrinsic 
excellence it is worthy of the widest circulation ; besides which, we 
understand that the widow and fatherless children will profit from its 
sale. 



PROCEEDINGS OF AN EDUCATIONAL CONFERENCE, A«W by the 
British and Foreign School Society, March, 1844. 8vo. 62 pp. Pubhshed 
by the Society. 

Recent events having occasioned special attention to be directed to the subject 
of general education ; and the Independents, and Conference Methodists, having 
taken measures for the purpose of affording denominational education ; it was 
deemed expedient to convene a special Conference of the friends of education ; 
for the purpose of considering the circumstances in which the British and Foreign 
School Society was thus placed, and devising the means, by which the Society 
night be enabled to extend its usefulness, in advancing the general interests of 
education. Upwards of 150 gentlemen, from different parts of the country, at- 
tended the Conference, by invitation ; among whom were several members of the 
Society of Friends; the principal members of the Educational Committee of the 
Congregational Union, and of the Wesleyan Conference Educational Committee ; 
the secretaries and other members of the Baptist Union ; some fiiends from the 
Wesleyan Methodist Association ; and others from the General Baptist Body. 

The subjects brought under the consideration of the Meeting were most im- 
portant and intelligent. Several valuable papers were read, which led to animated 
discussions. For further information we must refer to the report of the proceed- 
ings, as contained in the pamphlet before us. It is well calculated to render 
important service to that noble institution, the British and Foreign School 
Society. 

THE ANTI-MONOPOLIST; Religious and Political, Quarto, 16 pp. 
Sanoebson, Newcastle. 

This cheap monthly periodical contains a considerable amount of important in- 
formation, and ably exposes the evils arising from both religious and commercial 
monopoly. As it bears a newspaper stamp it can be sent postage free. 

THE NATIONAL TEMPERANCE ADVOCATE: the organ of the British 
Association for the promotion of Temperance, and of the Irish Temperance Union, 
LiVESEY, Douglas, Isle of Man ; and Britain, London. 

This work is now published in the form of a super royal 8vo., which is a more 
convenient size than that in which it was formerly published. It is a cheap, 
powerful, and talented advocate of temperance ; and is worthy of tbe most i*x-> 
tensWe circulation* 



270 

GEOLOGY OF THE BIBLE. No. V. 

(For the WesUyan Methodist Association Magazine, J 

The flood of Noah is, in the Bible, chiefly regarded as a testimony and 
display of Divine indignation against the wickedness of mankind ; and the 
changes which it must have accomplished in the structure of the earth are 
passed by as matters not immediately within the scope of the writers' inten- 
tions. This illustrates the proposition already laid down, that all the altera- 
tions in the structure of the world and its inferior inhabitants, have, in the 
Divine mind, been in subordination to his moral intentions regarding his 
higher creature, man. 

But when the structure of the globe began to be studied by philosophers, 
and the evidences became undeniable, that great changes had taken place in 
it since its first formation, and as no historical proofs existed of the occurrence 
of any event of great importance having had extensive influence, excepting 
only the deluge in the days of Noah, the conclusion seemed natural, that to 
this they must be all ascribed. Geological jappearances were triumphantly 
appealed to, as records of the truth of an occurrence which ipfidelity had chosen 
to doubt: apparently for no other reason than, that it was registered in the 
Divine recoras. Yet, a little impartial enquiry would have tended to show, 
that however true the occurrence of this important event might be rendered 
from other considerations, besides that of scriptural history, many remark- 
able geological phenomena, that had been adduced in proof of it, ought not 
to have been ascribed to this cause— for there is nothing that wc can imagine 
in a flood of waters, which could consolidate the substance of rocks, enclosing 
the remains of animals within them, or deposit, as from solution, such im- 
mense beds of chalk as now exist. But our first business will be with the 
scriptural narrative of the circumstances of this great event ; after which we 
will endeavour to trace out the scattered and obscure allusions to the attending 
circumstances and consequences, as contained in the Divine oracles. Further 
proofs and illustrations may be found in every quarter of the globe ; but these 
are interrupted and distorted by other geological characters, which testify of 
changes, of which it is probable that the most conspicuous have occurred long 
since the subsidence of the great flood of waters. 

In the six hundredth year of the life of Noah — in the year of the world, 
according to the received date of our Bibles, 1656 — of the Samaritan copy, 
1307— of the Alexandrian Septuagint, 2262 — and according to the amended 
date as given by Lord Hales, and adopted by Mr. Kitto, 2256— in the 
second month of the civil year, and seventeenth day of the month, the same 
day were all the fountains of the great deep broken up, and the windows of 
heaven opened ; and, as far as appears, for the first time since the creation, 
a heavv and continued rain began. It is a belief of the Jews that the crea- 
tion of the world was efi*ccted at the time of the full moon nearest to the 
autumnal equinox ; and accordingly they are accustomed to begin from that 
date the reckoning of their civil years ; but some writers have supposed, that 
in remote times this commencement was not reckoned until the first moon in 
the month of October. According as wc calculate from these different dates, 
of the beginning, the subsequent dates will vary in some degree. "Without 
seeking, therefore, to obtain strict precision in our reckoning, we may suppose 
that the first descent of the rain was in the first week in November: in which 
period three distinct eras of the increase of the waters on the earth oc- 
curred — the whole of them taking place, we are informed, within the space of 
forty days, during which the violence of the inundation was proceeding. 
Gen. vii. 17 — the ark was set afloat and lifted above the earth ; v. 18 states, 
Uiat the waters prevailed, and were increased greatly upon the earth, and the 
Mrk weat up on the face of the waters— having launched away from the 



Geologic €f the Bibb, 271 

place on which it had been built: v. 19, records that the waters prevailed 
exceedingly upon the earth, and all the high hills that were under the whole 
heavens wer^ covered : and v. 24, informs us that so they continued for the 
space of 150 days, though towards the end of this period they had begun to 
abate, as we are informed in ch. viii. 3, and were visibly diminished. In 
the seventh month, or about the time of our April, the ark first felt the 
ground; but two months and a half of anxious suspense had further to pass 
before any land could be discerned, and was then seen only as obscure islands 
in an extensive ocean. It was one full year and ten days from the first 
approach of the flood before Noah received a command to set again his foot 
on land ; and whoever will reflect on this, and on the unnecessary extent of 
time and preparation of circumstances, if the destruction of the human race 
had been the sole object of the Divine intention — will be compelled to con- 
clude that God had other designs, of no light importance ; although the 
dictating Spirit has not judged it necessary to relate them to us. 

In the scriptural references to the mighty changes efiected in the constitu- 
tional structure of our globe, by the flood of Noah, that b^ St. Peter, already 
quoted, 2 Peter iii. 5 — 7, must occupy a chief place ; since it is his direct object 
to point out the wide difference of fabric in which this deluge found and left 
the earth ; and that such a change was in the Divine intention appears from 
the words of Genesis vi. 13 — " I will destroy them with the earth." The 
author of the book of Job, the accuracy, and even, perhaps, the extent, of 
whose philosophy is only inferior to that of his theology, tnus expresses the 
change which at this time took place on the earth — Job xii. 15, " He sendeth 
out waters — they overturn the earth ;" and ch. ix. 5, 6, ** Which removeth 
the mountains, and they know not ; which overtumeth them in his anger, 
which shaketh the earth out of her place, and the pillars thereof tremble.'' 
ch. xxii. 16» ** Wicked men — "^ho^ foundation was overflown with a flood.** 
ch. xxviiL 9, 10, " He putteth forth his hand upon the rock ; he overtumeth 
the mountains by the roots.** But the following clause may restrict this 
passage to the great division in the days of Peleg ; '* He cutteth out rivers 
among the rocxs; and his eye seeth every precious thing.** In the Psalms 
also we find frequent allusion to the flood, which at that time must have been 
widely known by tradition. Ps. xlv. 2, 3, *< Therefore will not we fear 
though the earth be removed, and though the mountains be carried into the 
midst of the sea — though the water thereof roar and be troubled, though the 
mountains shake with the swelling thereof.** And that these expressions of 
the Psalmist have especial reference to the overturning of the earth in this 
great deluge appears from a passage in the prophecy of Isaiah liv. 9, 10, 
where Jehovah, referring to his dealings with the nation of the Jews, says, 
** For this is as the waters of Noah unto me ; for as I have sworn that the 
waters of Noah shall no more go over the earth ; so have I sworn that I 
would not be wroth with thee nor rebuke thee. For the mountains shall 
depart and the hills be removed, but my kindness shall not depart from 
thee, neither shall the covenant of my peace be removed, saith the Lord, 
that hath mercy on thee.** As if he had said, Changes may come that shall 
]^proach as near to the efiects which were produced by the flood, as may 
be ; but as the flood itself shall never come again, so also, although I may 
afflict and remove thee out of thy place, yet I will not overwhelm thee with 
destruction. The falling and subsidence of rocks and mountains into the 
sea, are several times spoken of in the Scriptures, and in Ps. xviii. 15, a 
reference seems to be made to an elevation of the bottom of the ocean — 
** Then the channels of waters were seen, and the foundations of the world 
were discovered, at thy rebuke, O Lord; at the blast. of the breath of thy 
nostrils.*' 

The return of the waters from the flood into a great deep prepared for 
them is spoken of in Ps. civ. 7 — 10, " At thy rebuke they fled ; at the voice 



272 Efficacy of a Mother's Prayers. 

of thy thunder they hasted away ; they go up by the mountains ; they go 
down by the valleys unto the place which thou hast founded for them ;' ' — or, 
according to the margin, ** The mountains ancendj the valleys descend^ unto 
the place which thou hast founded for them. Thou hast set a bound that 
they may not pass over, that they turn not again to cover the earth/* This 
returning was not a sudden action, for in Gen. viii. 3—6, we are told that 
the waters returned from the earth continually y and were longer in retiring 
than in overflowing ; for the time was equal to two months anda-half, from 
the grounding of the ark to the appearance of the tops of the mountains 
above the surface of the water ; though scarcely half that time had sufficed 
to cover them. 

( To be continued. ) 



EFFICACY OF A MOTHER'S PRAYERS. 

From the New York *^ Evangelist:' 

The Bible begins the story of the Redeemer's mercy ; but it is only 
a beginning. The vvhole history of redemption can never be said to be 
published, till every name on the pages of the book of life has been 
read, and the leadings of God's mysterious providence, in regard to 
each one, have been unfolded in eternity. 

A few years since I vsras called from my study to see a stranger. He 
brought a letter from a friend in Ohio, which stated that he was " a 
man of the right stamp." His name was Joseph W. Barr, then a 
student at the Theological Seminary at Andover. He was out of 
health ; had walked nearly thirty miles ; and there was nothing very 
prepossessing in his first appearance. But a few hours' acquaintance 
only was necessary to discover that he was a man of a strong, well- 
balanced mind, of deep piety, and of a breast full of benevolence. One 
great object of his visit was to restore his health, which had become 
impaired by study. But instead of lying upon the couch, taking gentle 
exercise and * light medicines,' he hired himself out, for the vacation, 
as a carpenter ; and a better, or more diligent and faithful workman, 
seldom entered a shop. He received high wages, and the family in 
which he resided can hardly speak of him, to this day, without tears. 
On leaving us, he carried away a good stock of health ; and more of 
the heart and good wishes, and pure substantial tokens of confidence 
from his Christian friends, than if he had spent his time in any other 
way. While in my study, one evening, I requested him to relate to 
me his Christian experience, and the dealings of God in regard to his 
soul. He began at once, and did it with such simplicity and humility, 
that I was compelled more than once to turn away my head to conceal 
my tears. I wrote down the account, just as he had related it, as soon 
as he had left me. It is not merely a true account of his conversion ; 
but, as nearly as possible, in his own words : — 

** Among my first recollections is the image of my sainted mother. 
We lived at the West, in what was then a howling wilderness, but is 
now the flourishing state of Ohio. My father was a minister and a 
missionary, and my mother was every way qualified to be his helper. 
My father was often much from home in searching for the ecattered 



.^gUcaey of a Mother's Prayers. 278 

sheep of Ghrirt's fold, and could not do much towards forming my 
character. But my mother ! she was an angel to me. We lived in a 
loghonse, and had hut oqe large room ; of course she had no closet 
there. But there was a heautiful grove a little hehind the house, and 
there, as early as I can rememher anything, I can rememher that she 
took me hy the hand and caused me to kneel hy her side, while she 
prayed aloud for my ahsent Neither and for me. At first, I hardly un- 
derstood it ; hut soon learned that God, who dwelt far, far ahove those 
high trees, could hear her prayer, and was hearkening to her sweet 
voice. She used statedly to lead me there, and always laid her right 
hand on my head while she prayed ; and feelings of deep awe always 
came over me. She never omitted this practice whilst she lived ; and 
I there had distinct and correct impressions made as to my character, 
as well as to the character of God. 

" She died when I was nine years old, and was huried near hy. 
Daring the most giddy and wicked period of my life I could never 
forget these impressions. The grove is cut down now, hut the spot 
seems a hallowed spot. Even since the grove has heen gone, and since 
my mother's grave has become level with the surrounding ground, I 
have stood on this spot, and her meek image seemed to be before me, 
and her voice, tremulous with feeling, seemed to come again to my 
ears ; and I have paused there in tears, chained by a remembrance of 
her faithfulness and her love. No legacy could she have left me half so 
precious, nor could her features have been more vividly and accurately 
left upon canvass, than they are upon my memory. 

" Many years after my mother's death, I was in the hey-day of 
youth, and in a course of sin truly dreadful. The restraints of con- 
science were broken, and there was little that could or did check me, 
except my early education. My mother had died when I was a mere 
child, and my father was too far off to reach me otherwise than by his 
prayers. I well remember many seasons of deep conviction of sin, but 
these my stubborn heart resisted or stifled. One night at a ball, 
whither I went, as I should then have said, for rational and innocent 
amusement, my conscience was suddenly startled. 

" I was introduced to a young lady for my partner, who came from 
a distant section of the country. After the dance, in which we were 
partners, I entered into conversation with her respecting the place from 
which . she came. She gave me many interesting particulars of that 
then newly-settled place, and, among other things, mentioned the late 
sickness of her father, and the many continued kindnesses and atten- 
tions of a Mr. Barr, a missionary ; stating that Mr. Barr had been to 
see her father very frequently, and that she felt much attached to him. 
She knew not my name. I replied, ** That Mr. Barr, the missionary, 
is my father." She started, as from an adder. ** Your father I he your 
father ! what would he say, if he knew you were here?" Had a dagger been 
thrust into me, I could not have felt the wound more deeply. It spoiled 
the evening for me. It ruined my peace ; and, though I know not that it 
can be said to have been the means of my awakening from the sleep of 
sm, yet I am confident it planted a thorn in my conscience, which was 
not taken out till I had bowed to God with a broken heart. The giving 
and receiving of this keen reproof were both, as it were, involuntary, and 



274 ^giMiy of a Mothn^s PfOfftn. 

show that neitlier of our consciences could approve of tihe em^jrmeiit 
of that evening, if allowed to speak oat without restraint. 

" A few days after the ball I was present at a commonion. At the 
table many of my near friends were foand. The scene before me, and 
the thoughts of a future eternal separation, affected me greatly. The 
sermon, too, reached my conscience ;' and I might, at the close of the 
services, be said to have been under strong convictions for sin. The 
same day a very devoted Christian was accidentally thrown in my way. 
He began to address me on the subject of my salvation, withoat know- 
ing anything of my previous history, or the state of my feelings at that 
time. Then my heart began to rise with a strength of bitterness which 
I never knew before. I reproached him, pointing to the inconsistencies 
in the church ; raved like a madman ; aiid, while my conscience was 
grinding me like a mill-stone, I still kept pouring out my invectives. 
He bore it all with meekness, perfectly unmoved, and, by his gentleness, 
held up a shield which caused every dart I threw to recoil upon myself. 
His Christian meekness was too much for me ; I rose up in wrath and 
left him. Had he given only one retort — shown one angry feeling, it 
would have relieved me ; but no, I could find no handle. I went out 
into the woods, smarting under the wounds which I had been giving 
myself; and, when I could stand under it no longer, I returned— told 
my Christian friend my situation and feelings, asked his pardon, and 
begged his prayers. Truly, as Henry Martyn beautifully says, " And 
this also I learned, that the power of gentleness is irresistible** 

** I had now been under deep and pungent convictions for sin for 
more than three weeks. I could not pray. I could not feel sorry for 
sin, nor hate it, except as it must bring me to unspeakable ruin. There 
seemed to be no mercy for me. The heavens were brass, the earth was 
iron, and I was fast preparing to look up and curse God. Perfectly 
sensible of my situation, perfectly convinced that I deserved hell, I 
could not feel regret or humbled. Every feeling of my soul was deep, 
awakened, enmity to the character and government of God. 

'* At length, after struggling with my terrified conscience, and the 
stirrings of the Spirit of God, / determined to take my oum life. It was 
not the result of a paroxysm of despair, but the cool, deliber